Free National Movement
The Free National Movement is a liberal political party in The Bahamas formed in the 1970s, led by Cecil Wallace Whitfield. The current leader of the party is Dr. Hubert Minnis and his deputy is Peter Turnquest and it is the largest opposition party in the Bahamas by number of seats in the Legislature. The FNM, led at the time by Prime Minister Hubert Ingraham, the Progressives won 29 of the seats in the legislature and thus the government, compared to the FNMs 9. Ingraham subsequently resigned, both as party leader as well as the Member of Parliament for North Abaco, the FNM was established at Jimmy Shepherd’s house on Spring Hills Farms in Fox Hill in 1971. The Free-PLP were a group of eight MPs from the governing Progressive Liberal Party. Following meetings held at Spring Hill Farms, the FNM officially became a party in October 1971. The UBP partys leadership was predominantly white while blacks made up most of the citizenry, once out of power, its leaders decided that the partys time was at an end and they looked to the Free-PLP to form a new party that would follow a conservative party line.
The fusion was called the Free National Movement, the party grew in part by uniting independent black voters and the old UBP voter base. However, these were heady days for the governing PLP, who led the country to independence in 1973, in 1990, Hubert Ingraham took over the leadership of the party after the death of Sir Cecil Wallace Whitfield. The FNM attacked the governing PLP on corruption charges and published a Manifesto, in the General Election of 1992, the FNM defeated its rival, the PLP, by wide margins, winning 32 of the 49 seats. The FNM Government privatized the government-owned hotels, which had fallen into decline since nationalization, private radio stations were allowed to operate, ending the governments broadcast monopoly. The FNM introduced local government and encouraged inward investment to grow the economy, the elections of 1997 saw the FNM re-elected in a landslide, with 35 of the 40 seats in a reduced House. After Ingraham vowed not to seek a third term in office, The party lost the 2002 elections, many voters, including FNM supporters felt that Turnquest was much weaker than Perry Christie, leader of the Progressive Liberal Party.
At the FNMs party convention the following the elections of 2002. The FNM went on to control of the House of Assembly in the elections of 2007. The FNM lost government to the Progressive Liberal Party once again in the 2012 general elections, outgoing Prime Minister Hubert Ingraham announced his retirement from politics following the defeat. He had served in Parliament for 35 years, winning seven times. Ingraham told supporters, I gave it the best I could and we had no indication from the general public they would go that way
Parliament of the Bahamas
The Parliament of The Bahamas is the bicameral national parliament of Commonwealth of The Bahamas. The parliament is made up by the Queen, an appointed Senate. It currently sits at Nassau, the national capital, the structure and procedures of the parliament are based on the Westminster system. Originally inhabited by the Lucayans, a branch of the Arawakan-speaking Taino people, although the Spanish never colonized the Bahamas, they shipped the native Lucayans to slavery in Hispaniola. The islands were mostly deserted from 1513 until 1648, when English colonists from Bermuda settled on the island of Eleuthera, the Bahamas became a British crown colony in 1718, when the British clamped down on piracy. Bahamians achieved self-government in 1964 and full independence within the Commonwealth of Nations on July 10,1973, the Parliament as presently constituted was established by Chapter 5 of the Constitution of The Bahamas, which came into effect upon the countrys independence from the United Kingdom.
The House of Assembly is the lower chamber and it consists of 38 members, elected from individual constituencies for five-year terms. As under the Westminster system, the government may dissolve the parliament, the House of Assembly performs all major legislative functions. The Prime Minister is the leader of the party controlling the majority of the House of Assembly seats, the speaker of the House of Assembly is currently Dr. Kendal Major. The Senate consists of 16 members appointed by the Governor-General, the Senate is authorised by the Constitution to pass Bills in the same manner as passed by the House or it can make such amendments to the Bill should it consider it necessary. Those amendments will have to be approved by the House of Assembly, the Senate may even reject a Bill outrightly that had been passed by the House. She previously served as President of the Senate from 2002 to 2007, and succeeded Lynn Holowesko, Parliament is empowered by Article 52 of the Constitution to make laws for the peace and good government of The Bahamas.
