1.
1735 in science
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The year 1735 in science and technology involved some significant events. July 11 - Pluto enters a period inside the orbit of Neptune. Carl Linnaeus publishes his Systema Naturae, cobalt is discovered and isolated by Georg Brandt. This is the first metal discovered since ancient times, may – French Geodesic Mission sets out for Ecuador. Leonhard Euler solves the Basel problem, first posed by Pietro Mengoli in 1644, may 22 – George Hadley publishes the first explanation of the trade winds

2.
1741 in science
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The year 1741 in science and technology involved some significant events. August 29 – Pluto reached perihelion, december 11 – a Fire-ball and explosion heard over southern England, about 11 a. m. a countryman. Saw a flash of Lightening Before he heard the Noise, took its Course to the East. It divided into Two Heads left a Train of Smoke. which continued ascending for 20 minutes, the description is reminiscent of the Chelyabinsk meteor of 2013. Anders Celsius establishes the Uppsala Astronomical Observatory, pehr Wilhelm Wargentin publishes his first paper on the moons of Jupiter, in the Acta of the Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala. Edmund Weaver publishes The British Telescope, Being an Ephemeris of the Coelestial Motions, johann Jacob Dillenius publishes Historia Muscorum, a significant work on cryptogams. May – Vitus Bering sets out from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky to map the coasts of Siberia, july 15 – Alexei Chirikov sights land in Southeast Alaska. He sends some men ashore in a longboat, making them the first Europeans to visit Alaska, nicolas Andry publishes Orthopédie, giving a name to the discipline of orthopedics. December 25 – Anders Celsius proposes a centigrade temperature scale, on the return voyage he discovers Stellers sea cow

3.
1730s in archaeology
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The decade of the 1730s in archaeology involved some significant events. 1738, Herculaneum is rediscovered, buried in volcanic ash near Pompeii,1732, John Horsley - Britannia Romana. 1735, Prospero Alpini - Historiæ Ægypti Naturalis,1736, Francis Drake - Eboracum 1731, December 8 - Antiquarian John Freeman buries a time capsule in the grounds of his house at Fawley Court in England

4.
1736 in architecture
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Karlskirche in Vienna, designed by Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, is completed by his son, Joseph Emanuel Fischer von Erlach. Melk Abbey in Austria, designed by Jakob Prandtauer, is completed, town church of Piaseczno in Poland, designed by Carl Frederick Pöppelmann, is built. Rebuilt church of St George the Martyr Southwark in London, designed by John Price, is completed, rebuilt St Swithuns Church, Worcester, England, designed by Thomas and Edward Woodward, is completed. Rebuilt Reformed Church, Șimleu Silvaniei in Romania is completed and consecrated, reconstruction of church of San Marcuola on the Grand Canal in Venice, designed by Antonio Gaspari, is completed by Giorgio Massari. Church and Convent of Capuchins in Antigua Guatemala is consecrated, khan Sulayman Pasha in Damascus is completed. Đình Bảng communal house in Vietnam is completed, roskilde Royal Mansion, designed by Lauritz de Thurah, is completed. Hermitage Hunting Lodge, designed by Lauritz de Thurah, is completed, scots Mining Company House at Leadhills in Scotland, attributed to William Adam, is built. North wing of house at Bregentved on the Danish island of Zealand, the Burroughs Building at Peterhouse, Cambridge, England, designed by James Burrough, is built. York House, St Jamess Palace, London, is built, marschall Palais in Wilhelmstraße, Berlin, designed by Philipp Gerlach, is built

5.
Science
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Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. The formal sciences are often excluded as they do not depend on empirical observations, disciplines which use science, like engineering and medicine, may also be considered to be applied sciences. However, during the Islamic Golden Age foundations for the method were laid by Ibn al-Haytham in his Book of Optics. In the 17th and 18th centuries, scientists increasingly sought to formulate knowledge in terms of physical laws, over the course of the 19th century, the word science became increasingly associated with the scientific method itself as a disciplined way to study the natural world. It was during this time that scientific disciplines such as biology, chemistry, Science in a broad sense existed before the modern era and in many historical civilizations. Modern science is distinct in its approach and successful in its results, Science in its original sense was a word for a type of knowledge rather than a specialized word for the pursuit of such knowledge. In particular, it was the type of knowledge which people can communicate to each other, for example, knowledge about the working of natural things was gathered long before recorded history and led to the development of complex abstract thought. This is shown by the construction of calendars, techniques for making poisonous plants edible. For this reason, it is claimed these men were the first philosophers in the strict sense and they were mainly speculators or theorists, particularly interested in astronomy. In contrast, trying to use knowledge of nature to imitate nature was seen by scientists as a more appropriate interest for lower class artisans. A clear-cut distinction between formal and empirical science was made by the pre-Socratic philosopher Parmenides, although his work Peri Physeos is a poem, it may be viewed as an epistemological essay on method in natural science. Parmenides ἐὸν may refer to a system or calculus which can describe nature more precisely than natural languages. Physis may be identical to ἐὸν and he criticized the older type of study of physics as too purely speculative and lacking in self-criticism. He was particularly concerned that some of the early physicists treated nature as if it could be assumed that it had no intelligent order, explaining things merely in terms of motion and matter. The study of things had been the realm of mythology and tradition, however. Aristotle later created a less controversial systematic programme of Socratic philosophy which was teleological and he rejected many of the conclusions of earlier scientists. For example, in his physics, the sun goes around the earth, each thing has a formal cause and final cause and a role in the rational cosmic order. Motion and change is described as the actualization of potentials already in things, while the Socratics insisted that philosophy should be used to consider the practical question of the best way to live for a human being, they did not argue for any other types of applied science

