Balinese saka calendar
The Balinese saka calendar is one of two calendars used on the Indonesian island of Bali. Unlike the 210-day pawukon calendar, it is based on the phases of the Moon, is the same length as the Gregorian year. Based on a lunar calendar, the saka year comprises sasih, of 30 days each. However, because the lunar cycle is shorter than 30 days, the lunar year has a length of 354 or 355 days, the calendar is adjusted to prevent it losing synchronization with the lunar or solar cycles; the months are adjusted by allocating two lunar days to one solar day every 9 weeks. This day is called ngunalatri, Sanskrit for "minus one night". To stop the Saka from lagging behind the Gregorian calendar – as happens with the Islamic calendar, an extra month, known as an intercalary month, is added after the 11th month, or after the 12th month; the length of these months is calculated according to the normal 63-day cycle. An intercalary month is added whenever necessary to prevent the final day of the 7th month, known as Tilem Kapitu, from falling in the Gregorian month of December.
The names the twelve months are taken from a mixture of Old Balinese and Sanskrit words for 1 to 12, are as follows: Kasa Karo Katiga Kapat Kalima Kanem Kapitu Kawalu Kasanga Kadasa Jyestha SadhaEach month begins the day after a new moon and has 15 days of waxing moon until the full moon 15 days of waning, ending on the new moon. Both sets of days are numbered 1 to 15; the first day of the year is the day after the first new moon in March. Note, that Nyepi falls on the first day of Kadasa, that the years of the Saka era are counted from that date; the calendar is 78 years behind the Gregorian calendar, is calculated from the beginning of the Saka Era in India. It is used alongside the 210-day Balinese pawukon calendar, Balinese festivals can be calculated according to either year; the Indian saka calendar was used for royal decrees as early as the ninth century CE. The same calendar was used in Java until Sultan Agung replaced it with the Javanese calendar in 1633; the Balinese Hindu festival of Nyepi, the day of silence, marks the start of the Saka year.
Tilem Kepitu, the last day of the 7th month, is known as Siva Ratri, is a night dedicated to the god Shiva. Devotees stay up all meditate. There are another 24 ceremonial days in the Saka year celebrated at Purnama. Eiseman, Fred B. Jr, Bali: Sekalia and Niskala Volume I: Essays on Religion and Art pp 182–185, Periplus Editions, 1989 ISBN 0-945971-03-6 Haer, Debbie Guthrie. ISBN 981 3018 496 Hobart, Angela. ISBN 0 631 17687 X Ricklefs, M. C.
The 17th century was the century that lasted from January 1, 1601, to December 31, 1700, in the Gregorian calendar. It falls into the Early Modern period of Europe and in that continent was characterized by the Baroque cultural movement, the latter part of the Spanish Golden Age, the Dutch Golden Age, the French Grand Siècle dominated by Louis XIV, the Scientific Revolution, according to some historians, the General Crisis; the greatest military conflicts were the Thirty Years' War, the Great Turkish War, the Dutch-Portuguese War. It was during this period that European colonization of the Americas began in earnest, including the exploitation of the silver deposits, which resulted in bouts of inflation as wealth was drawn into Europe. In the Islamic world, the Ottoman and Mughal empires grew in strength. In the Indian subcontinent, Mughal architecture and art reached its zenith, while the empire itself is believed to have had the world's largest economy, bigger than the entirety of Western Europe and worth 25% of global GDP.
In Japan, Tokugawa Ieyasu established the Tokugawa shogunate at the beginning of the century, beginning the Edo period. In China, the collapsing Ming dynasty was challenged by a series of conquests led by the Manchu warlord Nurhaci, which were consolidated by his son Hong Taiji and consummated by his grandson, the Shunzi Emperor, founder of the Qing dynasty. From the middle decades of the 17th century, European politics were dominated by the Kingdom of France of Louis XIV, where royal power was solidified domestically in the civil war of the Fronde; the semi-feudal territorial French nobility was weakened and subjugated to the power of an absolute monarchy through the reinvention of the Palace of Versailles from a hunting lodge to a gilded prison, in which a expanded royal court could be more kept under surveillance. With domestic peace assured, Louis XIV caused the borders of France to be expanded, it was during this century that English monarch became a symbolic figurehead and Parliament was the dominant force in government – a contrast to most of Europe, in particular France.