Parliament maintains oversight of the Governments finances through the Public Accounts Committee, Parliament is the forum where public policy and matters of national importance are debated. Most of the laws passed by Parliament are for the modification or amendment of existing laws, Article 52 of the Constitution empowers Parliament to make laws by the passing of a bill. Most bills are introduced into Parliament by a Government minister, a bill must be passed by both the House of Assembly and Senate, and must be formally assented to by the Governor-General, before it becomes law. There are currently four main classifications of Bills, money, private member, a bill must pass through a series of stages in order to be passed by each chamber, with a vote taken at each stage. After the first reading, the Speaker orders the bill to be printed, it is numbered, circulated to members of Parliament. At the second reading, the principle of the bill is debated, at the committal stage, the entire House of Assembly sits as a Committee of the Whole House, with the Speaker leaving the chair and the Deputy Speaker presiding as Chairperson
Monarchy of the Bahamas
The monarchy of the Bahamas is a system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas. The current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since the country became independent on 10 July 1973, the Bahamas share the Sovereign with the other Commonwealth realms. The Queen does not personally reside in the islands, and most of her roles are therefore delegated to her representative in the country. Royal succession is governed by the English Act of Settlement of 1701, the Bahamas are one of sixteen independent nations, known as Commonwealth realms, which separately recognise the Queen as their individual monarch and head of state. Despite sharing the same person as their monarch, each of the Commonwealth realms — including the Bahamas — is sovereign. The Monarchy thus ceased to be an exclusively British institution, although it has often been called British since this time for historical, legal. The Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act,1927 was the first indication of this shift in law and this situation applies symmetrically in all the other realms, including the UK.
On all matters of the Bahamian State, the Monarch is advised solely by Bahamian ministers. In the Bahamas, the Queens official title is, Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth. Typically, the Sovereign is styled Queen of the Bahamas, and is addressed as such when in the Bahamas, the Monarch is informed of the Prime Ministers decision before the Governor General gives Royal Assent. The current constitution for the Commonwealth of the Bahamas is part of the Schedule to the Bahamas Independence Order of 1973, the Order came into operation on 10 July 1973. The first section declares, The Commonwealth of The Bahamas shall be a sovereign democratic State, most of the Queens domestic duties are performed by the Governor-General. The Governor-General represents the Queen on ceremonial occasions such as the opening of Parliament, under the Constitution, he or she is given authority to act in some matters, for example in appointing and disciplining officers of the civil service, in proroguing Parliament.
It has been said since the death of Queen Anne in 1714, the last monarch to head the British cabinet, in exceptional circumstances, the Monarch or vice-regal can act against such advice based upon his or her reserve powers. There are a few duties which must be performed by. These include, signing the appointment papers of Governors General, the confirmation of awards of honours, and approving any change in her title. Succession to the throne is by absolute primogeniture, and governed by the provisions of the Succession to the Crown Act 2013, as well as the Act of Settlement and English Bill of Rights. These documents, though passed by the Parliament of England
The Bahamas, known officially as the Commonwealth of the Bahamas, is an archipelagic state within the Lucayan Archipelago. The capital is Nassau on the island of New Providence, the designation of the Bahamas can refer either to the country or to the larger island chain that it shares with the Turks and Caicos Islands. As stated in the mandate/manifesto of the Royal Bahamas Defence Force, the Bahamas is the site of Columbus first landfall in the New World in 1492. At that time, the islands were inhabited by the Lucayan, although the Spanish never colonised the Bahamas, they shipped the native Lucayans to slavery in Hispaniola. The islands were mostly deserted from 1513 until 1648, when English colonists from Bermuda settled on the island of Eleuthera, the Bahamas became a British Crown colony in 1718, when the British clamped down on piracy. After the American War of Independence, the Crown resettled thousands of American Loyalists in the Bahamas, they brought their slaves with them, Africans constituted the majority of the population from this period.
