Titchfield is a village in southern Hampshire, by the River Meon. The village has a history stretching back to the 6th century, during the medieval period, the village operated a small port and market. Near to the village are the ruins of Titchfield Abbey, a place with strong associations with Shakespeare, through his patron, Titchfield forms part of the Borough of Fareham, having been added to the Fareham urban district in 1932. Inland is a Nature Reserve which is an important breeding and visiting ground for species of birds. Near to the village and the lies the Titchfield Canal. It has been suggested that this is the second oldest canal in England and it lies close to Titchfield Haven, concealed by a bridge with the remains of a sea-lock at the south end. A footpath follows the canal to Titchfield village and it was certainly used for flooding the water meadows, traces of which can still be clearly seen. Whether it was used as a navigation channel is still debated. The Earl of Southampton ordered the river to be sealed off from the sea by a wall which was a move with the villagers as it ultimately ended Titchfields role as a port.
The first people mentioned as inhabiting the area were a Jutish tribe, the tribe were part of the Jutes originating from Denmark who founded the village during the 6th century. The name of Titchfield comes from the Old English ticcen, meaning kid or young goat, the meaning of Titchfield is open lands where kids are kept. St Peter’s Church, was established in about 680 making it one of the oldest used churches in England. Though only a few parts of the structure survive, the church contains a mixture of building styles. The Domesday Book in 1086 mentions Ticefelle, with a mill and it was a successful community, though tiny by today’s standards with a population of 160. The Doomesday book entry for Titchfield states The King holds TICEFELLE and it is a berewick, and belongs to MENESTOCHES. There are 2 hides, but they have not paid geld. is land for 15 ploughs, in demesne but 2 oxen, and 16 villeins and 13 borders with 9 ploughs. There are 4 serfs, and a mill worth 20 shillings, the market and toll 40 shillings.
A further variation in the spelling may be seen in a Mediaeval legal record, Titchfield has long been a centre for business, with the village once having a small port
Kennington Common was a large area of common land mainly within the London Borough of Lambeth. The area was notable for being one of the earliest venues for cricket within London, the common was used for public executions and public gatherings. In 1600, the common was bounded on the south west by Vauxhall Creek and it extended over marshy land to the south west of the Roman road called Stane Street, now Kennington Park Road. There is a 1660 record of a common keeper being paid for grazing, in 1661, the Vauxhall Pleasure Gardens were laid out nearby. The large open space was used for a variety of purposes by people living on the southbank of the River Thames. Cricket has been played at Kennington since the late 17th century although there are no definite records, in 1725 players were known to use the Horns tavern as their clubhouse. This was recorded a year after the first known cricket match had taken place, other sports to have been periodically played on the common included quoits and bowls.
People would gather at the common to listen to public speakers, in 1739, the Methodists John Wesley and George Whitefield preached to an audience of 30,000. On 10 April 1848, Irish Chartist leader, Feargus OConnor addressed up to 50,000 people at Kennington over a petition in support of the Land Plan, the Surrey gallows were located on the common. These were the south London equivalent of Tyburn when the area was still part of the County of Surrey. The gallows stood on the site of St, marks Church not far from Oval tube station. Records show public executions were conducted throughout the period that the common was hosting cricket matches. In total 129 men and 12 women were executed at Kennington, the first person was Sarah Elston who was burned at the stake for the killing her husband on 24 April 1678. The last person executed was a forger on 5 August 1799, however, by executioners possessed some discretion as to how much the condemned should suffer before death. Townley was killed before his body was eviscerated and his head was placed on a pike on Temple Bar.
The earliest recorded use of the common for cricket was the London v Dartford match on 18 June 1724 and this has been classified a first-class match given that it featured the two leading clubs of the time. In August 1726, a combined London and Surrey XI played the Kent XI of leading patron Edwin Stead for a purse of 25 guineas, there was a very close contest on the common in August 1730 when London defeated Surrey by 1 run. The report said that it was thought to be one of the completest matches that ever was played, the London v Sevenoaks game on 12 July 1731 is the first known to have been played in an enclosed ground
Duppas Hill is a park and surrounding residential area in Waddon, near Croydon in Greater London. Duppas Hill has a history of sport and recreation. It is said that took place there in medieval times. Duppas Hill was a venue for cricket in the 18th century and is believed to have been used for a first-class match by Croydon Cricket Club as early as 1707 when Croydon played the London Club. It is recorded frequently in the 1730s as the venue of Croydon. In 1767, the nearby Caterham club, managed by Henry Rowett, the final mention of Duppas Hill as a senior cricket venue is on Wednesday,29 August 1798 when Croydon played Woolwich and were defeated by an innings and 2 runs. Duppas Hill was the site of the Croydon workhouse, in 1726 the Vestry of Croydon resolved to erect the towns first workhouse at a site on what was called Dubbers Hill. The establishment was open by the end of the following year, in 1836 it became the Croydon Poor Law Union workhouse. There has been a park at Duppas Hill since 1865.
