Secretary of State for Scotland
Her Majestys Principal Secretary of State for Scotland is the principal minister of Her Majestys Government in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland representing Scotland. He heads the Scotland Office, a government department based in London, the post was created soon after the Union of the Crowns, but was abolished in 1746, following the Jacobite rebellion. Scottish affairs thereafter were managed by the Lord Advocate until 1827, in 1885 the post of Secretary for Scotland was re-created, with the incumbent usually in the Cabinet. In 1926 this post was upgraded to a full Secretary of State appointment, the role of Secretary of State for Scotland has been diminished. A recent Scottish Secretary, Des Browne, held the post whilst simultaneously being Secretary of State for Defence, the current Secretary of State for Scotland is David Mundell. John Erskine, 22nd Earl of Mar had served as Secretary of State of an independent Scotland since 1705, following the Acts of Union 1707, he remained in office.
The post of Secretary of State for Scotland existed briefly after the Union of the Parliament of Scotland, after the rising, responsibility for Scotland lay primarily with the office of the Home Secretary, usually exercised by the Lord Advocate. The Secretary for Scotland was chief minister in charge of the Scottish Office in the United Kingdom government,1885 saw the creation of the Scottish Office and the post of Secretary for Scotland. From 1892 the Secretary for Scotland sat in cabinet, the Secretary for Scotland post was upgraded to full Secretary of State rank as Secretary of State for Scotland in 1926. All Secretaries for Scotland held the post of Keeper of the Great Seal of Scotland, the post of Keeper of the Great Seal of Scotland was held ex officio by Secretaries of State for Scotland from 1926 to 1999. Secretaries of State for Scotland since Donald Dewar have not been Keepers of the Great Seal, with the rise of the SNP in the Scottish and British parliaments and the resultant interest in Scottish Independence, the Secretary of states role has subsequently increased in prominence.
The Scotland office itself has received an increase in budget of 20% from 2013 to 2017 with a 14. 4% increase in 2015/16 alone. The UK governments website lists the Secretary of State for Scotlands responsibilities as being, The main role of the Scottish Secretary is to promote, other responsibilities include promoting partnership between the UK government and the Scottish government, and relations between the 2 Parliaments. This seeming lack of responsibility has in recent years seen calls for the scrapping of the role and the wider department of the Scottish office itself by opposition MPs
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles, the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. The union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law.
Glasgow, Scotlands largest city, was one of the worlds leading industrial cities. Other major urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee, Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europes oil capital, following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy. Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs, Scotland is a member nation of the British–Irish Council, and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels, the Late Latin word Scotia was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to Scotland north of the River Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages.
Repeated glaciations, which covered the land mass of modern Scotland. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, the groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period and it contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves, in the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill, the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, when the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. William Watt of Skaill, the laird, began an amateur excavation of the site, but after uncovering four houses
George II of Great Britain
George II was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. George was the last British monarch born outside Great Britain, he was born, after the deaths of Sophia and Anne, Queen of Great Britain, in 1714, his father George I, Elector of Hanover, inherited the British throne. In the first years of his fathers reign as king, George was associated with opposition politicians, as king from 1727, George exercised little control over British domestic policy, which was largely controlled by the Parliament of Great Britain. As elector, he spent twelve summers in Hanover, where he had direct control over government policy. He had a relationship with his eldest son, Frederick. During the War of the Austrian Succession, George participated at the Battle of Dettingen in 1743, Frederick died unexpectedly in 1751, nine years before his father, and so George II was ultimately succeeded by his grandson, George III.
For two centuries after George IIs death, history tended to him with disdain, concentrating on his mistresses, short temper. Since then, most scholars have reassessed his legacy and conclude that he held and exercised influence in foreign policy and military appointments. George was born in the city of Hanover in Germany, and was the son of George Louis, Hereditary Prince of Brunswick-Lüneburg, both of Georges parents committed adultery, and in 1694 their marriage was dissolved on the pretext that Sophia had abandoned her husband. She was confined to Ahlden House and denied access to her two children and his sister Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, who never saw their mother again. George spoke only French, the language of diplomacy and the court, until the age of four, after which he was taught German by one of his tutors, Johann Hilmar Holstein. In addition to French and German, he was schooled in English and Italian. Georges second cousin once removed, Queen Anne, ascended the thrones of England and Ireland in 1702, after his grandmother and father, George was third in line to succeed Anne in two of her three realms.