Slavery in the Bahamas was abolished in 1834, Today the descendants of slaves and free Africans make up nearly 90% of the population, issues related to the slavery years are part of society. The Bahamas became an independent Commonwealth realm in 1973, retaining Queen Elizabeth II as its monarch, in terms of gross domestic product per capita, the Bahamas is one of the richest countries in the Americas, with an economy based on tourism and finance. The name Bahamas is derived from either the Taino ba ha ma, alternatively, it may originate from Guanahani, a local name of unclear meaning. In English, the Bahamas is one of two countries whose self-standing short name begins with the word the, along with The Gambia. Taino people moved into the uninhabited southern Bahamas from Hispaniola and Cuba around the 11th century and they came to be known as the Lucayan people. An estimated 30,000 Lucayan inhabited the Bahamas at the time of Christopher Columbus arrival in 1492, Columbuss first landfall in the New World was on an island he named San Salvador.
Some researchers believe this site to be present-day San Salvador Island, an alternative theory holds that Columbus landed to the southeast on Samana Cay, according to calculations made in 1986 by National Geographic writer and editor Joseph Judge, based on Columbuss log. Evidence in support of this remains inconclusive, on the landfall island, Columbus made first contact with the Lucayan and exchanged goods with them. The Spanish forced much of the Lucayan population to Hispaniola for use as forced labour, the slaves suffered from harsh conditions and most died from contracting diseases to which they had no immunity, half of the Taino died from smallpox alone. The population of the Bahamas was severely diminished, in 1648, the Eleutherian Adventurers, led by William Sayle, migrated from Bermuda. These English Puritans established the first permanent European settlement on an island which they named Eleuthera—the name derives from the Greek word for freedom and they settled New Providence, naming it Sayles Island after one of their leaders.
To survive, the settlers salvaged goods from wrecks, in 1670 King Charles II granted the islands to the Lords Proprietors of the Carolinas in North America
Judicial Committee of the Privy Council
The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest judicial bodies in the United Kingdom. The Judicial Committee consists of judges appointed as Privy Councillors, predominantly Justices of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. It is often referred to as the Privy Council, as in most cases appeals are made to Her Majesty in Council. The panel of judges hearing a case is known as the Board. The report of the Board is always accepted by the Queen in Council as judgment, in Commonwealth republics retaining the JCPC as their final court of appeal, appeals are made directly to the Judicial Committee itself. In the case of Brunei, appeals are made to the Sultan of Brunei, formerly the Judicial Committee gave a unanimous report, but since the Judicial Committee Order 1966 dissenting opinions have been allowed. The Judicial Committees permanent home is in London, in the United Kingdom, in this renovated building, Court 3 is used for Privy Council sittings. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council has jurisdiction in the domestic matters.
Appeals from the courts in non-doctrinal faculty cases. Appeals from the High Court of Chivalry, Appeals from the Court of Admiralty of the Cinque Ports. Appeals from the Disciplinary Committee of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, disputes under the House of Commons Disqualification Act 1975. Additionally, the government may refer any issue to the committee for consideration, in other courts in the United Kingdom, judgments of the Judicial Committee are only of persuasive authority and are not binding as a matter of law. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is the Court of Final Appeal for the Church of England. It hears appeals from the Arches Court of Canterbury and the Chancery Court of York, except on matters of doctrine, ritual or ceremony, which go to the Court for Ecclesiastical Causes Reserved. By the Church Discipline Act 1840 and the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876 all archbishops and bishops of the Church of England became eligible to be members of the Judicial Committee.