It was laid out paths, a bandstand, pavilion. The Board of Health had to deal with cattle trespassing, drinking booths, some of the Board wanted to ban horse-riding completely on the public open space, others to ban grooms exercising horses but not the general public riding for pleasure. The ground was used for celebrations and firework displays. On the eve of the 1926 General Strike, it was the venue of a rally of trade unionists. In World War II it hosted a match between American and Canadian soldiers. Today the park is still a recreation ground and cricket is played there. Part of the site was used as the Heath Clark school, part of Croydon College, the road is a section of the Ewell to Orpington A232 road, preceded by Stafford Road to the west and succeeded by the Croydon Flyover to the east. It is a no-stopping Red Route for its entire length, list of Parks and Open Spaces in Croydon Buckley, G. B. Fresh Light on 18th Century Cricket, hidden History in Croydons Parks, Croydon Council History of Duppas Hill, Croydon Council From Lads to Lords – profile CricketArchive – Duppas Hill
Lords, known as Lords Cricket Ground, is a cricket venue in St Johns Wood, London. Lords is widely referred to as the Home of Cricket and is home to the worlds oldest sporting museum, Lords today is not on its original site, being the third of three grounds that Lord established between 1787 and 1814. His first ground, now referred to as Lords Old Ground, was where Dorset Square now stands and his second ground, Lords Middle Ground, was used from 1811 to 1813 before being abandoned to make way for the construction through its outfield of the Regents Canal. The present Lords ground is about 250 yards north-west of the site of the Middle Ground, the ground can hold 28,000 spectators. Proposals are being developed to increase capacity and amenity, as of December 2013, it was proposed to redevelop the ground at a cost of around £200 million over a 14-year period. The current ground celebrated its two hundredth anniversary in 2014, to mark the occasion, on 5 July an MCC XI captained by Sachin Tendulkar played a Rest of the World XI led by Shane Warne in a 50 overs match.
The White Conduit moved there from Islington soon afterwards and reconstituted themselves as Marylebone Cricket Club, in 1811, feeling obliged to relocate because of a rise in rent, Lord removed his turf and relaid it at his second ground. This was short-lived because it lay on the route decided by Parliament for the Regents Canal, the Middle Ground was on the estate of the Eyre family, who offered Lord another plot nearby, and he again relocated his turf. The new ground, on the present site, was opened in the 1814 season, the earliest known match was MCC v Hertfordshire on 22 June 1814. This is not rated a first-class match, MCC won by an innings and 27 runs. The annual Eton v Harrow match was first played on the Old Ground in 1805, there is no record of the fixture being played again until 29 July 1818, when it was held at the present Lords ground for the first time, Harrow won by 13 runs. From 1822, the fixture has been almost an annual event at Lords, in 1987 the new Mound Stand, designed by Michael Hopkins and Partners, was opened, followed by the Grandstand in 1996.
Most notably, the Media Centre was added in 1998-9, it won The Royal Institute of British Architects Stirling Prize for 1999, the ground can currently hold up to 28,000 spectators. The two ends of the pitch are the Pavilion End, where the members pavilion is located. The main survivor from the Victorian era is the Pavilion, with its famous Long Room and this historic landmark— a Grade II*-listed building— underwent an £8 million refurbishment programme in 2004–05. The pavilion is primarily for members of MCC, who may use its amenities, which include seats for viewing the cricket, the Long Room and its Bar, the Bowlers Bar, at Middlesex matches the Pavilion is open to members of the Middlesex County Club. The Pavilion contains the rooms where players change, each of which has a small balcony for players to watch the play. The only cricketer to hit a ball over the pavilion was Albert Trott, another highly visible feature of the ground is Old Father Time, a weather vane in the shape of Father Time, currently adorning a stand on the south-east side of the field
Frederick, Prince of Wales
Frederick Lewis, Prince of Wales, KG was heir apparent to the British throne from 1727 until his death. He was the eldest but estranged son of King George II and Caroline of Ansbach, under the Act of Settlement passed by the English Parliament in 1701, Frederick was high in line of succession to the British throne. He moved to Great Britain following the accession of his father and he predeceased his father and upon the latters death on 25 October 1760, the throne passed to Prince Fredericks eldest son, George III. The Elector was the son of Sophia of Hanover, granddaughter of James VI and I and first cousin and heiress-presumptive to the English Queen Anne. However, Sophia died before Anne at age 83 in June 1714, which elevated the Elector to heir-presumptive, Queen Anne died on 1 August the same year and this made Fredericks father the new Prince of Wales and first-in-line to the British throne and Frederick himself second-in-line. Fredericks other godfather was his grand-uncle Frederick I, King in Prussia, Frederick was nicknamed Griff within the family.