England and Scotland united in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, Georges father did not want his son to enter into a loveless arranged marriage as he had, and wanted him to have the opportunity of meeting his bride before any formal arrangements were made. Negotiations from 1702 for the hand of Princess Hedvig Sophia of Sweden, Dowager Duchess and regent of Holstein-Gottorp, the English envoy to Hanover, Edmund Poley, reported that George was so taken by the good character he had of her that he would not think of anybody else. A marriage contract was concluded by the end of July, on 22 August /2 September 1705O. S. /N. S. Caroline arrived in Hanover for her wedding, which was held the evening in the chapel at Herrenhausen. George was keen to participate in the war against France in Flanders, in early 1707, Georges hopes were fulfilled when Caroline gave birth to a son, Frederick
John Bowes, 9th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne
John Bowes, 9th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, born John Lyon, was a Scottish nobleman and peer. He was the 9th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne and one of the ancestors of Queen Elizabeth II, the Earl was famous for his appearance, he was known as the beautiful Lord Strathmore. His character was described by Jesse Foot thus, The late Earl of Strathmore was not calculated to make even a good learned woman a pleasing husband. His Lordships pursuits were always innocent and without the smallest guile, a sincere friend, a hearty Scotchman and a good bottle companion were points of his character. The Earl was the son of Thomas Lyon, 8th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, and his wife and this change of name required an Act of Parliament. The two had five children, Maria Jane Lyon, married Barrington Price, a Colonel of the British Army on 11 May 1789. John Lyon-Bowes, 10th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, Thomas Bowes-Lyon, 11th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne. From 1 October 1767 and until his death, he sat as a Scottish Representative peer in the House of Lords, on 7 March 1776, Lord Strathmore died of tuberculosis whilst at sea on his way to Portugal
Although the rioters were generally supportive of the convicted smugglers, Porteous seems to have been a somewhat overbearing official, despised by the mob and the underclasses of Edinburgh society. On 14 April 1736 three convicted smugglers, Andrew Wilson, William Hall and George Robertson, were arrested and condemned to death, halls sentence was commuted to exile, while Wilson and Robertson awaited their fate. The remaining convict, Andrew Wilson, was taken to be hanged in the Grassmarket. The body of Wilson was cut down against the wishes of the mob, after the execution the mob became violent and began to stone the City Guard. The crowd became violent and, as panic set in, Captain Porteous ordered the guard to shoot into the mob. Porteous was arrested the same afternoon and charged with murder, feelings were running high in Edinburgh and the jury unanimously found Porteous guilty of murder. He was sentenced to death, the set to take place in the Grassmarket on 8 September 1736. Porteous was imprisoned in the Tolbooth, near St Giles church, events in Scotland alarmed the government in London, and Sir Robert Walpole attempted to influence events by asking his representative in Edinburgh to become involved.
But he had miscalculated, underestimating the depth of feeling in Scotland, a formal appeal was petitioned and the execution was deferred. However, on the evening before this was due to happen, making their way across the Grassmarket to the Cowgate and up to the High Street, the mob converged on the Tolbooth, where they were eventually able to overpower the guards. Porteous was dragged from his cell up the Lawnmarket to the West Bow and down to the Grassmarket, after a short while he was dragged down and stripped of his nightgown and shirt, which was wrapped around his head before he was hauled up again. However, the mob had not tied his hands and, as he struggled free, they broke his arm and shoulder, while another attempted to set light to his naked foot. He was taken down a time and cruelly beaten before being hung up again. He was buried in Greyfriars Kirkyard, the following day, the events in Edinburgh heightened the sense of alarm in London, where the government was concerned about the threat to its management of Scotland.