Prior to the coming into force of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005, on 1 October 2009 this jurisdiction was transferred to the new Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. The New Zealand associated states of Cook Islands and Niue, the Crown Dependencies of Jersey, including Guernseys own dependencies of Alderney and Sark, and appeals from the Staff of Government Division on the Isle of Man. The United Kingdoms Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, in Cyprus, Appeal is directly to the Judicial Committee from three independent Commonwealth republics and Trinidad and Tobago, and also, if the case involves constitutional rights, Kiribati
Governor-General of the Bahamas
The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas is the viceregal representative of the Bahamian monarch. As the Queen cannot reside in all of her realms, she appoints representatives to carry out her duties as Queen of the Bahamas, governors-General serve their term as such at Her Majestys pleasure, but usually end their term within five years. They are responsible for appointing the Prime Minister as well as other government Ministers after consultations with the Prime Minister, government House in Nassau is the official residence of governors-general. The current Governor-General is Dame Marguerite Pindling, List of governors of the Bahamas List of Prime Ministers of the Bahamas Georgetown University
Visa policy of Bahamas
Visitors to The Bahamas must obtain a visa from one of the Bahamian diplomatic missions or British diplomatic missions unless they come from one of the visa exempt countries. 3 -8 months,3 months for U. S. citizens or nationals residing in Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, Puerto Rico,4 - including permanent resident card holders who are exempt for a maximum of 30 days. Holders of diplomatic or official passports issued to nationals of Haiti and holders of diplomatic, cruise ship passengers travelling to and returning from the Bahamas are required to obtain visa for entry. Both entry and departure must be by a cruise ship, most visitors arriving to the Bahamas were from the following countries of nationality, Visa requirements for Bahamian citizens
Nassau is the capital, largest city, and commercial centre of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas. The city has an population of 274,400 as of 2016. The city is located on the island of New Providence, which much like a business district. Nassau is the site of the House of Assembly and various departments and was considered historically to be a stronghold of pirates. The city was named in honour of William III of England, nassaus modern growth began in the late eighteenth century, with the influx of thousands of American Loyalists and their slaves to the Bahamas following the American Revolutionary War. Many of them settled in Nassau and eventually came to outnumber the original inhabitants, as the population of Nassau grew, so did its populated areas. Today the city dominates the island and its satellite, Paradise Island. However, until the post-Second World War era, the outer suburbs scarcely existed, most of New Providence was uncultivated bush until Loyalists were resettled there following the American Revolutionary War, they established several plantations, such as Clifton and Tusculum.
In addition, slaves freed from American ships, such as the Creole case in 1841, were allowed to settle there, Nassau was formerly known as Charles Town, it was burned to the ground by the Spanish in 1684 during one of their frequent wars with the English. The name Nassau derives from the House of Nassau and ultimately from the town of Nassau, due to a lack of effective Governors, Nassau fell on hard times. In 1703 Spanish and French allied forces briefly occupied Nassau, from 1703 to 1718 there was no governor in the colony and by 1713, the sparsely settled Bahamas had become a pirate haven. The Governor of Bermuda stated that there were over 1,000 pirates in Nassau and they proclaimed Nassau a pirate republic, establishing themselves as governors. Examples of pirates that used Nassau as their base are Charles Vane, Thomas Barrow, Benjamin Hornigold, Calico Jack Rackham, Anne Bonny, Mary Read, in 1718, the British sought to regain control of the islands and appointed Captain Woodes Rogers as Royal governor.
