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Hérens cattle

The Herens is a breed of cattle named after the Val d'Hérens region of Switzerland. These small, horned alpine cattle are coloured black, brown or dark red with a lighter stripe along the spine; the cows are used in organised cow fights. Herens Cattle are one of the smallest cattle breeds in Europe, their fur is dark red to brown or black, with pied animals being uncommon. Newborn calves are red with the colours reversing as they grow. A distinguishing feature is the broad head, with a concave front line; the animals are muscular, with both sexes sporting strong horns. Bulls reach a height of 125–134 cm, weighing 650–700 kg. Cows reach 118–128 cm and 500–600 kg; the cattle are bred for beef, but the cows produce around 3,200 kg of milk per year. They are well adapted to pasture in alpine altitudes. Blood typing shows the Herens to be distinct from other Swiss breeds but similar to the Tuxer breed from the Zillertal in Austria. In 1884 a breeding standard was introduced for this old breed. In 1917 a specialised breeding union was founded.

Herens cattle were cross bred with other cattle breeds in the alpine region. For example, Tux Cattle, Évolène Cattle, Pustertal Pied Cattle may be related to the Herens; the population of Herens has decreased since the 1960s. In the year 2000 the population was about 13,500 animals. Pure-bred bulls are bred at an insemination station in Neuchâtel. There is a breed society in the United States; the Herens is well known for the high aggression of its females. In spring and heifers are made to fight one against another in five weight classes in the local tradition of "cow fighting"; the winners are sold for high prices. Today cow fights are a major tourist attraction in the Valais. Schweizer Eringerviehzuchtverband

Nancy Wicker

Nancy L. Wicker is professor of art history at the University of Mississippi, she was professor in the department of art at Minnesota State University, Mankato. Wicker graduated BA with High Honors from Eastern Illinois University, majoring in art history and studio art, in 1975, she took her MA in art history from the University of Minnesota in 1979, followed by her Ph. D. from Minnesota in 1990, with work on interdisciplinary art history and Germanic philology. In 1988 she was awarded the Aurora Borealis Prize of the Society for the Advancement of Scandinavian Study, she was appointed an assistant professor in the department of art at Minnesota State University, Mankato, in 1990, promoted to associate professor in 1995, professor in 2000. Since 2003 she has been professor of art history at the University of Mississippi, she was visiting professor at Uppsala University. Wicker is a specialist in the function of jewellery in the Early Medieval period in Europe and gender and archaeology about which she has edited three books, including Gender and the Archaeology of Death.

She has been president of the Society of Historians of Scandinavia, an interest group within the Society for the Advancement of Scandinavian Study. Situating Gender in European Archaeologies. Archaeolingua Press, 2010. ISBN 978-963-9911-15-4 Gender and the archaeology of death. AltaMira Press, 2001. ISBN 0759101361 From the ground up: Beyond gender theory in archaeology: proceedings of the Fifth Gender and Archaeology Conference, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, October 1998. Archaeopress, Oxford, 1999. ISBN 1841710253 “Bridging the Gap: Managing a Digital Medieval Initiative Across Disciplines and Institutions,” with Joseph Koivisto and Lilla Kopár, pp. 223–240 in Meeting the Medieval in a Digital World, edited by Mathew Evan Davis, Tamsyn Mahoney-Steel and Ece Turnator. Medieval Media Cultures. Leeds: ARC Medieval Press/Medieval Institute Publications. ISBN 978-1641891929, ISBN 978-1641891936 “Decolonizing Gold Bracteates: From Late Roman Medallions to Scandinavian Migration Period Pendants,” pp. 17–36 in Postcolonising the Medieval Image, edited by Eva Frojmovic and Catherine Karkov.

London: Routledge, 2017. ISBN 978-1-4724-8166-5 “The Reception of Figurative Art beyond the Frontier: Scandinavian Encounters with Roman Numismatic Imagery,” pp. 243–256 in Rome and the Worlds Beyond Roman Frontiers: The Eleventh Workshop of the International Network Impact of Empire, edited by Danielle Slootjes and Michael Peachin. Impact of Empire 21. Leiden: Brill, 2016. ISBN 978-9004325616 “Women in the Roman Iron Age in Scandinavia,” pp. 1027–1036 in Women in Antiquity: Real Women Across the Ancient World, edited by Stephanie Lynn Budin and Jean MacIntosh Turfa. Rewriting Antiquity. London: Routledge, 2016. ISBN 978-1-315-62142-5 “Roman Medallions in Scandinavia: Shifting Contexts of Space and Meaning,” pp. 232–247 in Beyond Boundaries: Connecting Visual Cultures in the Roman Provinces, edited by Susan Alcock, Mariana Egri, James F. D. Frakes. Los Angeles: Getty Publications, 2016. ISBN 978-1606064719 “Bracteate Inscriptions and Context Analysis in the Light of Alternatives to Hauck’s Iconographic Interpretations,” Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies 5, 2014: 25–43.

