The Goat is the eighth sign of the 12-year cycle of animals that appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. The sign is referred to as the Ram or Sheep sign, since the Chinese word yáng is more accurately translated as Caprinae, the Year of the Goat is associated with the 8th Earthly Branch symbol, 未. The Chinese word yáng refers both to goats and sheep, with shānyáng specifically goats and miányáng sheep, in English, the sign may be called either. The interpretation of sheep or goat depends on culture, in Vietnamese, the sign is mùi, which is unambiguously goat. In Japan, on the hand, the sign is hitsuji, while in Korea. Within China, there may be a distinction with the zodiacal yáng more likely to be thought of as a goat in the south. The Chinese commonly regard sheep as an animal, and the Year of the sheep, heralds a year of promise. Yáng is a component of another written Chinese character xiang, which means auspiciousness, and it is a part of the character shan, which counts kindness and benevolence as among its meanings.
Individuals born in this year have been supposed to share certain characteristics with other individuals born in years of the same animal sign. Similarly, years sharing the same sign have been supposed to share certain characteristics. The shared characteristics in case are traits attributed to goats. Goat aspects can enter by other factors or measures. In Chinese astrology Goats are described as peace-loving and kind and popular, with the addition of the wood element, the Goat characteristic is thought to love peace and to be helpful and trusting, but yet to be clinging and of a nature resistant to change
The Berber calendar is the agricultural calendar traditionally used by Berbers. It is known as the fellaḥi, the calendar is utilized to regulate the seasonal agricultural works. It is used in lieu of the Islamic calendar, a calendar considered ill-adapted for agriculture because it does not relate to seasonal cycles. The current Berber calendar is a legacy of the Roman province of Mauretania Caesariensis, the latter calendar was used in Europe before the adoption of the Gregorian calendar, with month names derived from Latin. Berber populations previously used various indigenous calendars, such as that of the Guanche autochthones of the Canary Islands, relatively little is known of these ancient calendrical systems. Not much is known about the division of time among the ancient Berbers, some elements of a pre-Islamic, and almost certainly a pre-Roman calendar, emerge from some medieval writings, analyzed by Nico van den Boogert. Some correspondences with the traditional Tuareg calendar suggest that in antiquity there existed, with degree of diffusion.
According to a 17th-century manuscript by Tomás Marín de Cubas, they computed their year, called Acano and it began in summer, when the sun enters in Cancer, on June 21, at the first conjunction they celebrated nine festival days for the crop. The name of one month is known in the native language. It seems it was the month of the year, corresponding to August. Such a name, in case it was made up by something like *wen that of + smet, may correspond, in the list of medieval Berber month names, with the ninth and tenth months, but data are too scarce for this hypothesis to be deepened. The agricultural Berber calendar still in use is almost certainly derived from the Julian calendar, the only slight discrepancy lies in that the extra day in leap years is not usually added at the end of February, but at the end of the year. Jean Servier has doubted that the calendar descends directly from the Julian calendar of the Latin era, there are standard forms for the names of the Amazigh calendar. The table below provides the forms used in Morocco and Tunisia.
In some areas they may be different due to communication and manipulation by the government. Moreover, pronunciation differs according to the region, the coldest period is made up by 20 white nights, from 12 to 31 dujamber, and 20 black nights, beginning on the first day of yennayer, corresponding to the Gregorian 14 January. The first day of the year is celebrated in various ways in the different parts of North Africa, a widespread tradition is a meal with particular foods, which vary from region to region, but in many zones it is provided by the sacrifice of an animal. In Algeria, such a holiday is celebrated even by people who dont use the Berber calendar in daily life
1728 in Denmark
Events from the year 1728 in Denmark. October 20 – The Copenhagen Fire of 1728 breaks out, october 23 – The fire in Copenhagen finally dies out after destroying approximately 28% of the city and leaving 20% of its population homeless. The Lille Grønnegade Theatre in Copenhagen, the first public theater in Denmark, is closed, a new town hall is built in Viborg next to Viborg Cathedral
The Bengali Calendar or Bangla Calendar is a solar calendar used in the region of Bengal. A revised version of the calendar is the national and official calendar in Bangladesh, the New Year in the Bengali calendar is known as Pôhela Bôishakh. The Bengali Era or Anno Bengal, the Bengali year is 594 less than the AD or CE year in the Gregorian calendar if it is before Pôhela Bôishakh, the revised version of the Bengali calendar was officially adopted in Bangladesh in 1987. However, it is not followed in India where the traditional version continues to be followed due to occurrence of Hindu festivals based on a particular sidereal solar day. The Bengali calendar is a solar calendar, the calendar was developed by Alauddin Husain Shah, a Hussain Shahi sultan of Bengal by combining the lunar Islamic calendar with the solar calendar, prevalent in Bengal. All theories agree that the Mughal Emperor, Akbar was instrumental in promulgating the Bengali calendar, Akbar modified, developed and re introduced the Bengali Calendar in order to make tax collection easier in Bengal.
