Pope Clement XII
Pope Clement XII, born Lorenzo Corsini, was Pope from 12 July 1730 to his death in 1740. Clement presided over the growth of a surplus in the papal finances, he thus became known for building the new façade of the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano, beginning construction of the Trevi Fountain, the purchase of Cardinal Alessandro Albani's collection of antiquities for the papal gallery. In his 1738 bull In eminenti apostolatus, he provides the first public papal condemnation of Freemasonry, helping bring about the Catholic Church's longstanding opposition to the order. Lorenzo Corsini was born in Florence in 1652 as the son of Bartolomeo Corsini, Marquis of Casigliano and his wife Elisabetta Strozzi, the sister of the Duke of Bagnuolo. Both of his parents belonged to the old Florentine nobility, he was a distant relative of Saint Andrea Corsini. Corsini studied at the Jesuit Collegio Romano in Rome and at the University of Pisa where he earned a doctorate in both civil law and canon law. Corsini practiced law under the able direction of Cardinal Neri Corsini.
After the death of his uncle and his father, in 1685, now thirty-three, would have become head of the Corsini. Instead he resigned his right of primogeniture and from Pope Innocent XI he purchased, according to the custom of the time, for 30,000 scudi, a position of prelatial rank and devoted his wealth and leisure to the enlargement of the library bequeathed to him by his uncle. Corsini's home on the Piazza Novona was the center of Rome's artistic life. In 1690 he was chosen nuncio to Vienna, he did not proceed to the imperial court, because Leopold I, the Holy Roman Emperor, maintained that he had the right to select the nuncio from a list of three names furnished by the pope. In 1696, Corsini was appointed governor of the Castel Sant ` Angelo, his good fortune increased during the pontificate of Pope Clement XI, who employed his talents as a courtier and named him Cardinal-Priest of Santa Susanna on 17 May 1706, retaining his services as papal treasurer. He advanced still further under Pope Benedict XIII, who made him Prefect of the Apostolic Signatura, a judicial branch of the Roman Curia.
He was successively appointed as the Cardinal-Priest of San Pietro in Vincoli and Cardinal-Bishop of Frascati. Under Benedict XIII, the finances of the Papal States had been delivered into the hands of Cardinal Niccolò Coscia and other members of the curia, who had drained the financial resources of the see. Benedict died in 1730, in the conclave that followed his death, after deliberating for four months, the College of Cardinals selected Corsini, 78 years old and with failing eyesight, who had held all the important offices of the Roman Curia. Clement XII was one of the oldest men to be elected pope; as a Corsini, with his mother a Strozzi, the new pope represented a family in the highest level of Florentine society, with a cardinal in every generation for the previous hundred years. His first moves as Pope Clement XII were to restore the papal finances, he demanded restitution from the ministers. The chief culprit, Cardinal Niccolò Coscia, was fined and sentenced to ten years' imprisonment.
Papal finances were improved through reviving the public lottery, suppressed by the severe morality of Benedict XIII. Soon it poured into Clement XII's treasury an annual sum amounting to nearly a half million scudi, enabling him to undertake the extensive building programs for which he is chiefly remembered, but which he was never able to see. A competition for the majestic façade of the San Giovanni in Laterano was won by architect Alessandro Galilei; the façade he designed is more palatial than ecclesiastic, was finished by 1735. Clement XII erected in that ancient basilica a magnificent chapel dedicated to his 14th century kinsman, St. Andrew Corsini, he restored the Arch of Constantine and built the governmental palace of the Consulta on the Quirinal. He purchased from Cardinal Alessandro Albani for 60,000 scudi a famous collection of statues, etc. and added it to the gallery of the Capitol. He paved the streets of Rome and the roads leading from the city, widened the Corso, he began the triumphant one of the noted ornaments of Rome.