He was left in the care of his grand-uncle Ernest Augustus, Prince-Bishop of Osnabrück, in 1722, Frederick was inoculated against smallpox by Charles Maitland on the instructions of his mother Caroline. The latter two titles have been interpreted differently since – the ofs are omitted and Snaudon rendered as Snowdon, Frederick arrived in England in 1728 as a grown man, the year after his father had become King George II. By then and Caroline had had several younger children, the long separation damaged their relationship, and they would never be close. He was not permitted to go to Great Britain until after his father took the throne as George II on 11 June 1727, Frederick had continued to be known as Prince Friedrich Ludwig of Hanover even after his father had been created Prince of Wales. In 1728, Frederick was finally brought to Britain and was created Prince of Wales on 8 January 1729. He served as the tenth Chancellor of the University of Dublin from 1728 to 1751, and he sponsored a court of opposition politicians.
Frederick and his group supported the Opera of the Nobility in Lincolns Inn Fields as a rival to Handels royally sponsored opera at the Kings Theatre in the Haymarket. He enjoyed the natural sciences and the arts, and became a thorn in the side of his parents and Frederick wrote a theatrical comedy together which was staged at the Drury Lane Theatre in October 1731. It was panned by the critics, and even the theatres manager thought it so bad that it was unlikely to play out even the first night and he had soldiers stationed in the audience to maintain order, and when the play flopped the audience was given their money back. Hervey and Frederick shared a mistress, Anne Vane, who had a son called FitzFrederick Vane in June 1732, either of them or William Stanhope, 1st Earl of Harrington, another of her lovers, could have been the father. Jealousy between them may have contributed to a breach, and their friendship ended, Hervey wrote bitterly that Frederick was false. Never having the least hesitation in telling any lie that served his present purpose, a permanent result of Fredericks patronage of the arts is Rule, Britannia
History of cricket
The sport of cricket has a known history beginning in the late 16th century. Having originated in south-east England, it became the national sport in the 18th century and has developed globally in the 19th and 20th centuries. International matches have been played since 1844 and Test cricket began, retrospectively recognised, Cricket is the worlds second most popular spectator sport after association football. Governance is by the International Cricket Council which has one hundred members although only ten play Test cricket. The origin of cricket is unknown, the first definite reference is dated Monday,17 January 1597. There have been speculations about the games origins including some that it was created in France or Flanders. The earliest of these references is dated Thursday,10 March 1300 and concerns the future King Edward II playing at creag. It has been suggested that creag was an Olde English word for cricket but expert opinion is that it was a spelling of craic, meaning fun. It is generally believed that cricket survived as a game for many generations before it was increasingly taken up by adults around the beginning of the 17th century.
Possibly cricket was derived from bowls, assuming bowls is the older sport, a 1597 court case in England concerning an ownership dispute over a plot of common land in Guildford, Surrey mentions the game of creckett. A 59-year-old coroner, John Derrick, testified that he and his friends had played creckett on the site fifty years earlier when they attended the Free School. Derricks account proves beyond doubt that the game was being played in Surrey circa 1550. The first reference to cricket being played as a sport was in 1611. In the same year, a dictionary defined cricket as a boys game, a number of words are thought to be possible sources for the term cricket. In the earliest definite reference, it was spelled creckett, the name may have been derived from the Middle Dutch krick, meaning a stick, or the Old English cricc or cryce meaning a crutch or staff, or the French word criquet meaning a wooden post. The Middle Dutch word krickstoel means a low stool used for kneeling in church. According to Heiner Gillmeister, a European language expert of the University of Bonn, cricket derives from the Middle Dutch phrase for hockey, there is little evidence of the rampant gambling that characterised the game throughout the 18th century.