By the end of the century and Indians were aware of logarithms, the telescope and microscope, universal gravitation, Newton's Laws of Motion, air pressure and calculating machines due to the work of the first scientists of the Scientific Revolution, including Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler, René Descartes, Pierre Fermat, Blaise Pascal, Robert Boyle, Christiaan Huygens, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Robert Hooke, Isaac Newton, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. It was a period of development of culture in general. 1600: Michael the Brave unifies the three Romanian countries: Wallachia and Transylvania after the Battle of Șelimbăr from 1599. 1601: Battle of Kinsale, England defeats Irish and Spanish forces at the town of Kinsale, driving the Gaelic aristocracy out of Ireland and destroying the Gaelic clan system. 1601–1603: The Russian famine of 1601–1603 kills one-third of Russia. 1602: Matteo Ricci produces the Map of the Myriad Countries of the World, a world map that will be used throughout East Asia for centuries.
1602: The Dutch East India Company is established by merging competing Dutch trading companies. Its success contributes to the Dutch Golden Age. 1603: Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James VI of Scotland, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England. 1603: Tokugawa Ieyasu takes the title of shōgun, establishing the Tokugawa shogunate. This begins the Edo period, which will last until 1868. 1605: The King of Gowa, a Makassarese kingdom in South Sulawesi, converts to Islam 1606: The Long War between the Ottoman Empire and Austria is ended with the Peace of Zsitvatorok—Austria abandons Transylvania. 1606: Treaty of Vienna ends anti-Habsburg uprising in Royal Hungary. 1607: Flight of the Earls occurs from County Donegal in the west of Ulster in Ireland. 1607: Iskandar Muda becomes the Sultan of Aceh. He will launch a series of naval conquests that will transform Aceh into a great power in the western Malay Archipelago. 1610: The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth army defeats combined Russian- Swedish forces at the Battle of Klushino and conquers Moscow.
1610: King Henry IV of France is assassinated by François Ravaillac. 1611: The Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, the oldest existing university in Asia, established by the Dominican Order in Manila 1611: The first publication of the King James Bible. 1612: Costwold Olympic Games, Robert Dover 1613: The Time of Troubles in Russia ends with the establishment of the House of Romanov, which rules until 1917. 1613–1617: Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth is invaded by the Tatars dozens of times. 1613: The Dutch East India Company is forced to evacuate Gresik because of the Mataram siege of neighboring Surabaya. The VOC is allowed to set up a trading post in Jepara. 1615: The Battle of Osaka ends. 1616: The last remaining Moriscos in Spain are expelled. 1616: English poet and playwright William Shakespeare dies. 1618: The Defenestration of Prague. 1618: The Bohemian Revolt precipitates the Thirty Years' War, which devastates Europe in the years 1618–48. 1618: The Manchus start invading China.
Their conquest topples the Ming dynasty. 1619: Dutch East India Company, English East India Company, Sultanate of Banten all fighting over port city of Ja
The Byzantine calendar called "Creation Era of Constantinople" or "Era of the World", was the calendar used by the Eastern Orthodox Church from c. 691 to 1728 in the Ecumenical Patriarchate. It was the official calendar of the Byzantine Empire from 988 to 1453, of Kievan Rus' and Russia from c. 988 to 1700. Since "Byzantine" is a historiographical term, the original name uses the noun "Roman" as it was how the Eastern Roman Empire continued calling itself; the calendar was based on the Julian calendar, except that the year started on 1 September and the year number used an Anno Mundi epoch derived from the Septuagint version of the Bible. It placed the date of creation at 5509 years before the Incarnation, was characterized by a certain tendency, a tradition among Jews and early Christians to number the years from the calculated foundation of the world, its Year One, marking the supposed date of creation, was September 1, 5509 BC, to August 31, 5508 BC. It is not known when; the first appearance of the term is in the treatise of a certain "monk and priest", who mentions all the main variants of the "World Era" in his work.
Georgios argues that the main advantage of the World era is the common starting point of the astronomical lunar and solar cycles, of the cycle of indictions, the usual dating system in Byzantium since the 6th century. He already regards it as the most convenient for the Easter computus. Complex calculations of the 19-year lunar and 28-year solar cycles within this world era allowed scholars to discover the cosmic significance of certain historical dates, such as the birth or the crucifixion of Jesus; this date underwent minor revisions before being finalized in the mid-7th century, although its precursors were developed c. AD 412. By the second half of the 7th century, the Creation Era was known in Western Europe, at least in Great Britain. By the late 10th century around AD 988, when the era appears in use on official government records, a unified system was recognized across the Eastern Roman world; the era was calculated as starting on September 1, Jesus was thought to have been born in the year 5509 since the creation of the world.