He successfully clamped down on the pirates, reformed the civil administration, Rogers cleaned up Nassau and rebuilt the fort, using his own wealth to try to overcome problems. In 1720 the Spanish made an attempt to capture Nassau. During the wars in the Thirteen Colonies, Nassau experienced an economic boom, with funds from privateering, a new fort, street lights and over 2300 sumptuous houses were built and Nassau was extended. In addition to this, mosquito breeding swamps were filled, in 1778 after an overnight invasion, American raiders led by Captain Rathburn, left with ships and military stores after stopping in Nassau for only two days. In 1782 Spain captured Nassau for the last time when Don Juan de Cagigal, governor-general of Cuba, attacked New Providence with 5000 men
Woodes Rogers was an English sea captain and privateer and, the first Royal Governor of the Bahamas. He is known as the captain of the vessel that rescued marooned Alexander Selkirk, Rogers came from an affluent seafaring family, grew up in Poole and Bristol, and served a marine apprenticeship to a Bristol sea captain. His father held shares in ships, but he died when Rogers was in his mid-twenties. In 1707, Rogers was approached by Captain William Dampier, who sought support for a privateering voyage against the Spanish, Rogers led the expedition, which consisted of two well-armed ships and Duchess, and was the captain of Duke. In three years and his men went around the world, capturing several ships in the Pacific Ocean, en route, the expedition rescued Selkirk, finding him on Juan Fernandez Island on 1 February 1709. The expedition made Rogers a national hero, but his brother was killed, on his return, he was successfully sued by his crew on the grounds that they had not received their fair share of the expedition profits, and Rogers was forced into bankruptcy.
He wrote of his experiences in the book A Cruising Voyage Round the World. Rogers was twice appointed Governor of the Bahamas, where he succeeded in warding off threats from the Spanish, his first term as governor was financially ruinous, and on his return to England, he was imprisoned for debt. During his second term as governor, Rogers died in Nassau at the age of about 53, Woodes Rogers was the eldest son and heir of Woods Rogers, a successful merchant captain. Sometime between 1690 and 1696, Captain Rogers moved his family to Bristol, in November 1697, Woodes Rogers was apprenticed to Bristol mariner John Yeamans, to learn the profession of a sailor. At 18, Rogers was somewhat old to be starting a seven-year apprenticeship, little suggests that it is likely that Rogers gained his maritime experience with Yeamans ship on the Newfoundland fleet. Rogers completed his apprenticeship in November 1704, the following January Rogers married Sarah Whetstone, daughter of Rear Admiral Sir William Whetstone, who was a neighbour and close family friend.
Rogers became a freeman of Bristol because of his marriage into the prominent Whetstone family, in 1706, Captain Rogers died at sea, leaving his ships and business to his son Woodes. Between 1706 and the end of 1708, Woodes and Sarah Rogers had a son, at least four vessels in which Rogers had an ownership interest were granted the letters. One, Whetstone Galley, named for Rogers father in law and it did not reach Africa, but was captured by the French. Rogers suffered other losses against the French, although he does not record their extent in his book and he turned to privateering as a means of recouping these losses. In late 1707, Rogers was approached by William Dampier, a navigator and friend of Rogers father and this was a desperate move on the part of Captain Dampier to save his career. Commanding two frigates and Duchess, and captaining the first, Rogers spent three years circumnavigating the globe, the ships departed Bristol on 1 August 1708
Harbour Island, Bahamas
Harbour Island is an island and administrative district in the Bahamas and is located off the northeast coast of Eleuthera Island. It has a population of 1,762, the only town on the island is Dunmore Town, named after the governor of the Bahamas from 1786 to 1798, John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore, who had a summer residence on Harbour Island. Harbour Island is famous for its sand beaches, which are found all along the east side of the island. The pink hue comes from foraminifera, an organism that actually has a reddish-pink shell. Harbour Island is a vacation destination for Americans. Known as Briland to the locals, Harbour Island is colourful with English Colonial-style buildings, Harbour Island is part of the Out Islands of the Bahamas. In the middle 1960s, the American actor Brett King and his wife, the island is accessible by airplane through North Eleuthera Airport, followed by a short water taxi ride from neighbouring North Eleuthera. Wallace, Wind From The Carolinas, Robert Wilder, michael Craton and Gail Saunders, Islanders in the Stream, A History of the Bahamian People - Volume One, From Aboriginal Times to the End of Slavery ISBN 0-8203-2122-2