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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Frequency coordination

Frequency Coordination is a technical and regulatory process that removes or mitigates radio-frequency interference between different radio systems that operate on the same frequency. Frequency coordination is a function of an administration, such as a governmental spectrum regulator, as part of a formal regulatory process under the procedures of the Radio Regulations. Before an administrations lets an operator operate a new radio communications network, it must undergo coordination in the following steps: Inform other operators about the plans Receive comments if appropriate Conduct technical discussions with priority networks Agree on technical and operational parameters Gain international recognition and protection on the Master International Frequency Register Bring the network into useThis coordination ensures that: All administrations know the technical plans of other administrations. All operators can determine if unacceptable interference to existing and planned “priority” networks is and have an opportunity to: Object Discuss and review Reach technical and operational sharing agreementsCoordination is thus bound to date of protection or priority, defined by the date when the International Telecommunication Union receives complete coordination data.

New planned networks must coordinate with all networks with an earlier date of protection but are protected against all networks with a date of protection. Planned networks acquire status under this procedure, but time limits ensure that protection does not last forever if networks are not implemented. Congress Authorizes FCC In 1982, the United States Congress provided the FCC with the authority to use frequency coordinators: Assist in developing and managing spectrum Recommend appropriate frequencies. For Public Safety frequency coordination - AASHTO APCO FCCA IMSAFor Business and special emergency - AAA AAR EWA FIT PCIA UTC

Bartley Wilson

Walter Bartley Wilson was an English lithographic artist and the founder of Cardiff City Football Club. Born in Bristol, he moved to Cardiff in 1897 where be became involved with Riverside Cricket Club. Encouraged by the increasing popularity of football, he helped found Riverside A. F. C; the club that would become Cardiff City F. C. Wilson was instrumental in the club moving from local amateur league to being a professional football club in 1910 by joining the Second Division of the Southern Football League, he led the club's efforts to secure ground on which to build a home stadium, which went on to become Ninian Park, was appointed manager in 1933 for a brief spell. Wilson was born on 3 January 1870 in Bristol; the son of Thomas Wilson, a former publican who had become a brushmaker, Sarah Hathaway, a teacher, Wilson was orphaned in his youth. He was unable to walk without using sticks. Along with his cousin, Arthur Spurll, he was brought up by his grandmother Jane Hathaway in Barossa Place, Bristol.

In 1897, Wilson moved to Cardiff. He soon became involved with the Riverside Cricket Club, he and the club's officials were worried that the cricket team would become separated during the winter months. Wilson noted. Wilson came up with the idea of forming a football team in his now adopted city of Cardiff and advertised the idea in the Riverside Pavilion; the first meeting took place at 1 Coldstream Terrace but drew a poor turnout with only five attendees. However, a second meeting drew around a dozen members and subsequently Riverside A. F. C was formed in 1899; the Committee with Bartley Wilson elected as Secretary was made up of A. J. Stone, George Pearce, Jimmy Redfern, Stanley Barrett, Andrew Sheen, E. W. Holder, Billy Canter and Frank Burfitt; the group decided on a kit of chocolate and amber quartered shirts and set an annual membership fee of 2s 6d. The club was formed too late to join the Cardiff & District League in the 1899–1900 season and instead began playing friendly matches against local sides, with their first match taking place on 7 October 1899 against Barry West End.

Wilson combined his role as club secretary alongside his day job at a local printers. He spent much of his free time at the club's headquarters, a disused stables in Mark Street less than 100 yards from his home. In 1900, the club secured admission to the Cardiff & District League to play in an organised division for the first time. Wilson oversaw the amalgamation of Riverside and Riverside Albion in 1902. Three years Cardiff was named a city by King Edward VII and Wilson applied to the South Wales and Monmouthshire Football Association to change the name of the team to Cardiff City. However, the club was deemed to be playing at too low a level to represent the city. To improve the club's status, the Committee applied for election to the South Wales Amateur League. In September 1908, Riverside A. F. C were granted permission by the SWMFA to adopt the name Cardiff City, although they were given the caveat that, should a professional club emerge in the city, the club would be required to forfeit the name.

With the new name in place, Wilson sought to capitalise on the growing popularity of the sport. However, when approached by Harry Bradshaw, the secretary of the Southern Football League, the club were forced to turn down the offer of a place in the league due to the poor facilities of their Sophia Gardens ground; the club arranged friendlies against several sides from The Football League. Wilson and the club's Committee were encouraged by the turnouts for the matches and decided to focus on securing an appropriate ground to play at, he approached Bute Estate in the hope of purchasing land at Leckwith Common but local Councillor John Mander instead offered the club a piece of land on Sloper Road with the added incentive that Cardiff Corporation would assist in the construction of the ground. The club became leaseholders of the land on 1 April 1909 and set about flattening the former rubbish tip on the site to erect a new football ground. Wilson and solicitor Norman Robertson registered Cardiff City Association Football Club Ltd as an entity on 21 April 1910 with Robertson's office listed as the club's registered address.

