1726 in science
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- October 27 – Caleb Threlkeld publishes Synopsis Stirpium Hibernicarum .....Dispositarum sive Commentatio de Plantis Indigenis praesertim Dublinensibus instituta in Dublin, the first flora of Ireland.
- A faculty of medicine is formally established at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland, a predecessor of the University of Edinburgh Medical School. John Rutherford becomes Professor of Practice of Medicine.
- For clocks, the gridiron pendulum is developed by John Harrison, as a pendulum that compensates for temperature errors: a grid of alternating brass and steel rods is arranged so that the expansion due to heat is dissipated.
- June 3 – James Hutton, Scottish geologist (died 1797)
- Thomas Melvill, Scottish natural philosopher (died 1753)
- date unknown - Lady Anne Monson, English botanist (died 1776)
- January 25 – Guillaume Delisle, French scientist, one of the founders of modern geography (born 1675)
- Nelson, E. Charles (1978). "The Publication Date of the First Irish Flora, Caleb Threlkeld's Synopsis Stirpium Hibernicarum, 1726". Glasra. 2: 37–42. Retrieved 2012-10-03.
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- Gould, Stephen Jay (2000). The Lying Stones of Marrakech. New York: Random House|Harmony Books. ISBN 0-609-60142-3.