6.
Technology
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Technology is the collection of techniques, skills, methods and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, the human species use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The steady progress of technology has brought weapons of ever-increasing destructive power. It has helped develop more advanced economies and has allowed the rise of a leisure class, many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earths environment. Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and raise new questions of the ethics of technology, examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, and the challenges of bioethics. Philosophical debates have arisen over the use of technology, with disagreements over whether technology improves the condition or worsens it. The use of the technology has changed significantly over the last 200 years. Before the 20th century, the term was uncommon in English, the term was often connected to technical education, as in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The term technology rose to prominence in the 20th century in connection with the Second Industrial Revolution, the terms meanings changed in the early 20th century when American social scientists, beginning with Thorstein Veblen, translated ideas from the German concept of Technik into technology. In German and other European languages, a distinction exists between technik and technologie that is absent in English, which translates both terms as technology. By the 1930s, technology referred not only to the study of the industrial arts, dictionaries and scholars have offered a variety of definitions. Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 Real World of Technology lecture, gave another definition of the concept, it is practice, the way we do things around here. The term is used to imply a specific field of technology, or to refer to high technology or just consumer electronics. Bernard Stiegler, in Technics and Time,1, defines technology in two ways, as the pursuit of life by other than life, and as organized inorganic matter. Technology can be most broadly defined as the entities, both material and immaterial, created by the application of mental and physical effort in order to some value. In this usage, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems and it is a far-reaching term that may include simple tools, such as a crowbar or wooden spoon, or more complex machines, such as a space station or particle accelerator. Tools and machines need not be material, virtual technology, such as software and business methods. W. Brian Arthur defines technology in a broad way as a means to fulfill a human purpose

7.
Charles Marie de La Condamine
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Charles Marie de La Condamine was a French explorer, geographer, and mathematician. He spent ten years in present-day Ecuador measuring the length of a degree latitude at the equator, furthermore he was a contributor to the Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers. Charles Marie de La Condamine was born in Paris as a son of parents, Charles de La Condamine. He studied at the Collège Louis-le-Grand where he was trained in humanities as well as in mathematics, after finishing his studies, he enlisted in the army and fought in the war against Spain. After returning from the war, he acquainted with scientific circles in Paris. On 12 December 1730 he became a member of the Académie des Sciences and was appointed Assistant Chemist at the Academy, the next year he sailed with the Levant Company to Constantinople, where he stayed five months. After returning to Paris, La Condamine submitted in November 1732 a paper to the Academy entitled Mathematical and Physical Observations made during a Visit of the Levant in 1731 and 1732. Three years later he joined an expedition to present-day Ecuador which had the aim of testing a hypothesis of Isaac Newton, Newton had posited that the Earth is not a perfect sphere, but bulges around the equator and is flattened at the poles. Newtons opinion had raised a controversy among French scientists. On 16 May 1735, La Condamine sailed from La Rochelle accompanied by Godin, Bouguer, after stopovers in Martinique, Saint-Domingue, and Cartagena, they came to Panama where they crossed the continent. Finally the expedition arrived at the Pacific port of Manta, La Condamines associations with his colleagues were unhappy. He joined the group again on 4 June 1736 in the city of Quito, La Condamine is credited with introducing samples of rubber to the Académie Royale des Sciences of France in 1736. In 1751, he presented a paper by François Fresneau to the Académie which described many of the properties of rubber and this has been referred to as the first scientific paper on rubber. The scientists spent a month performing triangulation measurements in the Yaruqui plains — from 3 October to 3 November 1736 —, after they had come back to Quito, they found that subsidies expected from Paris had not arrived. La Condamine, who had taken precautions and had made a deposit on a bank in Lima and he prolonged this journey somewhat to study the cinchona tree with its medicinally active bark, the tree being hardly known in Europe. After returning to Quito on 20 June 1737, he found that Godin refused to disclose his results, the two men continued with their length measurements in the mountainous and inaccessible region close to Quito. When in December 1741 Bouguer detected an error in a calculation of La Condamines, however, working separately, the two completed their project in May 1743. Insufficient funds prevented La Condamine from returning to France directly, thus La Condamine chose to return by way of the Amazon River, a route which is longer and more dangerous

8.
Rubber
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Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water. Malaysia and Indonesia are two of the leading rubber producers, forms of polyisoprene that are used as natural rubbers are classified as elastomers. Currently, rubber is harvested mainly in the form of the latex from the tree or others. The latex is a sticky, milky colloid drawn off by making incisions in the bark, the latex then is refined into rubber ready for commercial processing. In major areas, latex is allowed to coagulate in the collection cup, the coagulated lumps are collected and processed into dry forms for marketing. Natural rubber is used extensively in many applications and products, either alone or in combination with other materials, in most of its useful forms, it has a large stretch ratio and high resilience, and is extremely waterproof. The major commercial source of rubber latex is the Pará rubber tree. This species is preferred because it grows well under cultivation, a properly managed tree responds to wounding by producing more latex for several years. Congo rubber, formerly a source of rubber, came from vines in the genus Landolphia. These cannot be cultivated, and the drive to collect latex from wild plants was responsible for many of the atrocities committed under the Congo Free State. The latex exhibits the quality as the natural rubber from rubber trees. In the wild types of dandelion, latex content is low, in Nazi Germany, research projects tried to use dandelions as a base for rubber production, but failed. In collaboration with Continental Tires, IME began a pilot facility, many other plants produce forms of latex rich in isoprene polymers, though not all produce usable forms of polymer as easily as the Pará. Some of them require more processing to produce anything like usable rubber. Some produce other desirable materials, for example gutta-percha and chicle from Manilkara species, the term gum rubber is sometimes applied to the tree-obtained version of natural rubber in order to distinguish it from the synthetic version. The first use of rubber was by the cultures of Mesoamerica. The earliest archeological evidence of the use of latex from the Hevea tree comes the Olmec culture. The Pará rubber tree is indigenous to South America, charles Marie de La Condamine is credited with introducing samples of rubber to the Académie Royale des Sciences of France in 1736