In 1910, Cardiff City became a professional club. Following the club's admission, club director Herbert Frew Jones credited Wilson with the club's progress from an amateur side with 12 members to a professional club in just over a decade, stating "It was always Bart, the prime mover. Cardiff City would never have been Cardiff City if it had not been for Bart". Wilson was placed in charge of the first team and secured the first transfer in the club's history by signing Jack Evans from amateur side Cwmparc for 6s. Wilson joked that Evans' fee was "all we had and it included his train fare from Treorchy!" The club appointed its first official manager soon after with Davy McDougall taking over responsibility for the first team. McDougall remained in charge for a single season before the club decided a more experienced manager was needed and appointed Fred Stewart in his place. Wilson instead took charge of the club's reserve side. In 1920, Cardiff became the first Welsh club to be elected into The Football League, joining the Second Division.

The club entered a period of success, winning promotion to the First Division in its first c

Simon the Tanner

Simon the Tanner known as Saint Simon the Shoemaker is the Coptic Orthodox saint associated with the story of the moving the Mokattam Mountain in Cairo, during the rule of the Muslim Fatimid Caliph al-Muizz Lideenillah while Abraham the Syrian was the Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. Simon the Tanner lived toward the end of the tenth century and many Coptic Christians in Egypt were engaged in handicrafts. Saint Simon worked in tanning, a craft known there till this day; this profession involved other crafts that depend on the process, from whence Simon carried several titles related to skins: Tanner, Shoemaker. According to a traditional story, Caliph al-Muizz, who reigned during 972–975 AD, used to invite religious leaders to debate in his presence. In one of those meetings in which the patriarch Abraham known as Pope Abraam, a Jew named Yaqub ibn Killis were present, Abraham got the upper hand in the debate. Plotting to take revenge, Ibn Killis quoted the verse where Jesus Christ said in Gospel of Matthew: "He replied, “Truly I tell you, if you have faith as small as a mustard seed, you can say to this mountain, ‘Move from here to there,’ and it will move.

Nothing will be impossible for you.", demanded that the Pope prove that his religion is right by means of this. After hearing ibn Killis say this, the caliph asked Abraham "What sayest thou concerning this word? Is it your gospel or not?" The patriarch answered "Yes, it is in it." After hearing Abraham answer, the caliph demanded that this miracle be performed by Abraham’s hand or else he and all the Copts would be killed by the hand of the sword. It was after hearing this that the patriarch asked for three days to complete the miracle; the story continues that Abraham compiled a group of monks and elders. He told them to all stay in the church for three days for a penance. On the morning of the third day, Abraham was praying in the Hanging Church, when he saw Mary, mother of Jesus; the Holy Virgin told him to go to the great market. She said to him, "There thou wilt find a one-eyed man carrying on his shoulder a jar full of water. Abraham listened to Mary and went to the market where he met the man the Holy Virgin spoke of.

The man was Simon the tanner, who had plucked out his eye because of a passage from the Bible: "If your right eye causes you to stumble, gouge it out and throw it away. It is better for you to lose one part of your body than for your whole body to be thrown into hell. 30 And if your right hand causes you to stumble, cut it off and throw it away. It is better for you to lose one part of your body than for your whole body to go into hell." According to the story, Simon told Abraham to go out with his priests and all his people to the mountain with the Caliph and all his soldiers. Simon told Abraham to cry out "O Lord, have mercy" three times and each time to make the sign of the cross over the mountain; the patriarch followed the words of Simon and the mountain was lifted. After the miracle was performed in the presence of the Caliph, the Pope turned left and right looking for Simon, but he had disappeared and no one could find him; the Caliph turned to Abraham and said "O Patriarch, I have recognized the correctness of your faith."

In commemoration of this miracle, the Coptic Orthodox Church observes three extra days of fasting before the beginning of the Nativity Fast. Many more details of the story are found on a Coptic website, which claims that the miracle occurred on November 27, 979 AD. During the years of 1989–91, Coptic clergymen and archaeologists searched for the relics of the 10th century tanner and saint, Simon. Simon was buried in the cemetery of al-Habash in Old Cairo. Simon’s skeleton was discovered on August 4, 1991 about one meter below the surface of the church. What was of particular interest when finding his skeleton was that the hair on his head was still intact and had not disintegrated; the hair, intact was only on the back of his skull and it was deduced that the man was bald in front and thick hair on the back of his head. In the church where Simon’s skeleton was found there was a painting that depicted the Coptic Pope Abraham and a bald-headed tanner carrying two water jars; the bald-headed man is most Simon because he was known for carrying water jars to the poor.