In February 1737 a parliamentary inquiry was held, the House of Lords initially proposed the disbanding of the guard and removal of Netherbow Port. Eventually the only punishments enforced were a £2,000 fine imposed on the city, despite a reward of £200 being made available by the government for information, those responsible for the murder of Porteous were never found. The events surrounding the Porteous Riots form part of the chapters of the novel The Heart of Midlothian by Sir Walter Scott. The final resting place of John Porteous in Greyfriars Kirkyard had for more than two hundred years been marked by a square stone engraved with the single letter P
Royal Society of Edinburgh
The Royal Society of Edinburgh is Scotlands national academy of science and letters. It is a charity, operating on a wholly independent and non-party-political basis. As of 2014 it has more than 1,500 Fellows, the Society covers a broader selection of fields than the Royal Society of London including literature and history. Fellowship includes people from a range of disciplines – science & technology, humanities, social science, business. The Medals were instituted in 2000 by Queen Elizabeth II, whose permission is required to make a presentation, past winners include, The Lord Kelvin Medal is the Senior Prize for Physical and Informatics Sciences. It is awarded annually to a person who has achieved distinction nationally and internationally, winners receive a silver medal and are required to deliver a public lecture in Scotland. The award is named after William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, who was a mathematical physicist and engineer. Senior Prize-winners are required to have a Scottish connection but can be based anywhere in the world, the Keith medal has been historically awarded every four years for a scientific paper published in the societys scientific journals, preference being given to a paper containing a discovery.
It is awarded alternately for papers on Mathematics or Earth and Environmental Sciences, the medal was founded in 1827 as a result of a bequest by Alexander Keith of Dunottar, the first Treasurer of the Society. The prize was founded in 1855 by Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane, the cumbersome name was changed the following year to the Edinburgh Philosophical Society. Under the leadership of Prof. Thus, for the first four decades of the 19th century, by the 1850s, the society once again unified its membership under one journal. During the 19th century the society produced many scientists whose ideas laid the foundation of the modern sciences, from the 20th century onward, the society functioned not only as a focal point for Scotlands eminent scientists, but the arts and humanities. It still exists today and continues to promote research in Scotland. In February 2014, Dame Jocelyn Bell Burnell was announced as the societys first female president, taking up her position in October
Wind winnowing is an agricultural method developed by ancient cultures for separating grain from chaff. It is used to remove weevils or other pests from stored grain, the loosening of grain or seeds from the husks and straw, is the step in the chaff-removal process that comes before winnowing. In its simplest form it involves throwing the mixture into the air so that the wind blows away the lighter chaff, techniques included using a winnowing fan or using a tool on a pile of harvested grain. In Callimachus Hymn to Zeus, Adrasteia lays the infant Zeus in a golden líknon, her goat suckles him and he is given honey. In the Odyssey, the dead oracle Teiresias tells Odysseus to walk away from Ithaca with an oar until a wayfarer tells him it is a winnowing fan, and there to build a shrine to Poseidon. In Ancient China the method was improved by mechanisation with the development of the winnowing fan. This was featured in Wang Zhens book the Nong Shu of 1313 AD, ruth 3,2 Now Boaz, with whose women you have worked, is a relative of ours.
Tonight he will be winnowing barley on the threshing floor, proverbs 20,8 When a king sits on his throne to judge, he winnows out all evil with his eyes. Proverbs 20,26 A wise king winnows out the wicked, isaiah 41,16 You will winnow them, the wind will pick them up, and a gale will blow them away. But you will rejoice in the Lord and glory in the Holy One of Israel, I will bring bereavement and destruction on my people, for they have not changed their ways. Jeremiah 51,2 I will send foreigners to Babylon to winnow her and to devastate her land, in Matthew 3,12, a sentence introduces the separation of wheat and chaff by His winnowing fan is in his hand. In Saxon settlements such as one identified in Northumberland as Bedes Ad Gefrin the buildings were shown by a reconstruction to have opposed entries. In barns a draught created by the use of these opposed doorways was used in winnowing, the technique developed by the Chinese was not adopted in Europe until the 18th century, when winnowing machines used a sail fan.