Under his reign a port was built with a highway that gave easy access to the interior. He drained the malarial marshes of the Chiana near Lake Trasimeno. Politically, this was not a successful papacy among the secular powers of Europe; when the attempt of papal forces to take over the ancient independent Republic of San Marino failed, Clement XII disavowed the arbitrary action of his legate, Cardinal Giulio Alberoni, in seizing San Marino, restored its independence. He was rebuffed in Papal claims over the Duchies of Parma and Piacenza. In August 1730 he gave permission for Victor Amadeus II of Savoy to carry out a morganatic marriage to Anna Canalis di Cumiana. Victor Amadeus II subsequently abdicated his throne causing great unrest in Savoy. In ecclesiastic affairs he issued In eminenti apostolatus, the first papal decree against the Freemasons on 28 April 1738, he proceeded with vigour against the French Jansenists. He campaigned for the reunion of the Roman and Orthodox churches, received the Patriarch of the Coptic Church and persuaded the Armenian Patriarch to remove the anathema against the Council of Chalcedon and Pope Leo I.
He dispatched Joseph Simeon Assemani to the East for the twofold purpose of continuing his search for manuscripts and presiding as legate over a national council of Maronites. He created the you
Thomas Philip Wallrad de Hénin-Liétard d'Alsace
Thomas Philip Wallrad de Hénin-Liétard d'Alsace named Cardinal d'Alsace, was a Cardinal- Archbishop of Mechelen, Belgium. He participated in 2 conclaves, during the conclave of 1758 he acted as Cardinal Proto-Priest, his father, Philippe-Louis de Hénin, 7th Count of Bossu was Knight of the Golden Fleece. He was the 11th Prince of Chimay: his family belonges to the family of Hénin-Liétard, His grandmother was a Princess of Arenberg and Chimay, she was a granddaughter of Charles de Ligne, 2nd Prince of Arenberg. Louis-François Verreycken, 1st Baron of Bonlez was his great-grandfather; the brother of the Cardinal was married to Charlotte de Rouvroy, daughter of the Duke of Saint-Simon, who mentioned the Cardinal in his writings. One of his nephews Charles-Alexandre de Hénin-Liétard d'Alsace, Count of Beaumont dies in 1794 in Paris by guillotine. In 1696 he was a noble Canon of the Chapter of Ghent, he was ordained as a priest on 15 October 1702, in Rome. He was created in 1712 a papal prelate of honour of Clement XI.
In 1714 he was approved by emperor Charles VI as Bishop of Mechelen, his appointed of Archbishop took place on 16 December 1715. In 1716 he was ordained in Vienna by the Apostolic Nuncio to Austria: Mgr. Giorgio Cardinal Spínola. On 29 Nov 1719, age 40, he was named Cardinal, after his support in favor of the Bull of Unigenitus. Cardinal d'Alcase was the first cardinal taking residence in Mechelen, since Cardinal de Granvelle died, he went to Rome to receive the biretta, by hands of the pope himself. The people of Mechelen rejoiced to have again a cardinal, he was loved by them. During the episcopate of Cardinal d'Alcase he constructed several important buildings: he had the episcopal palace rebuilt and a new diocesan seminary constructed in Mechelen. In 1747 he pleaded with King Louis XV who entered Brussels to have mercy on the poor inhabitants of Brussels; the king requested a Te Deum in honour of the victory, but the Cardinal replied: "Only the blood of Christ flows on the altar!"After the anti-government disturbances, the Great Council produced a high number of death penalties, the cardinal begged the emperor for mercy in 1720.