The calendar was called as Tarikh-e-Elahi. Sources credit the idea to Alauddin Husain Shah, akbars royal astronomer Fathullah Shirazi developed the Bengali calendar, by synthesizing the Lunar Islamic and Solar calendars. The calendar started with the Islamic calendar value, but the Sanskrit month names were used from the earlier version, the distinctive characteristic of the Bengali year was that rather than being a lunar calendar, it was based on a union of the solar and lunar year. This was essentially a great promotion as the solar and lunar years were formulated in very diverse systems, primarily this calendar was named as Fasli Sôn and Bônggabdô. The Bengali Year was launched on 1584 AD or 992 AH and this was the day that Akbar defeated Hemu in the clash of Panipat to ascend the throne. The month of Muharram in the year 963 AH was equal to the month of Boishakh in the Bengali calendar, in the Tarikh-e-Elahi version of the calendar, each day of the month had a separate name, and the months had different names from what they have now.
The Bengali calendar consists of 6 seasons, known as Rreetu ঋতু or Kal কাল, hence after some centuries the months will shift far away from the actual seasons. But the new revised version of the Bengali calendar used in Bangladesh will continue to maintain the seasons on time as mentioned above. The Bengali Calendar incorporates the seven-day week as used by other calendars. The names of the days of the week in the Bengali Calendar are based on the Navagraha, the day begins and ends at sunrise in the Bengali calendar, unlike in the Gregorian calendar, where the day starts at midnight. Pôhela Bôishakh in West Bengal and other states of India with Bengali diaspora, is celebrated on 14/15 April of the Gregorian calendar, according to the revised version of the calendar, now followed in Bangladesh, Pôhela Bôishakh always falls on 14 April. It is not clear, from what ground they start counting of 1st Bengali calendar year from the 593AD, the length of a year is counted as 365 days, as in the Gregorian calendar
The 19th century was the century marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Holy Roman and Mughal empires. After the defeat of the French Empire and its allies in the Napoleonic Wars, the Russian Empire expanded in central and far eastern Asia. By the end of the century, the British Empire controlled a fifth of the worlds land, the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and spread to continental Europe, North America and Japan. The Victorian era was notorious for the employment of children in factories and mines, as well as strict social norms regarding modesty. Japan embarked on a program of rapid modernization following the Meiji Restoration, before defeating China, under the Qing Dynasty, europes population doubled during the 19th century, from approximately 200 million to more than 400 million. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more during this century, London became the worlds largest city and capital of the British Empire. Its population increased from 1 million in 1800 to 6.7 million a century later, liberalism became the pre-eminent reform movement in Europe.
Slavery was greatly reduced around the world, following a successful slave revolt in Haiti and France stepped up the battle against the Barbary pirates and succeeded in stopping their enslavement of Europeans. The UKs Slavery Abolition Act charged the British Royal Navy with ending the slave trade. The first colonial empire in the century to abolish slavery was the British, americas 13th Amendment following their Civil War abolished slavery there in 1865, and in Brazil slavery was abolished in 1888. Similarly, serfdom was abolished in Russia, in the 19th century approximately 70 million people left Europe, with most migrating to the United States of America. The 19th century saw the creation and codification of many sports, particularly in Britain. Also, ladywear was a sensitive topic during this time. 1801, Ranjit Singh crowned as King of Punjab,1801, Napoleon signs the Concordat of 1801 with the Pope. 1801, Cairo falls to the British,1801, Assassination of Tsar Paul I of Russia. 1802, Ludwig van Beethoven performs his Moonlight Sonata for the first time,1803, William Symington demonstrates his Charlotte Dundas, the first practical steamboat.