ISSN 1892-0950 “Inspiring the Barbarians? The Transformation from Roman Medallions to Scandinavian Bracteates,” pp. 105–120 in Rome Beyond the Imperial Frontiers: Imports and Practices, edited by Peter S. Wells. Portsmouth RI: Journal of Roman Archaeology, 2013. ISBN 978-1-887829-94-6, ISBN 1-887829-94-6 “Bracteates and Runes,” with Henrik Williams, Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies 3, 2012: 151–213. ISSN 1892-0950 “The Elusive Smith,” pp. 29–36 in Goldsmith Mysteries: Archaeological and Documentary Evidence from the 1st Millennium AD in Northern Europe, edited by Alexandra Pesch and Ruth Blankenfeldt. Neumünster: Wachholtz, 2012. ISBN 978 3 529 01878 7 “Nimble-fingered Maidens in Scandinavia: Women as Artists and Patrons,” pp. 865–902 in Reassessing Women’s Roles as ‘Makers’ of Medieval Art and Architecture, vol. 2, edited by Therèse Martin. Leiden: Brill, 2012. ISBN 978 90 04 18555 5, ISBN 978 90 04 22832 0 “Christianization, Female Infanticide, the Abundance of Female Burials at Viking Age Birka in Sweden,” Journal of the History of Sexuality 21:2: 245–262.

ISSN 1043-4070 “‘The Four Smiths’ and the Replication of Bracteate Techniques,” pp. 33–44 in Det 61. Internationale Sachsensymposion 2010 in Haderslev, Danmark edited by Linda al.. Neumünster: Wachholtz, 2011. ISSN 0909-0533, ISBN 978-3-529-01899-2 “Would There Have Been Gothic Art without the Vikings? The Contribution of Scandinavian Medieval Art,” Medieval Encounters 17: 198–229. ISSN 1380-7854, ISSN 1570-0674. Reprinted as pp. 198–229 in Confronting the Borders of Medieval Art, edited by Jill Caskey, Adam S. Cohen, Linda Safran. Leiden: Brill, 2011. ISBN 978 90 04 20749 3 "The Scandinavian Animal Styles in Response to Mediterranean and Christian Narrative Art", at pp. 531–550 in The Cross Goes North: Processes of Conversion in Northern Europe, AD 300-1300, edited by Martin Carver. York: York Medieval Press, University of York, 2003, ISBN 978-0-631-22492-1

William Robinson (Ontario politician)

William Robinson was an Ontario businessman and political figure. He represented Kingston in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario as a Conservative member from 1871 to 1879, he was born in Ballymoney, County Antrim, Ireland, in 1823. Robinson was president of the Marmora Railway, he served on the town council for Kingston for 16 years and served as mayor from 1869 to 1870. He was appointed a customs officer at Kingston, he married daughter of David Dick. She had come to Canada from Ireland in 1840 with her parents. On September 15, 1850, she was an Irish immigrant. The wedding was officiated by Reverend Reid in Cooke's Presbyterian Church, he had three daughters. He died on July 21, 1912, his obituary was published in the Daily British Whig on July 22, 1912. He worked as a painter for over thirty years before retiring and taking an appointment as Clerk of the Division Court, where he stayed for eleven years, his son William took over the post. He served on the City Council in several positions for over 38 years, including being the Alderman for the Rideau Ward, Mayor in 1869-70, as the Alderman for the Cataraqui Ward in 1897.

He was a member of the Ontario Legislature, first elected as an independent in 1870 and again as a Liberal in 1874. He elected, he negotiated to the legislature on behalf of the Kingston and Pembroke Railway and secured a $121 000.000 bond toward the building of it. Robinson was a Justice of Peace for over forty years, but when the Tories were brought into Toronto in 1905 they relieved him from the post. While in office, he was responsible for exposing the corruption of the City Chamberlain and the Tax Collectors by exposing that a sum reaching nearly $16 000.00 was missing from city accounts. Robinson once said that he had only cast one Tory vote in his life, and, when two conservatives were running in Frontenac County. "Of two evils, I chose the lesser". Ontario Legislative Assembly parliamentary history The Canadian parliamentary companion and annual register, 1878, CH Mackintosh