The rotary winnowing fan was exported to Europe, brought there by Dutch sailors between 1700 and 1720, apparently they had obtained them from the Dutch settlement of Batavia in Java, Dutch East Indies. The Swedes imported some from south China at about the same time, until the beginning of the 18th century, no rotary winnowing fans existed in the West. The development of the winnowing barn allowed rice plantations in South Carolina to increase their yields dramatically, in 1737 Andrew Rodger, a farmer on the estate of Cavers in Roxburghshire, developed a winnowing machine for corn, called a Fanner. These were successful and the family sold them throughout Scotland for many years, as the Industrial Revolution, the winnowing process was mechanized by the invention of additional winnowing machines, such as fanning mills. Threshing Rice huller Rice pounder Sieving Winnowing engine machine Winnowing Winnowing machine The dictionary definition of winnowing at Wiktionary
John Hunter (Royal Navy officer)
Vice Admiral John Hunter was an officer of the Royal Navy, who succeeded Arthur Phillip as the second governor of New South Wales and served as such from 1795 to 1800. Both a sailor and a scholar, he explored the Parramatta River as early as 1788, as governor, he tried to combat serious abuses by the military in the face of powerful local interests led by John MacArthur. Hunters name is commemorated in historic locations such as Hunter Valley and Hunter Street, as a boy Hunter was sent to live with an uncle in the town of Lynn in Norfolk, and at Edinburgh, he received the classical education of the time. Hunter was sent to University of Edinburgh, but soon left it to join the navy as a servant to Thomas Knackston in HMS Grampus in May 1754. In 1755 he was enrolled as able seaman on HMS Centaur, became a midshipman and served on HMS Union, while aboard Neptune he was present at the Raid on Rochefort in 1757, and afterwards served during cruises off Brest in 1758 and the capture of Quebec in 1759.
Serving aboard Neptune at this time as her first lieutenant was John Jervis, Hunter passed examinations and qualified for promotion to lieutenant in February 1760. He was not, appointed lieutenant until 1780, hood gave Hunter an acting-order as master in 1768, and after passing his exams with Trinity House in 1769, Hunter had the order confirmed. His first appointment was to the 28-gun HMS Carysfort for service in the West Indies, Hunter spent his time there making charts and plans of parts of the coast and of the Spanish fortifications at Havana, which he sent back to the Admiralty. Hunter served as master of HMS Intrepid in the East Indies between 1772 and 1775, after which he became master of HMS Kent, the Kent was at this time commanded by Captain John Jervis, Hunters companion from HMS Neptune. Jervis took Hunter with him to his command, HMS Foudroyant. Also serving aboard Foudroyant at this time was Evan Nepean, the ships purser, but a leading civil servant and First Secretary to the Admiralty.
From Foudroyant Hunter was moved into HMS Eagle in 1776, at the request of Admiral Lord Howe, the American War of Independence having broken out, Hunter served under Howe for the duration of his time in command, acting virtually as master of the fleet. He was active in the Chesapeake raid and the expeditions on the Delaware, on Howes recall, by now out of favour with the Sandwich administration, Hunter was not able to have his request to be made lieutenant honoured. Instead he joined the 74-gun HMS Berwick as a volunteer in 1779, under her captain, There he received a commission from the commander in chief, Sir George Rodney. Hunter returned to England aboard the Berwick in 1781, and was present at the Battle of Dogger Bank on 5 August that year. Howe appointed him lieutenant of his flagship HMS Victory in 1782, and was advanced to first lieutenant by the time she took part in the relief of Gibraltar. Following these engagements Hunter was appointed to his first command, that of the 14-gun sloop HMS Marquis de Seignelay, the fleet was under the overall command of Commodore Arthur Phillip who was going out to found and be governor of the new colony of New South Wales.
Hunter carried a dormant commission as successor to Phillip if he should have died or was absent, the expedition arrived in Port Jackson in January 1788