1803, The United States more than doubles in size when it buys out Frances territorial claims in North America via the Louisiana Purchase. This begins the U. S. s westward expansion to the Pacific referred to as its Manifest Destiny which involves annexing and conquering land from Mexico, Britain,1803, The Wahhabis of the First Saudi State capture Mecca and Medina
While the calendars share a common lineage, they have minor but important variations such as intercalation schedules, month names and numbering, use of cycles, etc. In Thailand, the name Buddhist Era is a numbering system shared by the traditional Thai lunisolar calendar. The Southeast Asian lunisolar calendars are based on an older version of the Hindu calendar. One major difference is that the Southeast Asian systems, unlike their Indian cousins, they employ their versions of the Metonic cycle. However, since the Metonic cycle is not very accurate for sidereal years, yet no coordinated structural reforms of the lunisolar calendar have been undertaken. Today, the traditional Buddhist lunisolar calendar is used mainly for Theravada Buddhist festivals, the Thai Buddhist Era, a renumbered Gregorian calendar, is the official calendar in Thailand. The Burmese calendar in turn was based on the original Surya Siddhanta system of ancient India, one key difference with Indian systems is that the Burmese system has followed a variation of the Metonic cycle.
It is unclear from where, when or how the Metonic system was introduced, the Burmese system, and indeed the Southeast Asian systems, thus use a strange combination of sidereal years from Indian calendar in combination with the Metonic cycle better for tropical years. In all Theravada traditions, the epochal year 0 date was the day in which the Buddha attained parinibbāna. However, not all agree on when it actually took place. In Burmese Buddhist tradition, it was 13 May 544 BCE, but in Thailand, it was 11 March 545 BCE, the date which the current Thai lunisolar and solar calendars use as the epochal date. In Myanmar, the difference between BE and CE can be 543 or 544 for CE dates, and 544 or 543 for BCE dates, in Sri Lanka, the difference between BE and CE is 544. The calendar recognizes two types of months, synodic month and sidereal month, the Synodic months are used to compose the years while the 27 lunar sidereal days, alongside the 12 signs of the zodiac, are used for astrological calculations.
The days of the month are counted in two halves and waning, the 15th of the waxing is the civil full moon day. The civil new moon day is the last day of the month, because of the inaccuracy of the calendrical calculation systems, the mean and real New Moons rarely coincide. The mean New Moon often precedes the real New Moon, as the Synodic lunar month is approximately 29.5 days, the calendar uses alternating months of 29 and 30 days. Various regional versions of Chula Sakarat/Burmese calendar existed across various regions of mainland Southeast Asia, unlike Cambodian and Burmese systems, Lan Na, Lan Xang and Sukhothai systems refer to the months by numbers, not by names. The Buddhist calendar is a calendar in which the months are based on lunar months
The 18th century lasted from January 1,1701 to December 31,1800 in the Gregorian calendar. During the 18th century, the Enlightenment culminated in the French and science increased in prominence. Philosophers dreamed of a brighter age and this dream turned into a reality with the French Revolution of 1789-, though compromised by the excesses of the Reign of Terror under Maximilien Robespierre. At first, many monarchies of Europe embraced Enlightenment ideals, but with the French Revolution they feared losing their power, the Ottoman Empire experienced an unprecedented period of peace and economic expansion, taking part in no European wars from 1740 to 1768. The 18th century marked the end of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as an independent state, the once-powerful and vast kingdom, which had once conquered Moscow and defeated great Ottoman armies, collapsed under numerous invasions. European colonization of the Americas and other parts of the world intensified and associated mass migrations of people grew in size as the Age of Sail continued.
Great Britain became a major power worldwide with the defeat of France in North America in the 1760s, Britain lost many of its North American colonies after the American Revolution, which resulted in the formation of the newly independent United States of America. The Industrial Revolution started in Britain in the 1770s with the production of the steam engine. Despite its modest beginnings in the 18th century, steam-powered machinery would radically change human society, western historians have occasionally defined the 18th century otherwise for the purposes of their work. To historians who expand the century to include larger historical movements, 1700-1721, Great Northern War between Tsarist Russia and the Swedish Empire. 1701, Kingdom of Prussia declared under King Frederick I,1701, Ashanti Empire is formed under Osei Kofi Tutu I. 1701–1714, The War of the Spanish Succession is fought, involving most of continental Europe, 1701–1702, The Daily Courant and The Norwich Post become the first daily newspapers in England.