9.
Ecuador
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Ecuador also includes the Galápagos Islands in the Pacific, about 1,000 kilometres west of the mainland. What is now Ecuador was home to a variety of Amerindian groups that were incorporated into the Inca Empire during the 15th century. The territory was colonized by Spain during the 16th century, achieving independence in 1820 as part of Gran Colombia, Spanish is the official language and is spoken by a majority of the population, though 13 Amerindian languages are also recognized, including Quichua and Shuar. The capital city is Quito, while the largest city is Guayaquil, in reflection of the countrys rich cultural heritage, the historical center of Quito was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1978. Cuenca, the third-largest city, was declared a World Heritage Site in 1999 as an outstanding example of a planned. Ecuador has an economy that is highly dependent on commodities, namely petroleum. The country is classified as a medium-income country, Ecuador is a democratic presidential republic. The new constitution of 2008 is the first in the world to recognize legally enforceable Rights of Nature, Ecuador is also known for its rich ecology, hosting many endemic plants and animals, such as those of the Galápagos Islands. It is one of 17 megadiverse countries in the world, various peoples had settled in the area of the future Ecuador before the arrival of the Incas. They developed different languages while emerging as unique ethnic groups, even though their languages were unrelated, these groups developed similar groups of cultures, each based in different environments. Over time these groups began to interact and intermingle with each other so that groups of families in one area became one community or tribe, with a similar language and culture. Many civilizations arose in Ecuador, such as the Valdivia Culture and Machalilla Culture on the coast, the Quitus, each civilization developed its own distinctive architecture, pottery, and religious interests. Eventually, through wars and marriage alliances of their leaders, a group of nations formed confederations, one region consolidated under a confederation called the Shyris, which exercised organized trading and bartering between the different regions. Its political and military came under the rule of the Duchicela blood-line. The native confederations that gave them the most problems were deported to distant areas of Peru, Bolivia, similarly, a number of loyal Inca subjects from Peru and Bolivia were brought to Ecuador to prevent rebellion. Thus, the region of highland Ecuador became part of the Inca Empire in 1463 sharing the same language, in contrast, when the Incas made incursions into coastal Ecuador and the eastern Amazon jungles of Ecuador, they found both the environment and indigenous people more hostile. Moreover, when the Incas tried to subdue them, these indigenous people withdrew to the interior, as a result, Inca expansion into the Amazon basin and the Pacific coast of Ecuador was hampered. The indigenous people of the Amazon jungle and coastal Ecuador remained relatively autonomous until the Spanish soldiers, the Amazonian people and the Cayapas of Coastal Ecuador were the only groups to resist Inca and Spanish domination, maintaining their language and culture well into the 21st century

10.
French Academy of Sciences
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The French Academy of Sciences is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research. It was at the forefront of developments in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. Currently headed by Sébastien Candel, it is one of the five Academies of the Institut de France, the Academy of Sciences makes its origin to Colberts plan to create a general academy. He chose a group of scholars who met on 22 December 1666 in the Kings library. The first 30 years of the Academys existence were relatively informal, in contrast to its British counterpart, the Academy was founded as an organ of government. The Academy was expected to remain apolitical, and to avoid discussion of religious, on 20 January 1699, Louis XIV gave the Company its first rules. The Academy received the name of Royal Academy of Sciences and was installed in the Louvre in Paris, following this reform, the Academy began publishing a volume each year with information on all the work done by its members and obituaries for members who had died. This reform also codified the method by which members of the Academy could receive pensions for their work, on 8 August 1793, the National Convention abolished all the academies. Almost all the old members of the previously abolished Académie were formally re-elected, among the exceptions was Dominique, comte de Cassini, who refused to take his seat. In 1816, the again renamed Royal Academy of Sciences became autonomous, while forming part of the Institute of France, in the Second Republic, the name returned to Académie des sciences. During this period, the Academy was funded by and accountable to the Ministry of Public Instruction, the Academy came to control French patent laws in the course of the eighteenth century, acting as the liaison of artisans knowledge to the public domain. As a result, academicians dominated technological activities in France, the Academy proceedings were published under the name Comptes rendus de lAcadémie des sciences. The Comptes rendus is now a series with seven titles. The publications can be found on site of the French National Library, in 1818 the French Academy of Sciences launched a competition to explain the properties of light. The civil engineer Augustin-Jean Fresnel entered this competition by submitting a new theory of light. Siméon Denis Poisson, one of the members of the judging committee, being a supporter of the particle-theory of light, he looked for a way to disprove it. The Poisson spot is not easily observed in every-day situations, so it was natural for Poisson to interpret it as an absurd result. However, the head of the committee, Dominique-François-Jean Arago, and he molded a 2-mm metallic disk to a glass plate with wax

