The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Christian VI of Denmark
Christian VI was King of Denmark and Norway from 1730-46. He was the first king of the Oldenburg dynasty to refrain from entering in any war and he was married to Sophia Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach and was the father of Frederick V. His chosen motto was deo et populo, from 1706, Christian came to understand Danish but used German for everyday speaking and writing. He got an education and acquired more knowledge than his father and grandfather. As Crown Prince he was allowed by his father to find a wife by himself, Sophia Magdalene came from a minor margraviate of the Hohenzollern dynasty where able consciousness was inversely proportional to the funds, half of the land was mortgaged, and her father died young. She had 13 siblings and was considered a match for the Danish prince. In Christians letters, he describes his feelings for the princesss intense religiosity and they were married on 7 August 1721, while Christian was crown prince. The wedding was held at Pretzsch in Saxony, the king was shy and introverted by nature, and stayed away from the public.
For the first ten years of his government he consulted often with his cousin, the count took part in almost everything, from the dismissal of cooks in the Queens kitchen to determining alliance policy. He encouraged the king as long as possible to maintain the English alliance, around 1740, Count Christian Ernsts preference swung towards France and he ceased his influence. This coincided with the situation in Germany no longer allowing him, as a vassal German prince. In 1733, the couple travelled to Norway. A poem/speech by Peter Höyer was performed in his honor when he visited the city of Trondheim on 18 July, the act would be abolished in 1788. The Pietist views of King Christian influenced much of his ecclesiastical polity, on the surface the king was victorious, but both nobility and many common people secretly resisted the kings influence. This did not mean that it was without effect and it influenced much of the poetry of the age, among others, that of the great hymn writer Hans Adolph Brorson.
Another lasting result of the efforts was the introduction of mandatory confirmation in 1736. This resulted in a need for a school system, which was created by decree in 1739 and 1741. There were numerous building activities connected to Christian VI, and he was probably the greatest Danish builder of the 18th century and his queen made a notable effort
Iver Eriksen Rosenkrantz was a Danish statesman and landowner. Iver Rosenkrantz was the son of Erik Rosenkrantz, a Rosenholm Geheimrat and his father died when Iver was aged 7. He seems to have had a rigorous education, though it is uncertain where. In 1691 he came to the newly created Knight Academy in Copenhagen, three years he took on the obligatory trip to a foreign country, returning in 1697. Now an elegant young man of the world aged 23, he was described as friendly. In January 1698, he was appointed Kammerjunker to Princess Sophia Hedwig, frederick IV of Denmark sent Rosenkrantz on a diplomatic mission to Charles XII of Sweden, though he returned unsuccessfully. In 1702 he was appointed a Counsellor, he served as Danish ambassador to England 1702–1706, on his return he was appointed President of the Kommercekollegiet. During the hostility between England and France, he backed England and he was known for his patronage of Copenhagen University. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in June 1713 and he married twice, firstly Birgitte, daughter of Frederik Gersdorff, Chief Master of Ceremonies, of Ravnholt and Tølløse, and secondly Charlotte Amalie, daughter of Christen Skeel, Prefect of Vallø.
Charlotte Amalie Skeel and Rosenkrantz were the parents of Frederik Christian Rosenkrantz
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism. It was a condition of bondage, which developed primarily during the High Middle Ages in Europe, serfs were often required not only to work on the lords fields, but his mines and roads. The decline of serfdom in Western Europe has sometimes been attributed to the Black Death, Serfdom became increasingly rare in most of Western Europe after the Renaissance, but conversely, it grew strong in Central and Eastern Europe, where it had previously been less common. In Eastern Europe the institution persisted until the mid-19th century, in the Austrian Empire serfdom was abolished by the 1781 Serfdom Patent, corvée continued to exist until 1848. Serfdom was abolished in Russia in the 1860s, in Finland and Sweden, feudalism was never fully established, and serfdom did not exist, serfdom-like institutions did exist in both Denmark and its vassal Iceland. According to Joseph R. Strayer, the concept of feudalism can be applied to the societies of ancient Persia, ancient Mesopotamia, Muslim India, james Lee and Cameron Campbell describe the Chinese Qing dynasty as maintaining a form of serfdom.
Tibet is described by Melvyn Goldstein to have had serfdom until 1959, bhutan is described by Tashi Wangchuk, a Bhutanese civil servant, as abolishing serfdom officially by 1959, but Wangchuk believes less than or about 10% of poor peasants were in copyhold situations. The United Nations 1956 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery prohibits serfdom as a form of slavery, the word serf originated from the Middle French serf and can be traced further back to the Latin servus. In Late Antiquity and most of the Middle Ages, what are now called serfs were usually designated in Latin as coloni. As slavery gradually disappeared and the status of servi became nearly identical to that of the coloni. Serfs had a place in feudal society, as did barons and knights, in return for protection. Thus the manorial system exhibited a degree of reciprocity, one rationale held that a serf worked for all while a knight or baron fought for all and a churchman prayed for all, thus everyone had a place.
The serf was the worst fed and rewarded, but at least he had his place and, unlike slaves, had rights in land. A lord of the manor could not sell his serfs as a Roman might sell his slaves and this unified system preserved for the lord long-acquired knowledge of practices suited to the land. Further, a serf could not abandon his lands without permission, a freeman became a serf usually through force or necessity. Sometimes the greater physical and legal force of a local magnate intimidated freeholders or allodial owners into dependency, often a few years of crop failure, a war, or brigandage might leave a person unable to make his own way. In such a case he could strike a bargain with a lord of a manor, in exchange for protection, service was required, in cash, produce or labour, or a combination of all. These oaths bound the lord and his new serf in a feudal contract, to become a serf was a commitment that encompassed all aspects of the serfs life