The painting further depicted some of the characteristics of the discovered skeleton. In a church nearby a pot was discovered and was dated to be more than 1000 years old, it is believed that this clay pot was the vessel that Simon used to carry water to the poor. The jar is now kept in the new Church of Saint Simon on Muquattam, Cairo. Coordinates: 30.030543°N 31.2765053°E / 30.030543. The Zabbaleen village where the garbage collectors of Cairo live. In 1969 the governor of Cairo decided to move all of the garbage collectors to the Mokattam. In 1987 there were 15,000 people living in the Zabbaleen village. Reaching the monastery is not an easy feat; the Monastery of Saint Simon, Aswan does not seem have any direct connection with St Simeon. It is accessible by either crossing the desert from Qubbet el-Hawa or by sailing across the Nil

Rural–urban proportional representation

Rural–urban proportional representation called Flexible District PR, is a hybrid proportional system designed by Fair Vote Canada with the intention of meeting the special challenges of Canada's geography, which includes wide-flung, sparsely populated areas. As conceived in general terms by Fair Vote Canada, the rural–urban proportional model combines the use of multi-member ridings and top-up seats to meet the different needs of both rural and urban areas, while protecting the objective of proportionality. Sweden and Iceland use similar voting models. A version of rural–urban proportional was proposed in 2018 as one of three systems which could have been adopted in British Columbia had voters decided to adopt a proportional voting system in a 2018 referendum in the province; this version of rural–urban proportional would have used single transferable vote in urban and semi-urban areas and mixed-member proportional representation in rural areas. Rural–urban proportional is the only proportional voting system proposed in BC's 2018 electoral reform referendum to include an approach used in Canada.

Alberta and Manitoba used STV in major cities and single-member ridings in rural areas to elect provincial members of the Legislative Assembly for 30 years. In a country like Canada, which has some ridings of considerable geographic size, rural–urban proportional allows for the creation of smaller multi-member ridings, or the retention of some single-member ridings, in rural areas. In more densely-populated areas, it gives voters more choice of candidates to choose from and ensures representation by a number of elected representatives from different parties or points of view; the use of ranked ballot under the single transferable vote allows voters to more express their preferences than otherwise. Rural–urban proportional was devised in response to a suggestion made by former Chief Electoral Officer Jean-Pierre Kingsley to the House of Commons Special Committee on Electoral Reform on July 7, 2016, he proposed the idea of having proportional multi-member ridings of 4–5 representatives in urban areas while retaining single-member ridings in rural areas.

A version of rural–urban proportional was proposed as one of three PR systems to be adopted in British Columbia had voters decided to adopt a proportional voting system in a 2018 referendum in the province. It was the only proportional voting system proposed in BC's 2018 electoral reform referendum to include a proportional voting system used in Canada: Alberta and Manitoba used multi-member STV in major cities to elect provincial members of the Legislative Assembly for 30 years from the 1920s to the 1950s; this approach produced proportional outcomes in the cities where STV was used, but not in rural areas, which used STV's non-proportional single-member equivalent, instant-runoff voting, in single-member ridings. As a result, because rural seats comprised a large proportion of the total, the overall election results under this system were not proportional. Rural–urban proportional as proposed for BC would have had similar combination of two electoral systems but would use mixed-member proportional in rural areas, which would ensure proportional results province-wide.

As conceived by Fair Vote Canada, rural–urban proportional requires the incorporation of fewer top-up seats compared to MMP because the use of multi-member ridings would include a more proportional base to begin with. It is estimated that only 10–15% top-up seats would be needed, versus 40% under MMP; the inclusion of the rural–urban proportional option in the BC referendum reflects lessons learned from previous referendums in British Columbia and other Canadian jurisdictions with respect to concerns about proposed systems requiring vast rural ridings to achieve proportionality. Rural–urban PR as envisaged for BC is a hybrid of two electoral options for achieving proportional representation: STV and MMP. Urban areas would use the single transferable vote for elections and rural areas would use the mixed-member proportional system. In urban and semi-urban areas using STV, existing urban ridings would join together to form multi-member ridings and electing 3–7 MLAs using ranked ballot; the candidates elected would reflect the popular vote of the voters in these larger, multi-member ridings.