11.
Pierre Louis Maupertuis
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Pierre Louis Moreau de Maupertuis was a French mathematician, philosopher and man of letters. He became the Director of the Académie des Sciences, and the first President of the Prussian Academy of Science, Maupertuis made an expedition to Lapland to determine the shape of the Earth. He is often credited with having invented the principle of least action and his work in natural history is interesting in relation to modern science, since he touched on aspects of heredity and the struggle for life. Maupertuis was born at Saint-Malo, France, to a wealthy family of merchant-corsairs. His father, Renė, had involved in a number of enterprises that were central to the monarchy so that he thrived socially and politically. The son was educated in mathematics by a tutor, Nicolas Guisnée. In 1723 he was admitted to the Académie des Sciences and his early mathematical work revolved around the vis viva controversy, for which Maupertuis developed and extended the work of Isaac Newton and argued against the waning Cartesian mechanics. In the 1730s, the shape of the Earth became a flashpoint in the battle among rival systems of mechanics, Maupertuis, based on his exposition of Newton predicted that the Earth should be oblate, while his rival Jacques Cassini measured it astronomically to be prolate. In 1736 Maupertuis acted as chief of the French Geodesic Mission sent by King Louis XV to Lapland to measure the length of a degree of arc of the meridian and his results, which he published in a book detailing his procedures, essentially settled the controversy in his favor. The book included a narrative of the expedition, and an account of the Käymäjärvi Inscriptions. On his return home he became a member of almost all the societies of Europe. He also expanded into the realm, anonymously publishing a book that was part popular science, part philosophy. In 1740 Maupertuis went to Berlin at the invitation of Frederick II of Prussia, and took part in the Battle of Mollwitz, where he was taken prisoner by the Austrians. On his release he returned to Berlin, and thence to Paris, where he was elected director of the Academy of Sciences in 1742, and in the following year was admitted into the Académie française. His position became extremely awkward with the outbreak of the Seven Years War between his country and his patrons, and his reputation suffered in both Paris and Berlin. Finding his health declining, he retired in 1757 to the south of France, but went in 1758 to Basel, Maupertuis difficult disposition involved him in constant quarrels, of which his controversies with Samuel König and Voltaire during the latter part of his life are examples. The brilliance of much of what he did was undermined by his tendency to leave work unfinished and it was the insight of genius that led him to least-action principle, but a lack of intellectual energy or rigour that prevented his giving it the mathematical foundation that Lagrange would provide. He reveals remarkable powers of perception in heredity, in understanding the mechanism by which developed, even in immunology

12.
Anders Celsius
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Anders Celsius was a Swedish astronomer, physicist and mathematician. He was professor of astronomy at Uppsala University from 1730 to 1744 and he founded the Uppsala Astronomical Observatory in 1741, and in 1742 proposed the Celsius temperature scale which bears his name. Anders Celsius was born in Uppsala, Sweden on 27 November 1701 and his family originated from Ovanåker in the province of Hälsingland. Their family estate was at Doma, also known as Höjen or Högen, the name Celsius is a latinization of the estates name. As the son of a professor, Nils Celsius, and the grandson of the mathematician Magnus Celsius. He was a mathematician from an early age. Anders Celsius studied at Uppsala University, where his father was a teacher, in 1730, Celsius published the Nova Methodus distantiam solis a terra determinandi. He observed the variations of a needle and found that larger deflections correlated with stronger auroral activity. At Nuremberg in 1733, he published a collection of 316 observations of the aurora borealis made by himself, Celsius traveled frequently in the early 1730s, including to Germany, Italy and France, when he visited most of the major European observatories. In Paris he advocated the measurement of an arc of the meridian in Lapland, in 1736, he participated in the expedition organized for that purpose by the French Academy of Sciences, led by the French mathematician Pierre Louis Maupertuis to measure a degree of latitude. The aim of the expedition was to measure the length of a degree along a meridian, close to the pole, the expeditions confirmed Isaac Newtons belief that the shape of the earth is an ellipsoid flattened at the poles. In 1738, he published the De observationibus pro figura telluris determinanda and he was successful in the request, and Celsius founded the Uppsala Astronomical Observatory in 1741. The observatory was equipped with instruments purchased during his long voyage abroad, in astronomy, Celsius began a series of observations using colored glass plates to record the magnitude of certain stars. This was the first attempt to measure the intensity of starlight with an other than the human eye. He made observations of eclipses and various objects and published catalogues of carefully determined magnitudes for some 300 stars using his own photometric system. Celsius was the first to perform and publish careful experiments aiming at the definition of a temperature scale on scientific grounds. In his Swedish paper Observations of two persistent degrees on a thermometer he reports on experiments to check that the point is independent of latitude. He determined the dependence of the boiling of water with atmospheric pressure which was even by modern-day standards

13.
Finland
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Finland, officially the Republic of Finland, is a sovereign state in Northern Europe. A peninsula with the Gulf of Finland to the south and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west, the country has borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north. Estonia is south of the country across the Gulf of Finland, Finland is a Nordic country situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia, which also includes Scandinavia. Finlands population is 5.5 million, and the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region,88. 7% of the population is Finnish people who speak Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages, the second major group are the Finland-Swedes. In terms of area, it is the eighth largest country in Europe, Finland is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, and an autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, from the late 12th century, Finland was an integral part of Sweden, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In the spirit of the notion of Adolf Ivar Arwidsson, we are not Swedes, we do not want to become Russians, let us therefore be Finns, nevertheless, in 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. In 1906, Finland became the nation in the world to give the right to vote to all adult citizens. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent, in 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Reds supported by the equally new Soviet Russia, fighting the Whites, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought repeatedly to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Salla and Kuusamo, Petsamo and some islands, Finland joined the United Nations in 1955 and established an official policy of neutrality. The Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era, Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialization, remaining a largely agrarian country until the 1950s. It rapidly developed an advanced economy while building an extensive Nordic-style welfare state, resulting in widespread prosperity, however, Finnish GDP growth has been negative in 2012–2014, with a preceding nadir of −8% in 2009. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, a large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, though freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution. The first known appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three rune-stones. Two were found in the Swedish province of Uppland and have the inscription finlonti, the third was found in Gotland, in the Baltic Sea. It has the inscription finlandi and dates from the 13th century, the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, which is mentioned first known time AD98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, in addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is also used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian

14.
Leonhard Euler
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He also introduced much of the modern mathematical terminology and notation, particularly for mathematical analysis, such as the notion of a mathematical function. He is also known for his work in mechanics, fluid dynamics, optics, astronomy, Euler was one of the most eminent mathematicians of the 18th century, and is held to be one of the greatest in history. He is also considered to be the most prolific mathematician of all time. His collected works fill 60 to 80 quarto volumes, more than anybody in the field and he spent most of his adult life in Saint Petersburg, Russia, and in Berlin, then the capital of Prussia. A statement attributed to Pierre-Simon Laplace expresses Eulers influence on mathematics, Read Euler, read Euler, Leonhard Euler was born on 15 April 1707, in Basel, Switzerland to Paul III Euler, a pastor of the Reformed Church, and Marguerite née Brucker, a pastors daughter. He had two sisters, Anna Maria and Maria Magdalena, and a younger brother Johann Heinrich. Soon after the birth of Leonhard, the Eulers moved from Basel to the town of Riehen, Paul Euler was a friend of the Bernoulli family, Johann Bernoulli was then regarded as Europes foremost mathematician, and would eventually be the most important influence on young Leonhard. Eulers formal education started in Basel, where he was sent to live with his maternal grandmother. In 1720, aged thirteen, he enrolled at the University of Basel, during that time, he was receiving Saturday afternoon lessons from Johann Bernoulli, who quickly discovered his new pupils incredible talent for mathematics. In 1726, Euler completed a dissertation on the propagation of sound with the title De Sono, at that time, he was unsuccessfully attempting to obtain a position at the University of Basel. In 1727, he first entered the Paris Academy Prize Problem competition, Pierre Bouguer, who became known as the father of naval architecture, won and Euler took second place. Euler later won this annual prize twelve times, around this time Johann Bernoullis two sons, Daniel and Nicolaus, were working at the Imperial Russian Academy of Sciences in Saint Petersburg. In November 1726 Euler eagerly accepted the offer, but delayed making the trip to Saint Petersburg while he applied for a physics professorship at the University of Basel. Euler arrived in Saint Petersburg on 17 May 1727 and he was promoted from his junior post in the medical department of the academy to a position in the mathematics department. He lodged with Daniel Bernoulli with whom he worked in close collaboration. Euler mastered Russian and settled life in Saint Petersburg. He also took on a job as a medic in the Russian Navy. The Academy at Saint Petersburg, established by Peter the Great, was intended to improve education in Russia, as a result, it was made especially attractive to foreign scholars like Euler

15.
Integral
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In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that can describe displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data. Integration is one of the two operations of calculus, with its inverse, differentiation, being the other. The area above the x-axis adds to the total and that below the x-axis subtracts from the total, roughly speaking, the operation of integration is the reverse of differentiation. For this reason, the integral may also refer to the related notion of the antiderivative. In this case, it is called an integral and is written. The integrals discussed in this article are those termed definite integrals, a rigorous mathematical definition of the integral was given by Bernhard Riemann. It is based on a procedure which approximates the area of a curvilinear region by breaking the region into thin vertical slabs. A line integral is defined for functions of two or three variables, and the interval of integration is replaced by a curve connecting two points on the plane or in the space. In a surface integral, the curve is replaced by a piece of a surface in the three-dimensional space and this method was further developed and employed by Archimedes in the 3rd century BC and used to calculate areas for parabolas and an approximation to the area of a circle. A similar method was developed in China around the 3rd century AD by Liu Hui. This method was used in the 5th century by Chinese father-and-son mathematicians Zu Chongzhi. The next significant advances in integral calculus did not begin to appear until the 17th century, further steps were made in the early 17th century by Barrow and Torricelli, who provided the first hints of a connection between integration and differentiation. Barrow provided the first proof of the theorem of calculus. Wallis generalized Cavalieris method, computing integrals of x to a power, including negative powers. The major advance in integration came in the 17th century with the independent discovery of the theorem of calculus by Newton. The theorem demonstrates a connection between integration and differentiation and this connection, combined with the comparative ease of differentiation, can be exploited to calculate integrals. In particular, the theorem of calculus allows one to solve a much broader class of problems. Equal in importance is the mathematical framework that both Newton and Leibniz developed

16.
Calculus
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Calculus is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations. It has two branches, differential calculus, and integral calculus, these two branches are related to each other by the fundamental theorem of calculus. Both branches make use of the notions of convergence of infinite sequences. Generally, modern calculus is considered to have developed in the 17th century by Isaac Newton. Today, calculus has widespread uses in science, engineering and economics, Calculus is a part of modern mathematics education. A course in calculus is a gateway to other, more advanced courses in mathematics devoted to the study of functions and limits, Calculus has historically been called the calculus of infinitesimals, or infinitesimal calculus. Calculus is also used for naming some methods of calculation or theories of computation, such as calculus, calculus of variations, lambda calculus. The ancient period introduced some of the ideas that led to integral calculus, the method of exhaustion was later discovered independently in China by Liu Hui in the 3rd century AD in order to find the area of a circle. In the 5th century AD, Zu Gengzhi, son of Zu Chongzhi, indian mathematicians gave a non-rigorous method of a sort of differentiation of some trigonometric functions. In the Middle East, Alhazen derived a formula for the sum of fourth powers. He used the results to carry out what would now be called an integration, Cavalieris work was not well respected since his methods could lead to erroneous results, and the infinitesimal quantities he introduced were disreputable at first. The formal study of calculus brought together Cavalieris infinitesimals with the calculus of finite differences developed in Europe at around the same time, pierre de Fermat, claiming that he borrowed from Diophantus, introduced the concept of adequality, which represented equality up to an infinitesimal error term. The combination was achieved by John Wallis, Isaac Barrow, and James Gregory, in other work, he developed series expansions for functions, including fractional and irrational powers, and it was clear that he understood the principles of the Taylor series. He did not publish all these discoveries, and at this time infinitesimal methods were considered disreputable. These ideas were arranged into a calculus of infinitesimals by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. He is now regarded as an independent inventor of and contributor to calculus, unlike Newton, Leibniz paid a lot of attention to the formalism, often spending days determining appropriate symbols for concepts. Leibniz and Newton are usually credited with the invention of calculus. Newton was the first to apply calculus to general physics and Leibniz developed much of the used in calculus today