It is generally believed, that village cricket had developed by the middle of the 17th century but that county cricket had not and that investment in the game had not begun
The guinea was a coin of approximately one quarter ounce of gold that was minted in Great Britain between 1663 and 1814. From 1717 to 1816, its value was fixed at twenty-one shillings. Then, Britain adopted the standard and guinea became a colloquial or specialised term. The name came from the Guinea region in West Africa, where much of the used to make the coins originated. The name forms the basis for the Arabic word for the Egyptian pound الجنيه el-Genēh / el-Geni, the first guinea was produced on 6 February 1663, a proclamation of 27 March 1663 made the coins legal currency. One troy pound of 11/12 fine gold would make 44½ guineas, the denomination was originally worth one pound, or twenty shillings, but an increase in the price of gold during the reign of King Charles II led to the market trading it at a premium. The price of gold continued to increase, especially in times of trouble, and by the 1680s, indeed, in his diary entries for 13 June 1667, Samuel Pepys records that the price was 24 to 25 shillings.
The diameter of the coin was 1 inch throughout Charles IIs reign, Guinea was not an official name for the coin, but much of the gold used to produce the early coins came from Guinea in Africa. The coin was produced each year between 1663 and 1684, with the elephant appearing on some coins each year from 1663 to 1665 and 1668, and the elephant and castle on some coins from 1674 onward. The elephant, with or without the castle, symbolises the Royal African Company, the obverse and reverse of this coin were designed by John Roettier. The edge was milled to deter clipping or filing, and to distinguish it from the silver half-crown which had edge lettering, until 1669 the milling was perpendicular to the edge, giving vertical grooves, while from 1670 the milling was diagonal to the edge. John Roettier continued to design the dies for this denomination in the reign of King James II. In this reign, the coins weighed 8.5 g with a diameter of 25–26 mm, Coins of each year were issued both with and without the elephant and castle mark.
The edge of the coins are milled diagonally, with the removal of James II in the Glorious Revolution of 1688, his daughter Mary, and her husband Prince William of Orange ruled jointly by agreement as co-monarchs. Their heads appear conjoined on the piece in Roman style, with Williams head uppermost. By the early part of this reign the value of the guinea had increased to thirty shillings. The guineas of this reign weighed 8, following the death of Queen Mary from smallpox in 1694, William continued to reign as William III. The coins of William IIIs reign weighed 8.4 g with a gold purity of 0.9123
Moulsey Hurst is located in what is now West Molesey, Surrey on the south bank of the River Thames above Molesey Lock. It is one of Englands oldest sporting venues and was used in the 18th and 19th centuries for cricket, the site can be reached from Hampton across the river by Hampton Ferry when it is running in the summer. This venue is considered to be one of the oldest used for organised cricket, along with other historical cricket greens, the earliest known use of the site for cricket was in 1723 for a game between Surrey and London. One of crickets most famous paintings is Cricket at Moulsey Hurst, the painting is owned by MCC and on display at Lords. It was the site of the now defunct Hurst Park horse race course, the 1872 Ordnance Survey map shows a race course marked Molesey Hurst in this position. The location of the ground was probably in the centre of the racecourse. Molesey Hurst Golf Club was founded in 1907, the club disappeared at the onset of WW2. Other sports and activities included ballooning and archery, in 2004, Hurst Park Residents Association laid out a heritage marker close to the river, which contains a number of illustrations of the history and activities of the area.
From Commons to Lords, Volume One,1700 to 1750, from Lads to Lords – Moulsey Hurst CricketArchive re Moulsey Hurst
Andrew Bradford was an early American printer in colonial Philadelphia. He published the first newspaper in Philadelphia, The American Weekly Mercury, beginning in 1719 and he was the son of a printer, and grandson of two others. He was born to William and Elizabeth Sowle Bradford in Philadelphia, in 1692, the family moved to New York, and there he learned the printing trade from his father. In 1709, Andrew Bradford was listed was a printer in New York and he returned to Philadelphia in 1712 and opened his own print shop. On December 22,1719, he began publication of The American Weekly Mercury and this was the first newspaper in Philadelphia and enjoyed a wide circulation. He taught the print business to his nephew William Bradford and for a time employed Benjamin Franklin when Franklin first came to Philadelphia, Franklin would go on to establish a rival printing press and newspaper, the Pennsylvania Gazette, in Philadelphia. On February 13,1741, Bradford published the first issue of the American Magazine, throughout the 1720s, Bradford published political pamphlets critical of the local government, denouncing its sinking credit and supporting freedom of the press.