The use of a ranked ballot permits a high degree of voter choice by permitting voters to rank preferences for multiple candidates. For urban and semi-urban voters, this makes rural–urban proportional similar to BC-STV. In rural ridings using MMP, voters would have two votes: one to elect their local MLA, another that would be used to elect a regional MLA to ensure the proportionality of overall results in rural regions, their first vote on the ballot would be used to elect a local MLA in the same way as the current first-past-the-post electoral system: the candidate with the most votes would be elected. The second vote would be used in either an open list or closed list system in which voters select either a candidate or party to represent them at a regional level. However, it is expected; these regional MLAs are used as "top-ups" so that overall proportionality is achieved in rural regional areas, given the lack of proportionality that results from first-past-the-post elections. Top-up MLAs would be elected using regional party lists.

A commitment has been made that no region will lose ridings under any of the three proposed electoral systems in the 2018 electoral reform referendum. Rural–urban proportional was one of three "made-in-Canada" systems endorsed by Fair Vote Canada in its submission to the 2016 Special Parliamentary Committee on Electoral

2005 Al-Anbar CH-53E crash

The 2005 Al-Anbar CH-53E crash refers to an aviation accident which occurred on January 26, 2005 when a United States Marine Corps CH-53E Super Stallion helicopter crashed while ferrying U. S. military personnel in the Al-Anbar province of western Iraq, near the town of Ar-Rutbah. All thirty-one troops aboard the helicopter died in the crash which made it the deadliest single incident for U. S. troops during the Iraq War. The accident took place while coalition forces were trying to secure the country ahead of the January 2005 Iraqi parliamentary election slated to take place that month; the cause of the crash was determined to be the pilots becoming disoriented when they flew into a sandstorm The CH-53E Super Stallion first entered service in 1981, becoming the largest and heaviest helicopter in the inventory of the United States military. Its three gas turbine engines gave the helicopter a superior amount of thrust capability and allowed it to become the workhorse of the U. S. Marine Corps, its primary operator.

U. S. Forces in Iraq were at the time facing increasing opposition to its unchallenged air superiority. Insurgent forces were targeting coalition aircraft American helicopters which provided ample targets. In November 2003, a CH-47 Chinook helicopter was shot down near Fallujah by a shoulder-fired missile, killing 16 American troops. In 2004, a total of 13 U. S. helicopters were brought down by enemy ground fire over Iraq. The increasing prevalence of ground fire led American forces to change their tactics, helicopters began flying low and predominantly at night to avoid drawing fire. Another threat to U. S. helicopters in Iraq was sand. The arid desert environment led many U. S. aircraft to become contaminated with large quantities of sand, affecting aircraft performance and overall mechanical well-being as well as posing a threat to pilots who can be blinded during landing operations. At an October 2003 hearing of the House Armed Services Committee, Representative Joel Hefley, the chairman, said the typical Super Stallion returning from service in Afghanistan and Iraq was found to have 150 pounds of sand spread throughout its interior.

At 1:20am AST on 26 January 2005 a CH-53E Super Stallion helicopter, code named Sampson 22 from Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron 361 was ferrying a platoon of U. S. Marines from the 3rd Marine Division in Al-Anbar province, Iraq near the town of Ar-Rutbah, about seventy miles from the Jordanian border when it encountered a sandstorm. Sampson 22's pilots, Captain Paul C. Alaniz, 32, Captain Lyle L. Gordon, 31, became disoriented in the storm and did not realize the helicopter was banking to the left when it crashed into the ground. Of the four crew and 27 passengers, of which all but one were U. S. Marines, all were killed. General John Abizaid, commander of US troops in Iraq, said the helicopter was on "a routine mission in support of the elections"; the helicopter was carrying the troops to secure a polling site in preparation for the January 2005 Iraqi parliamentary elections set to take place four days from the day of the crash. At 10:00am the same day of the crash, the Marines confirmed the loss of all thirty-one aboard the helicopter.

The helicopter crash was the deadliest loss of American troops in a single incident of the entire Iraq War and as a result January 26, 2005 became the deadliest day for U. S. troops during the war since six more American troops were killed throughout the country on that day. Captain Norman T. Day, the mishap CH-53E's wingman, was relieved of flying duty as a result of the crash and faced the threat of charges of dereliction of duty after it was revealed that he was responsible for providing updated weather information for the flight. A redacted 400 page report cited causes such as spatial disorientation, overconfidence in the use of night-vision goggles, pilot error in addition to the poor weather conditions. In a statement on January 26, President George W. Bush paid condolences to the men killed in the crash in a larger statement about the Iraqi elections stating "The story today is going to be discouraging to the American people," Bush said at the White House. "I understand that. We value life.

And we mourn when soldiers lose their life. And—but it is the long-term objective, vital, and, to spread freedom. Otherwise, the Middle East will be—will continue to be a cauldron of resentment and hate, a recruiting ground for those who have this vision of the world, the exact opposite of ours" and "Anytime we lose lives, it is a sad moment."