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Fermat's little theorem
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Fermats little theorem states that if p is a prime number, then for any integer a, the number a p − a is an integer multiple of p. In the notation of modular arithmetic, this is expressed as a p ≡ a, for example, if a =2 and p =7,27 =128, and 128 −2 =7 ×18 is an integer multiple of 7. If a is not divisible by p, Fermats little theorem is equivalent to the statement that a p −1 −1 is a multiple of p. For example, if a =2 and p =7 then 26 =64 and 64 −1 =63 is thus a multiple of 7, Fermats little theorem is the basis for the Fermat primality test and is one of the fundamental results of elementary number theory. The theorem is named after Pierre de Fermat, who stated it in 1640 and it is called the little theorem to distinguish it from Fermats last theorem. Pierre de Fermat first stated the theorem in a letter dated October 18,1640, to his friend, an early use in English occurs in A. A. Albert, Modern Higher Algebra, which refers to the so-called little Fermat theorem on page 206, some mathematicians independently made the related hypothesis that 2p ≡2 if and only if p is a prime. Indeed, the if part is true, and is a case of Fermats little theorem. However, the if part of this hypothesis is false, for example,2341 ≡2. Several proofs of Fermats little theorem are known and it is frequently proved as a corollary of Eulers theorem. Fermats little theorem is a case of Eulers theorem, for any modulus n and any integer a coprime to n, we have a φ ≡1. Eulers theorem is indeed a generalization, because if n = p is a prime number, then φ = p −1. A slight generalization of Eulers theorem, which follows from it, is, if a, n, x, y are integers with n positive. This follows as x is of the form y + φk, in this form, the theorem finds many uses in cryptography and, in particular, underlies the computations used in the RSA public key encryption method. The special case with n a prime may be considered a consequence of Fermats little theorem, Fermats little theorem is also related to the Carmichael function and Carmichaels theorem, as well as to Lagranges theorem in group theory. The algebraic setting of Fermats little theorem can be generalized to finite fields, the converse of Fermats little theorem is not generally true, as it fails for Carmichael numbers. However, a stronger form of the theorem is true. The theorem is as follows, If there exists an a such that a p −1 ≡1 and this theorem forms the basis for the Lucas–Lehmer test, an important primality test

18.
Isaac Newton
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His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, first published in 1687, laid the foundations of classical mechanics. Newton also made contributions to optics, and he shares credit with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz for developing the infinitesimal calculus. Newtons Principia formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation that dominated scientists view of the universe for the next three centuries. Newtons work on light was collected in his influential book Opticks. He also formulated a law of cooling, made the first theoretical calculation of the speed of sound. Newton was a fellow of Trinity College and the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, politically and personally tied to the Whig party, Newton served two brief terms as Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge, in 1689–90 and 1701–02. He was knighted by Queen Anne in 1705 and he spent the last three decades of his life in London, serving as Warden and Master of the Royal Mint and his father, also named Isaac Newton, had died three months before. Born prematurely, he was a child, his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug. When Newton was three, his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband, the Reverend Barnabas Smith, leaving her son in the care of his maternal grandmother, Newtons mother had three children from her second marriage. From the age of twelve until he was seventeen, Newton was educated at The Kings School, Grantham which taught Latin and Greek. He was removed from school, and by October 1659, he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, Henry Stokes, master at the Kings School, persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. Motivated partly by a desire for revenge against a bully, he became the top-ranked student. In June 1661, he was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge and he started as a subsizar—paying his way by performing valets duties—until he was awarded a scholarship in 1664, which guaranteed him four more years until he would get his M. A. He set down in his notebook a series of Quaestiones about mechanical philosophy as he found it, in 1665, he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became calculus. Soon after Newton had obtained his B. A. degree in August 1665, in April 1667, he returned to Cambridge and in October was elected as a fellow of Trinity. Fellows were required to become ordained priests, although this was not enforced in the restoration years, however, by 1675 the issue could not be avoided and by then his unconventional views stood in the way. Nevertheless, Newton managed to avoid it by means of a special permission from Charles II. A and he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1672. Newtons work has been said to distinctly advance every branch of mathematics then studied and his work on the subject usually referred to as fluxions or calculus, seen in a manuscript of October 1666, is now published among Newtons mathematical papers