Historical time was thus calculated from the creation, not from Christ's birth, as in the west after the Anno Domini system was adopted between 6th and 9th centuries. The Eastern Church avoided the use of the Anno Domini system of Dionysius Exiguus, since the date of Christ's birth was debated in Constantinople as late as the 14th century. Otherwise the Byzantine calendar was identical to the Julian Calendar except that: the names of the months were transcribed from Latin into Greek; the leap day of the Byzantine calendar was obtained in an identical manner to the bissextile day of the original Roman version of the Julian calendar, by doubling the sixth day before the calends of March, i.e. by doubling 24 February. The Byzantine World Era was replaced in the Orthodox Church by the Christian Era, utilized by Patriarch Theophanes I Karykes in 1597, afterwards by Patriarch Cyril Lucaris in 1626, formally established by the Church in 1728. Meanwhile, as Russia received Orthodox Christianity from Byzantium, she inherited the Orthodox Calendar based on the Byzantine Era.
After the collapse of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, the era continued to be used by Russia, which witnessed millennialist movements in Moscow in AD 1492. It was only in AD 1700 that the Byzantine World Era in Russia was changed to the Julian Calendar by Peter the Great, it still forms the basis of traditional Orthodox calendars up to today. September AD 2000 began the year 7509 AM; the earliest extant Christian writings on the age of the world according to the Biblical chronology are by Theophilus, the sixth bishop of Antioch from the Apostles, in his apologetic work To Autolycus, by Julius Africanus in his Five Books of Chronology. Both of these early Christian writers, following the Septuagint version of the Old Testament, determined the age of the world to have been about 5,530 years at the birth of Christ. Ben Zion Wacholder points out that the writings of the Church Fathers on this subject are of vital significance, in that through the Christian chronographers a window to the earlier Hellenistic biblical chronographers is preserved: An immense intellectual effort was expended during the Hellenistic period by both Jews and pagans to date creation, the flood, building of the Temple...
In the course of their studies, men such as Tatian of Antioch, Clement of Alexandria, Hippolytus of Rome
1738 in art
Events from the year 1738 in art. Louis-François Roubiliac's sculpture of George Frederick Handel goes on display at Vauxhall Gardens in London. Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin – The Wash Barrel Louis de Silvestre – Portrait of the Princess Maria Amalia of Saxony in Polish costume Jean-Baptiste van Loo – Portrait of William Murray January 3 – Johann Friedrich Bause, German engraver June 4 – George III of the United Kingdom, patron of the arts and collector June 10 – Hubert Maurer, Austrian painter of portraits and religious themes July William Wynne Ryland, English engraver August 6 – Johann Balzer, Czech etcher and engraver October 10 – Benjamin West, painter December 20 – Claude Michel, French sculptor in the Rococo style date unknown William Cochran, Scottish portrait painter both in oil and miniature Antoine Raspal, French painter Camillo Tinti, Italian painter Fredrika Eleonora von Düben, Swedish textile artist, member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts January 20 – Francesco Galli Bibiena, Italian architect/designer/painter January 27 – Alessandro Marchesini, Italian painter of allegories with small figures February 16 – Carel de Moor, Dutch etcher and painter August 9 – Pierre Drevet, French portrait engraver October 5 – Antonio Amorosi, Italian painter, active in Ascoli Piceno and Rome November – Giovanni Enrico Vaymer, Italian portrait painter November 18 – Hendrick Krock, Danish history painter date unknown Felice Cappelletti, Italian painter of the late-Baroque period active in Verona Giovanni Battista Cassana, Italian painter of fruit and still-life Edme Jeaurat, French engraver Carlo Antonio Tavella, Italian painter of landscapes
Rémy Martin is a French firm that produces and sells cognac. Founded in 1724 and based in the city of Cognac, it is one of the biggest cognac producers and is part of the Comité Colbert, an association of luxury businesses which promotes French know-how worldwide; the brand specialises in Cognac Fine Champagne. The name Rémy Martin comes from the name of the company founder, born in 1695 near Rouillac. A winegrower by trade, in 1724 he created a trading house of cognac. After his death in 1773, his grandson named Rémy, pursued the business. In 1841, Paul-Emile-Rémy Martin oversaw great growth, he added a logo to the bottles and cases, in the shape of a centaur, a mythological creature representing Sagittarius, Martin's own zodiac sign. The Rémy Martin brand uses a distinctive centaur logo and in China is called réntóumă "man-headed horse". During the interwar period, André Renaud, a trained lawyer and merchant, a partner in E. Rémy Martin & Co. since 1910, took the lead, in 1927 launched the first VSOP Fine Champagne.