1702, Forty-seven Ronin attack Kira Yoshinaka and commit seppuku in Japan,1703, Saint Petersburg is founded by Peter the Great, it is the Russian capital until 1918. 1703–1711, The Rákóczi Uprising against the Habsburg Monarchy,1704, End of Japans Genroku period. 1704, First Javanese War of Succession,1705, George Frideric Handels first opera, premieres. 1706, War of the Spanish Succession, French troops defeated at the Battles of Ramilies,1706, The first English-language edition of the Arabian Nights is published. 1707, The Act of Union is passed, merging the Scottish and English Parliaments,1707, After Aurangzebs death, the Mughal Empire enters a long decline and the Maratha Empire slowly replaces it. 1707, Mount Fuji erupts in Japan for the first time since 1700,1707, War of 27 Years between the Marathas and Mughals ends in India
Ab urbe condita
Ab urbe condita is a Latin phrase meaning from the founding of the City, traditionally dated to 753 BC. AUC is a system used by some ancient Roman historians to identify particular Roman years. Renaissance editors sometimes added AUC to Roman manuscripts they published, giving the impression that the Romans usually numbered their years using the AUC system. The dominant method of identifying Roman years in Roman times was to name the two consuls who held office that year, the regnal year of the emperor was used to identify years, especially in the Byzantine Empire after 537 when Justinian required its use. The traditional date for the founding of Rome of 21 April 753 BC, was initiated by 1st century BC scholar Marcus Terentius Varro, the correctness of Varros calculation has not been confirmed but it is still used worldwide. From Emperor Claudius onwards, Varros calculation superseded other contemporary calculations, celebrating the anniversary of the city became part of imperial propaganda.
Claudius was the first to hold magnificent celebrations in honour of the citys anniversary and Antoninus Pius held similar celebrations, in 121 AD and 147/148 AD respectively. During 248 AD, Philip the Arab celebrated Romes first millennium, coins from his reign commemorate the celebrations. The Anno Domini year numbering was developed by a monk named Dionysius Exiguus in Rome during 525, in his Easter table the year 532 AD was equated with the regnal year 248 of Emperor Diocletian. It was calculated that the year 1 AD corresponds to the Roman year 754 AUC, based on Varros epoch
Balinese saka calendar
The Balinese saka calendar is one of two calendars used on the Indonesian island of Bali. Unlike the 210-day pawukon calendar, it is based on the phases of the moon, based on a lunar calendar, the saka year comprises twelve months, or sasih, of 30 days each. The months are adjusted by allocating two lunar days to one day every 9 weeks. This day is called ngunalatri, Sanskrit for minus one night, the length of these months is calculated according to the normal 63-day cycle. Both sets of days are numbered 1 to 15, the first day of the year is usually the day after the first new moon in March. Note, that Nyepi falls on the first day of Kadasa, the calendar is 78 years behind the Gregorian calendar, and is calculated from the beginning of the Saka Era in India. It is used alongside the 210-day Balinese pawukon calendar, and Balinese festivals can be calculated according to either year, the Indian saka calendar was used for royal decrees as early as the ninth century CE. The same calendar was used in Java until Sultan Agung replaced it with the Javanese calendar in 1633, the Balinese Hindu festival of Nyepi, the day of silence, marks the start of the Saka year.
Tilem Kepitu, the last day of the 7th month, is known as Siva Ratri, devotees stay up all night and meditate. There are another 24 ceremonial days in the Saka year, usually celebrated at Purnama, ISBN9813018496 Hobart, Ramseyer, Urs & Leeman, Albert The Peoples of Bali, Blackwell Publishers. ISBN063117687 X Ricklefs, M. C, A History of Modern Indonesia, MacMillan, ISBN 978-0-333-24380-0
Traditional Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar which reckons years and days according to astronomical phenomena. It is used for activities in China and overseas Chinese communities. It depictures and lists the dates of traditional Chinese holidays, and guides Chinese people in selecting the most auspicious days for weddings, moving, in the Chinese calendar, the days begin and end at midnight. The months begin on the day with the dark moon, the years begin with the dark moon near the midpoint between winter solstice and spring equinox. The solar terms are the important components of the Chinese calendar, in a month, there are one to three solar terms. The currently used traditional Chinese calendar is the end result of centuries of evolution, many astronomical and seasonal factors were added by ancient scientists, and people can reckon the date of natural phenomena such as the moon phase and tide upon the Chinese calendar. The Chinese calendar has over 100 variants, whose characteristics reflect the evolutionary path.