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Method of Fluxions
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Method of Fluxions is a book by Isaac Newton. The book was completed in 1671, and published in 1736, fluxion is Newtons term for a derivative. He originally developed the method at Woolsthorpe Manor during the closing of Cambridge during the Great Plague of London from 1665 to 1667, leibniz however published his discovery of differential calculus in 1684, nine years before Newton formally published his fluxion notation form of calculus in part during 1693. For a period of time encompassing Newtons working life, the discipline of analysis was a subject of controversy in the mathematical community, instead, analysts were often forced to invoke infinitesimal, or infinitely small, quantities to justify their algebraic manipulations. Some of Newtons mathematical contemporaries, such as Isaac Barrow, were skeptical of such techniques. Method of Fluxions at the Internet Archive

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Differential calculus
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In mathematics, differential calculus is a subfield of calculus concerned with the study of the rates at which quantities change. It is one of the two divisions of calculus, the other being integral calculus. The primary objects of study in differential calculus are the derivative of a function, related notions such as the differential, the derivative of a function at a chosen input value describes the rate of change of the function near that input value. The process of finding a derivative is called differentiation, geometrically, the derivative at a point is the slope of the tangent line to the graph of the function at that point, provided that the derivative exists and is defined at that point. For a real-valued function of a real variable, the derivative of a function at a point generally determines the best linear approximation to the function at that point. Differential calculus and integral calculus are connected by the theorem of calculus. Differentiation has applications to nearly all quantitative disciplines, for example, in physics, the derivative of the displacement of a moving body with respect to time is the velocity of the body, and the derivative of velocity with respect to time is acceleration. The derivative of the momentum of a body equals the applied to the body. The reaction rate of a reaction is a derivative. In operations research, derivatives determine the most efficient ways to transport materials, derivatives are frequently used to find the maxima and minima of a function. Equations involving derivatives are called differential equations and are fundamental in describing natural phenomena, derivatives and their generalizations appear in many fields of mathematics, such as complex analysis, functional analysis, differential geometry, measure theory, and abstract algebra. Suppose that x and y are real numbers and that y is a function of x and this relationship can be written as y = f. If f is the equation for a line, then there are two real numbers m and b such that y = mx + b. In this slope-intercept form, the m is called the slope and can be determined from the formula, m = change in y change in x = Δ y Δ x. It follows that Δy = m Δx, a general function is not a line, so it does not have a slope. Geometrically, the derivative of f at the point x = a is the slope of the tangent line to the function f at the point a and this is often denoted f ′ in Lagranges notation or dy/dx|x = a in Leibnizs notation. Since the derivative is the slope of the approximation to f at the point a. If every point a in the domain of f has a derivative, for example, if f = x2, then the derivative function f ′ = dy/dx = 2x

21.
Thomas Bayes
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Thomas Bayes was an English statistician, philosopher and Presbyterian minister who is known for having formulated a specific case of the theorem that bears his name, Bayes theorem. Bayes never published what would become his most famous accomplishment. Thomas Bayes was the son of London Presbyterian minister Joshua Bayes and he came from a prominent nonconformist family from Sheffield. In 1719, he enrolled at the University of Edinburgh to study logic, on his return around 1722, he assisted his father at the latters chapel in London before moving to Tunbridge Wells, Kent, around 1734. There he was minister of the Mount Sion chapel, until 1752, in his later years he took a deep interest in probability. Others speculate he was motivated to rebut David Humes argument against believing in miracles on the evidence of testimony in An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding and his work and findings on probability theory were passed in manuscript form to his friend Richard Price after his death. By 1755 he was ill and by 1761 had died in Tunbridge Wells and he was buried in Bunhill Fields burial ground in Moorgate, London, where many nonconformists lie. Bayes solution to a problem of probability was presented in An Essay towards solving a Problem in the Doctrine of Chances which was read to the Royal Society in 1763 after Bayes death. Richard Price shepherded the work through this presentation and its publication in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London the following year and this was an argument for using a uniform prior distribution for a binomial parameter and not merely a general postulate. This essay contains a statement of a case of Bayes theorem. In the first decades of the century, many problems concerning the probability of certain events. For example, given a number of white and black balls in an urn. Or the converse, given one or more balls has been drawn, what can be said about the number of white. These are sometimes called inverse probability problems, Bayes Essay contains his solution to a similar problem posed by Abraham de Moivre, author of The Doctrine of Chances. In addition, a paper by Bayes on asymptotic series was published posthumously, Bayesian probability is the name given to several related interpretations of probability as an amount of epistemic confidence – the strength of beliefs, hypotheses etc. –, rather than a frequency. This allows the application of probability to all sorts of propositions rather than just ones that come with a reference class, Bayesian has been used in this sense since about 1950. Since its rebirth in the 1950s, advancements in computing technology have allowed scientists from many disciplines to pair traditional Bayesian statistics with random walk techniques, the use of the Bayes theorem has been extended in science and in other fields. Within modern utility theory, the definition would result by rearranging the definition of expected utility to solve for the probability