He published Busy-Body essays, criticisms of the colonial government penned by Franklin and Joseph Breintnall, for these political actions, Bradford was brought before a council, censured several times, and jailed once. Bradfords first wife was Dorcas Boels, who died in 1739, Bradford married Cornelia Smith, who took over his print shop and newspaper upon his death in 1742. An address delivered at the meeting of the Historical society of Pennsylvania. The history of printing in America, the Bradford Family Papers, held at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania
Croydon is a large town in south London, England,9.5 miles south of Charing Cross. The principal settlement in the London Borough of Croydon, it is one of the largest commercial districts outside Central London, with a shopping district. Its population of 52,104 at the 2011 census includes the wards of Addiscombe, Broad Green, Croydon expanded in the Middle Ages as a market town and a centre for charcoal production, leather tanning and brewing. The Surrey Iron Railway from Croydon to Wandsworth opened in 1803 and was the worlds first public railway, nineteenth century railway building facilitated Croydons growth as a commuter town for London. By the early 20th century, Croydon was an important industrial area, known for car manufacture, metal working, Croydon was amalgamated into Greater London in 1965. Road traffic is diverted away from a largely pedestrianised town centre, East Croydon is a major hub of the national railway transport system, with frequent fast services to central London and the south coast.
The town is unique in Greater London for its Tramlink light rail transport system, although less probable, theories of the names origin have been proposed. According to John Corbett Anderson, The earliest mention of Croydon is in the joint will of Beorhtric and Aelfswth, in this Anglo-Saxon document the name is spelt Crogdaene. Crog was, and still is, the Norse or Danish word for crooked, which is expressed in Anglo-Saxon by crumb, from the Danish came our crook and crooked. This term accurately describes the locality, it is a crooked or winding valley, in reference to the valley runs in an oblique. However, there was no long-term Danish occupation in Surrey, which was part of Wessex, and Danish-derived nomenclature is highly unlikely. The town lies on the line of the Roman road from London to Portslade, later, in the 5th to 7th centuries, a large pagan Saxon cemetery was situated on what is now Park Lane, although the extent of any associated settlement is unknown. By the late Saxon period Croydon was the hub of an estate belonging to the Archbishops of Canterbury, the church and the archbishops manor house occupied the area still known as Old Town.
Croydon appears in Domesday Book as Croindene, held by Archbishop Lanfranc and its Domesday assets were,16 hides and 1 virgate,1 church,1 mill worth 5s,38 ploughs,8 acres of meadow, woodland worth 200 hogs. The church had established in the middle Saxon period, and was probably a minster church. A charter issued by King Coenwulf of Mercia refers to a council that had taken place close to the monasterium of Croydon, an Anglo-Saxon will made in about 960 is witnessed by Elfsies, priest of Croydon, and the church is mentioned in Domesday Book. The will of John de Croydon, dated 6 December 1347, includes a bequest to the church of S John de Croydon, the church still bears the arms of Archbishop Courtenay and Archbishop Chichele, believed to have been its benefactors. In 1276 Archbishop Robert Kilwardby acquired a charter for a market
Marylebone Cricket Club
Marylebone Cricket Club is a cricket club in London, founded in 1787. It owns, and is based at, Lords in St Johns Wood, MCC was formerly the governing body of cricket both in England and Wales as well as worldwide. In 1993 many of its functions were transferred to the International Cricket Council and its English governance passed to the Test. MCC revised the Laws of Cricket in 1788 and continues to reissue them, since its foundation, the club has raised its own teams which are essentially occasional and have never taken part in any formal competition. Depending on the quality of the opposition in any match, MCC teams have held important match status from 1787 to 1894. MCC has never played in a List A match, MCC teams play many matches against minor opposition and, on these occasions, they relinquish their first-class status. Traditionally, to mark the beginning of each English season in April, MCC plays the reigning County Champions at Lords, the exact date of MCCs foundation is lost but seems to have been sometime in the late spring or the summer of 1787.
Many of its members became dissatisfied with the surroundings and complained that the site was too public. They asked Thomas Lord, a bowler at the White Conduit, to secure a more private venue within easy distance of London. When Lord opened his new ground in May 1787, the White Conduit moved there, there was a match at Lords starting on 30 July 1787 titled Marylebone Cricket Club v White Conduit Club. The England touring team wore the red and yellow stripes of the Marylebone Cricket Club as their colours for the last time on the tour to New Zealand in 1996/97. The true provenance of MCCs colours is unknown, but its players often turned out sporting Sky Blue, until well into the 19th century. Another theory, which chimes with the origins, is that MCC borrowed its colours from the livery colours of a founding patron, Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond. Although MCC remains the framer and copyright holder of the Laws of Cricket, in recent times the ICC has begun instituting changes to match regulations without much consultation with MCC.
Also, in moving its location from Lords to Dubai, the ICC gave a signal of breaking with the past and from MCC, changes to the laws of cricket are still made by the MCC. Any changes to these require a resolution of the MCC committee. MCC has long had an involvement in coaching the game of cricket. As of 2013 the clubs head coach Mark Alleyne heads an operation involving the running of an indoor-cricket school