As with Chinese characters, different variants are used in different parts of the Chinese cultural sphere, calendars in Mongolia and Tibet have absorbed elements from the Chinese calendar and elements from other systems, but they are not direct descendants of the Chinese calendar. The official calendar in China is the Gregorian calendar, but the traditional Chinese calendar still plays an important role there. The Chinese calendar is known officially as the Rural Calendar, but is referred to by other names, such as the Former Calendar. The Chinese calendar preserves traditional East Asian culture, although the month sequences of Chinese calendar is decided by the solar term, the Chinese calendar is not an agriculture calendar. The Chinese calendar has greatly influenced the traditional calendars around Asia, the calendar has a year and date frame. The key elements are the day, synodic month and solar year, the Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar, similar to the Hindu and Hebrew calendars.
The concepts in the Chinese and Hebrew calendars, day, in the Chinese calendar, a day starts from the midnight, in the Hindu calendars, a day starts from sunrise, and in the Hebrew calendar, a day starts from sunset. Month, the time is based on the obliquity of the moon path, a month is about 29 17/32 days. Phase, 1/30 month, 12° obliquity of the moon path, a unique concept of dating method in the Hindu calendar, a phase is about 63/64 day, which derived out the 64 divinatory symbols. Date, the day number in a month, in the Chinese and Hebrew calendars, days are numbered in sequence from 1 to 29 or 30, and in the Hindu calendars, the days are numbered according to the number of the phase in the days. In the Hindu calendars, some dates may be vacant, the time based on the earths revolution
George II of Great Britain
George II was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. George was the last British monarch born outside Great Britain, he was born, after the deaths of Sophia and Anne, Queen of Great Britain, in 1714, his father George I, Elector of Hanover, inherited the British throne. In the first years of his fathers reign as king, George was associated with opposition politicians, as king from 1727, George exercised little control over British domestic policy, which was largely controlled by the Parliament of Great Britain. As elector, he spent twelve summers in Hanover, where he had direct control over government policy. He had a relationship with his eldest son, Frederick. During the War of the Austrian Succession, George participated at the Battle of Dettingen in 1743, Frederick died unexpectedly in 1751, nine years before his father, and so George II was ultimately succeeded by his grandson, George III.
For two centuries after George IIs death, history tended to him with disdain, concentrating on his mistresses, short temper. Since then, most scholars have reassessed his legacy and conclude that he held and exercised influence in foreign policy and military appointments. George was born in the city of Hanover in Germany, and was the son of George Louis, Hereditary Prince of Brunswick-Lüneburg, both of Georges parents committed adultery, and in 1694 their marriage was dissolved on the pretext that Sophia had abandoned her husband. She was confined to Ahlden House and denied access to her two children and his sister Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, who never saw their mother again. George spoke only French, the language of diplomacy and the court, until the age of four, after which he was taught German by one of his tutors, Johann Hilmar Holstein. In addition to French and German, he was schooled in English and Italian. Georges second cousin once removed, Queen Anne, ascended the thrones of England and Ireland in 1702, after his grandmother and father, George was third in line to succeed Anne in two of her three realms.
England and Scotland united in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, Georges father did not want his son to enter into a loveless arranged marriage as he had, and wanted him to have the opportunity of meeting his bride before any formal arrangements were made. Negotiations from 1702 for the hand of Princess Hedvig Sophia of Sweden, Dowager Duchess and regent of Holstein-Gottorp, the English envoy to Hanover, Edmund Poley, reported that George was so taken by the good character he had of her that he would not think of anybody else. A marriage contract was concluded by the end of July, on 22 August /2 September 1705O. S. /N. S. Caroline arrived in Hanover for her wedding, which was held the evening in the chapel at Herrenhausen. George was keen to participate in the war against France in Flanders, in early 1707, Georges hopes were fulfilled when Caroline gave birth to a son, Frederick