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George Berkeley
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George Berkeley — known as Bishop Berkeley — was an Irish philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called immaterialism. Berkeley is also known for his critique of abstraction, an important premise in his argument for immaterialism, in this book, Berkeleys views were represented by Philonous, while Hylas embodies the Irish thinkers opponents, in particular John Locke. Berkeley argued against Sir Isaac Newtons doctrine of space, time and motion in De Motu. His arguments were a precursor to the views of Mach and Einstein and his last major philosophical work, Siris, begins by advocating the medicinal use of tar water and then continues to discuss a wide range of topics, including science, philosophy, and theology. Berkeley was born at his home, Dysart Castle, near Thomastown, County Kilkenny, Ireland, the eldest son of William Berkeley. He was educated at Kilkenny College and attended Trinity College, Dublin, earning a degree in 1704. He remained at Trinity College after completion of his degree as a tutor and his earliest publication was on mathematics, but the first that brought him notice was his An Essay towards a New Theory of Vision, first published in 1709. In the essay, Berkeley examines visual distance, magnitude, position and problems of sight, while this work raised much controversy at the time, its conclusions are now accepted as an established part of the theory of optics. For this theory, the Principles gives the exposition and the Dialogues the defence, one of his main objectives was to combat the prevailing materialism of his time. Shortly afterwards, Berkeley visited England and was received into the circle of Addison, Pope and Steele. In 1721, he took Holy Orders in the Church of Ireland, earning his doctorate in divinity, in 1721/2 he was made Dean of Dromore and, in 1724, Dean of Derry. Swift said generously that he did not grudge Berkeley his inheritance, a story that Berkeley and Marshall disregarded a condition of the inheritance that they must publish the correspondence between Swift and Vanessa is probably untrue. In 1725, he began the project of founding a college in Bermuda for training ministers and missionaries in the colony, in 1728, he married Anne Forster, daughter of John Forster, Chief Justice of the Irish Common Pleas. He then went to America on a salary of £100 per annum and he landed near Newport, Rhode Island, where he bought a plantation at Middletown – the famous Whitehall. It has been claimed that he introduced Palladianism into America by borrowing a design from Kents Designs of Inigo Jones for the door-case of his house in Rhode Island, Whitehall. He also brought to New England John Smibert, the British artist he discovered in Italy, meanwhile, he drew up plans for the ideal city he planned to build on Bermuda. He lived at the plantation while he waited for funds for his college to arrive, the funds, however, were not forthcoming, and in 1732 he left America and returned to London. While living in Londons Saville Street, he took part in efforts to create a home for the abandoned children

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Royal Hampshire County Hospital
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The Royal Hampshire County Hospital in Winchester is a District General Hospital serving much of central Hampshire. It is owned and run by the Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, the Hampshire County Hospital was founded in Winchester in 1736, but sites in the town centre proved problematic. By the mid-19th century drainage difficulties were so acute that relocation on higher ground was decided upon in 1861, Florence Nightingale was an advocate of the scheme and advised on the site and building. The eminent architect William Butterfield designed the new hospital, which opened in 1868 with sixteen in-patients, queen Victoria gave permission for the hospital to be Royal and contributed to the appeal, which raised over £34,000 to finance the project. Later additions to the include the old Outpatients Department in 1927, Nightingale Wing in 1986, Brinton Wing in 1992. The site also includes the Education Centre, Florence Portal House, although adjacent to the RHCH site the Melbury Lodge psychiatric unit is not part of the Hampshire Hospitals Foundation Trust, it is operated by Southern Health NHS Foundation Trust. The Sexual Health clinic, although part of the hospital, is located off site further down Romsey Road opposite the former Hampshire Constabulary headquarters, in 2006, Winchester and Eastleigh NHS had been pursuing Foundation Trust status and this resulted in major streamlining of hospital policies and procedures. Land was also earmarked for sale to raise revenue for the trust. This was done to allow most offices and clinics to be moved to the new Burrell Wing. At about 4pm on 9 December 2011, a fire out in the MRI Scanner Room, destroying the MRI Scanner. The A&E Department next door survived, but was closed overnight, labour Ward - with eight birthing rooms and two obstetric theaters. Nick Jonas ward - chemotherapy day unit Northbrook ward - Children and Young Peoples unit, including an area, Sophies Place. The findings of the report are summarised in the table below, ^α as opposed to the nearby St Pauls Hospital List of hospitals in England Winchester Hospital Radio

24.
Alured Clarke (priest)
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Alured Clarke was Dean of Exeter between 1741 and 1742. Bishop Charles Trimnell was his uncle, and his brother was Charles Clarke. Clarkes education began at St Pauls School, London and from 1712 to 1719 he held one of its exhibitions. On 1 April 1713 he was admitted a pensioner at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, taking the degrees of B. A.1716, M. A.1720,1728, and being elected to a fellowship in 1718. About 1720 he contested the post of Professor of Rhetoric at Gresham College and he rose rapidly in the church, by the influence of Whig relatives, he was chaplain in ordinary to George I and George II. The living of Chilbolton in Hampshire and a stall in Winchester Cathedral were bestowed on him in May 1723. He was installed as prebendary of Westminster in July 1731, and as dean of Exeter in January 1741 and his cathedral dignities, and the position of deputy clerk of the closet, were retained by him until his death. Clarke was afflicted with illness for years before his death. In 1732, he thought of applying for the position of British consul at Algiers, but he stayed England, and gradually wasted away. He was buried, without a monument, in Westminster Abbey, in politics Clarke was a Whig, his religious opinions were those of Queen Caroline of Ansbach and her spiritual adviser Samuel Clarke. Letters in Katherine Thomsons Memoirs of Viscountess Sundon show he was avid for preferment, Winchester County Hospital, the first in England outside London, was established in Hampshire in 1736, largely by Clarkes efforts, and its constitution and rules were written by him. He laid the foundation-stone of the Devon and Exeter Hospital in Exeter, of which he has called the co-founder. He also expended large sums in repair of the house at Exeter. Clarkes main literary work was An Essay towards the Character of her late Majesty, Caroline and his other works were sermons, Sermon preached at St. Pauls,25 January 1726, on the anniversary meeting of gentlemen educated at St. Pauls School. Sermon preached before the House of Commons, at St. Margarets, Westminster, Sermon preached in Winchester Cathedral, before the governors of the County Hospital, at its opening, on St. Lukes Day,18 Oct.1736. With this sermon went A Collection of Papers relating to the County Hospital at Winchester, Sermon preached before the Trustees of the Charity Schools at Exeter Cathedral,13 October 1741. Attribution This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Clarke