Oldedalen is a river valley in Stryn Municipality in Vestland county, Norway. The 20-kilometre long valley ends at the Nordfjorden at the village of Olden; the south end of the valley reaches up to the great Jostedalsbreen glacier inside Jostedalsbreen National Park. The small Briksdalsbreen is a smaller arm that branches off the main Jostedalsbreen glacier, it sits at the end of the Oldedalen valley, it is a tourist attraction due to its easy to reach location. The western side of the valley is a steep wall of mountains with the Myklebustbreen glacier at the top; the lake Oldevatnet lies in the center of the valley for most of its length. At the north end of the valley, the lake empties into the river Oldeelva, which flows into the Nordfjorden. Both the Olden Church and the historic Old Olden Church are located near the north end of the valley.

Nan Britton

Nanna Popham Britton was an American secretary, a mistress of Warren G. Harding, the 29th President of the United States. In 1927, she revealed that her daughter, had been fathered by Harding while he was serving in the United States Senate, one year before he was elected to the presidency, her claim was open to question during her life, but was confirmed by DNA testing in 2015. Born in Marion, Britton developed an obsession with Harding, a friend of her father; as a young girl, her bedroom walls were covered with Harding's pictures from local papers and magazines. While not 16 years old, she would loiter near his Marion Daily Star building in Marion, hoping to see him on his walk home from work. Nan's father, Dr. Samuel H. Britton, spoke to Harding about his daughter's infatuation, Harding met with her, claiming he told her that some day she would find the man of her dreams. At the time, Harding was involved in a passionate affair with Carrie Fulton Phillips, wife of James Phillips, co-owner of a local department store.

After she graduated from high school in 1914, Britton moved to New York City, to begin a career as a secretary. However, she claimed she began an intimate relationship with Harding. Following Harding's death, Britton wrote. In The President's Daughter, published in 1927, she claimed she had been Harding's mistress all during his presidency, naming him as the father of her daughter, Elizabeth Ann. One famous passage told of their having sex in a coat closet in the executive office of the White House. According to Britton, Harding had promised to support their daughter, but after his sudden death in 1923, his wife refused to honor the obligation. Britton insisted she wrote the book to earn money to support her daughter and to champion the rights of illegitimate children, she brought a lawsuit, but she was unable to provide any concrete evidence and was shaken by the vicious personal attacks made by Congressman Grant Mouser during the cross examination, which cost her the case. Britton's memoirs seem sincere, her portrayal of Harding and his colloquialisms paints a picture of a crude womanizer.

In his 1931 book Only Yesterday: An Informal History of the 1920s, Frederick Lewis Allen wrote that on the testimony of Britton's book, Harding's private life was "one of cheap sex episodes" and that "one sees with deadly clarity the essential ordinariness of the man, the commonness of his'Gee dearie' and'Say, you darling'." Britton's book was among those irreverently reviewed by Dorothy Parker for The New Yorker magazine as part of her famous Constant Reader column, under the title "An American DuBarry." In 1964, the "discovery of more than 250 love letters that Mr. Harding had written to Mrs. James Phillips of Marion Ohio, between 1909 and 1920 gave further support to Britton's own claims. Journalist R. W. Apple was refused an interview. At the time, she was living in the Chicago area. At this time, over a generation her daughter and grandchildren would "occasionally be hounded by hateful skeptics" with threats and other unwanted attention that seemed to intensify during presidential elections.

In the 1980s, Britton and her extended family moved to Oregon, where her three grandchildren live. Britton died in 1991 in Sandy, where she had lived during the last years of her life, she insisted until her death. 24 years after her death, in 2015, confirmed through DNA testing of descendants of Harding's brother and Britton's grandchildren that Elizabeth was indeed Harding's daughter. Anthony, Carl Sferrazza. Florence Harding, William Morrow and Co. New York City, 1998, ISBN 0-688-07794-3 Britton, Nan; the President's Daughter. Elizabeth Ann Guild, Inc. 20 West 46th Street, New York City, 1927, ISBN 0-8369-7132-9. Dean, John; the Strange Death of President Harding, University of Missouri Press, 1996, ISBN 0-8262-1202-6 Mee, Charles Jr. The Ohio Gang: The World of Warren G. Harding: A Historical Entertainment, M. Evans & Company, 1983, ISBN 0-87131-340-5 Letter documenting how Warren G. Harding tried to help Nan Britton land a job Shapell Manuscript Foundation Nan Britton at Find a Grave