Rémy Martin cognacs were sold worldwide. After the Second World War, Rémy Martin continued its rise under André Hériard-Dubreuil, André Renaud's son-in-law. At the death of André Renaud in 1965, André Hériard-Dubreuil became president, his children joined him, notably his daughter Dominique Hériard-Dubreuil who became general manager in 1988 and president two years later. In 1991, the House of Rémy Martin incorporated Rémy Cointreau into the family group. All Rémy Martin cognacs have the Cognac Fine Champagne appellation, meaning that they come from a blend of eaux-de-vie from the Grande Champagne and Petite Champagne crus, with at least 50% of Grande Champagne. Thanks to chalky soils, these eaux-de-vie have a great ageing potential and a particular aromatic intensity. Since 1948, under the leadership of André Renaud, Rémy Martin has made this exclusive choice. During the 1960s, l’Alliance Fine Champagne was created by André Hériard Dubreuil of the House of Rémy Martin; this cooperative brings together a thousand winegrowers from Petite Champagne and Grande Champagne and supplies 90% of the eaux-de-vie of the House.
The Rémy Martin House markets more than 80% of the Fine Champagne cognacs. Rémy Martin uses traditional distillation on the lees in small copper stills. Ageing takes place in oak barrels of the Limousin type, during which the alcohol evaporates and blackens the walls of the cellars; the eau-de-vie evolves over time, punctuated by periods of rest and changes of barrel. The exchanges between the wood and the eaux-de-vie are constant. Depending on which style is sought, cognac can age in young or old barrels, with a stronger or finer grain on the oak staves. Comes the blending of the different barrels to create a cognac; the House’s current Cellar Master, Baptiste Loiseau, assumed the position in 2014 at the age of 34. He follows in the footsteps of André Renaud, André Giraud, Georges Clot, Pierrette Trichet. Created in 1927, Rémy Martin VSOP is the biggest selling VSOP cognac worldwide; the frosted bottle was introduced in 1972. Exclusive to European markets, VSOP Mature Cask Finish was created in 2011.
Originating from the same terroirs of Grande and Petite Champagne, with the same specifications for distillation, after the final blending, this cognac spends another year in 20-year old oak barrels. Launched in 1997 and named after the royal decree issued in 1738 when King Louis XV granted the Accord Royal to Rémy Martin in honor of his craftsmanship. Exclusive to China, CLUB features an octagonal-shaped bottle. In 2015, Rémy Martin launched the CLUB Connected Bottle, the first NFC-enabled spirits bottle featuring high-security anti-counterfeiting measures. Created by Cellar Master André Giraud in 1981, XO is a blend of up to 400 eaux-de-vie. A single barrel blend selected by the Cellar Master, with all eaux-de-vie being at least twenty years old. Sold at an elevated price point, Centaure de Diamant uses only eaux-de-vie from the finest 10% of those available to Rémy Martin. Exclusive to duty free locations, Cellar 16 and Cellar 28 are selected by the Cellar Master from aging cellars with unique characteristics.
In 2010, Rémy Martin introduced its first clear spirit, Rémy Martin V, in the US. Rather than using the oak barrel aging process, the liquid undergoes a proprietary 14 °F filtration process, giving it a transparent color and subtle taste with hints of pear and a fresh minty aftertaste, it is not a cognac, but an eau-de-vie de vin The House of Rémy Martin partners with artists to represent its cognacs. These include Californian actor Jeremy Renner, Chinese actor and singer Huang Xiaoming, Taiwanese mandopop singer Jolin Tsai. In 2008, the American photographer and director David LaChapelle created a bottle design. In 2013, Rémy Martin teamed up with US-Canadian singer and producer Robin Thicke to launch a limited edition of VSOP. Rémy Martin can be found in the world of rap in America with Fetty Wap mentioning the 1738 variety in his work. In 1980, at the beginning of the Chinese economic reform, Rémy Martin ventured into China with The Dynasty brand, the first foreign wine maker and the second joint-venture in all China.
