1730 in science
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- James Stirling publishes Methodus differentialis, sive tractatus de summatione et interpolatione serierum infinitarum.
- The Reaumur scale is developed by French naturalist René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, with 0° = the freezing point of water and 80° = the boiling point.
- April 15 – Moses Harris, English entomologist and engraver (died c. 1788)
- July 12 – Anna Barbara Reinhart, Swiss mathematician (died 1796)
- June 26 – Charles Messier, French astronomer (died 1817)
- August 12 – Edmé-Louis Daubenton, French naturalist (died 1785)
- December 8
- Maria Angela Ardinghelli, Italian scientific translator (died 1825)
- between 1730 and 1732 – William Hudson, English botanist (died 1793)
- January 18 – Antonio Vallisneri, Italian physician and natural scientist (born 1661)
- December 5 (bur.) – Alida Withoos, Dutch botanical artist (born c. 1661/1662)