Brandy Cognac Cognac Rémy Martin official website
"Trap Queen" is the debut single by American rapper Fetty Wap from his self-titled debut album. Following its online premiere in March 2014, it was released independently on April 22, 2014 before being re-released in conjunction with 300 Entertainment on December 15, 2014; the song was well received by critics who praised the vocals and production for being cheery and infectious. "Trap Queen" was a sleeper hit, becoming Fetty Wap's first entry on the Billboard Hot 100 in mid-2015 and went on to be a top ten hit, peaking at number two. Outside the United States, "Trap Queen" peaked within the top ten of the charts in Denmark and the United Kingdom. An accompanying music video for the song, directed by Nitt Da Gritt, was released on his YouTube page that features Wap and his girlfriend partying at their apartment, he first performed the song on television at the 2015 MTV Movie Awards with Fall Out Boy and would make appearances at The Tonight Show with Jimmy Fallon, Jimmy Kimmel Live!, Nick Cannon Presents Wild'n Out and the BET Awards 2015 to perform the song.
The song received two nominations at the 58th Grammy Awards: Best Rap Performance. Fetty Wap, a native of Paterson, New Jersey, had been rapping and recording music locally as a member of the Remy Boyz 1738 rap troupe, which includes Montana "Monty" Buckz. Wap conceived "Trap Queen" in late 2013 and recorded the song the following March after hearing what would become its backing track, produced by Tony Fadd of the Paterson-based RGF Productions, it was the first recording on which Wap had sung, as he had been anxious to try "something different". The original studio recording consisted of three sung verses that Wap had freestyled in the melody he had written; the recording was uploaded to SoundCloud shortly after in March 2014, where it soon began amassing plays. An extended version of the initial recording, featuring an additional spoken outro, was included on Wap's Up Next mixtape, sold locally in Paterson and released online; this version of the song was independently released on April 22, 2014 as a standalone digital single under Goodfella4life Entertainment.
Although Wap had a feeling that "Trap Queen" was a potential hit before recording the song when he first heard the beat, his suspicions that it could reach an audience outside his own region were confirmed as he noticed its growing popularity on social media websites like Twitter and Instagram. To take advantage of the increased attention the song was receiving, a revised version was subsequently made for radio which shortened the total runtime and included an additional rapped verse following the first iteration of the chorus. In November 2014, Wap and RGF Productions partnered with Lyor Cohen's label 300 Entertainment to give "Trap Queen" a full-fledged commercial release; the two labels jointly issued the most recent edit of the single to digital retailers on December 15, 2014. Written by Fetty Wap and produced by Tony Fadd of RGF Productions, "Trap Queen" is a melodic lo-fi hip hop, R&B song. Wap sings most of the song's verses, along with its chorus, in a gritty, melodic delivery reminiscent of contemporary Southern hip hop artists such as Gucci Mane, Rich Homie Quan, Young Thug.
Wap's sung vocals during the song's chorus, are digitally altered. One additional verse, following the first iteration of the chorus, is rapped in a more straightforward, traditional style; the song's beat is characterized by its trap percussion and synthesized chords. Lyrically, "Trap Queen" is a giddy, affectionate tribute to a girlfriend and "partner in crime" whom Wap calls his trap queen. Wap has clarified that the song was written about an ex he had been dating and dealing crack cocaine with during his own time in the trap. In its lyrics, Wap proclaims his love for his girlfriend, fondly recalling counting money, going shopping, going to the strip club, getting high, "cooking pies" with her; the lyrics express an aspirational quality, with Wap and his girlfriend setting a goal to buy matching Lamborghinis with the money they earn together. Ural Garrett of HipHopDX compared the song's lyrical approach to urban fiction narratives, stating that its themes "wouldn't feel too out of place in writings from Zane, Wahida Clark or Mz.
Lady P". Although some writers called it gimmicky, "Trap Queen" was well received by contemporary music critics rap critics. In particular, multiple writers praised the song's "infectious" quality. David Drake of Complex highlighted the song for the December 2014 edition of the publication's Bout to Blow feature, calling it a "sweet, chirpy love song" with a "great chorus and irrepressible cheeriness". Tom Breihan of Stereogum called it "one of the best out-of-nowhere rap anthems in recent history", noting its "stormy-but-melodic beat" and "naggingly catchy hook". In a positive review for The Guardian, Ben Westhoff called the song "a revelation" that "sounds familiar and exotic" and "succeeds as an oddly touching love story". Although Westhoff acknowledged that Wap's singing on "Trap Queen" was more compelling than his rapping, he went on to praise Wap's unique voice and singular aesthetic lauding the "dynamic sound" of Tony Fadd's production. Elliot Pearson of the Weekly Alibi called the song an "egalitarian banger dedicated to his partner in crime" and listed it as a recommended single."Trap Queen" was named one of the best songs of 2014 in The Huffington Post and Vice magazine's Noisey blog, with the latter publication calling it "the hottest New York record of the year".