This request was honoured by the Emperor. He consecrated Bishop during his career. Hendrik Jozef van Susteren, bishop of Bruges. † Charles d’Espinoza, O. F. M. Cap, bishop of Antwerp. † Giuseppe Cardinal Spinelli † Thomas John Francis de Strickland de Sizorghe † Wilhelmus Delvaux, bishop of Ypres. † Maximiliaan Antoon van der Bishop of Ghent. † Guillaume-Philippe de Herzelles, bishop of Antwerp. † Jan-Baptist de Castillion, bishop of Bruges † Daniel O’Reilly † Jan-Robert Caïmo, bishop of Bruges † He participated in the 1721 conclave. In 1738 he sent his private library of 9000 books to the collection of the diocese and chapter of St Rumbold; this collection was recognised as Flemish heritage last year and was conservated by the support of the Fund Baillet Latour. He left an important gold embroidered pontifcial ornement that he brought from Rome, was restored by Henri Van Severen, he was succeeded by Cardinal Joannes-Henricus de Franckenberg. Thomas Philip Wallrad d'Alsace-Boussut de Chimay
An ambassador is an official envoy a high-ranking diplomat who represents a state and is accredited to another sovereign state or to an international organization as the resident representative of their own government or sovereign or appointed for a special and temporary diplomatic assignment. The word is often used more liberally for persons who are known, without national appointment, to represent certain professions and fields of endeavor such as sales. An ambassador is the ranking government representative stationed in a foreign capital; the host country allows the ambassador control of specific territory called an embassy, whose territory and vehicles are afforded diplomatic immunity in the host country. Under the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, an ambassador has the highest diplomatic rank. Countries may choose to maintain diplomatic relations at a lower level by appointing a chargé d'affaires in place of an ambassador; the equivalent to an ambassador exchanged among members of the Commonwealth of Nations are known as High Commissioners.
The "ambassadors" of the Holy See are known as Apostolic Nuncios. The term is derived from Middle English ambassadour, Anglo-French ambassateur of Latin origin from the word Ambaxus-Ambactus, meaning servant or minister; the first known usage of the term was recorded around the 14th century. The foreign government to which an ambassador is assigned must first approve the person. In some cases, the foreign government might reverse its approval by declaring the diplomat a persona non grata, i.e. an unacceptable person. This kind of declaration results in recalling the ambassador to their home nation. In accordance with the Congress of Vienna of 1815 and the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, the ambassador and embassy staff are granted diplomatic immunity and personal safety while living abroad. Due to the advent of modern technologies, today's world is a much smaller place in relative terms. With this in mind, it is considered important that the nations of the world have at least a small staff living in foreign capitals in order to aid travelers and visitors from their home nation.
As an officer of the foreign service, an ambassador is expected to protect the citizens of their home country in the host country. Another result of the increase in foreign travel is the growth of trade between nations. For most countries, the national economy is now part of the global economy; this means increased opportunities to trade with other nations. When two nations are conducting a trade, it is advantageous to both parties to have an ambassador and a small staff living in the other land, where they act as an intermediary between cooperative businesses. One of the cornerstones of foreign diplomatic missions is to work for peace; this task can grow into a fight against international terrorism, the drug trade, international bribery, human trafficking. Ambassadors help stop these acts; these activities are important and sensitive and are carried out in coordination with the Defense Ministry of the state and the head of the nation. The rise of the modern diplomatic system was a product of the Italian Renaissance.
The use of ambassadors became a political strategy in Italy during the 17th century. The political changes in Italy altered the role of ambassadors in diplomatic affairs; because many of the states in Italy were small in size, they were vulnerable to larger states. The ambassador system was used to protect the more vulnerable states; this practice spread to Europe during the Italian Wars. The use and creation of ambassadors during the 15th century in Italy has had long-term effects on Europe and, in turn, the world's diplomatic and political progression. Europe still uses the same terms of ambassador rights as they had established in the 16th century, concerning the rights of the ambassadors in host countries as well as the proper diplomatic procedures. An ambassador was used as a representative of the state in which they are from to negotiate and disseminate information in order to keep peace and establish relationships with other states; this attempt was employed in the effort to maintain peaceful relations with nations and make alliances during difficult times.
The use of ambassadors today is widespread. States and non-state actors use diplomatic representatives to deal with any problems that occur within the international system. Ambassadors now live overseas or within the country in which it is assigned to for long periods of time so that they are acquainted with the culture and local people; this way they are more politically effective and trusted, enabling them to accomplish goals that their host country desires. The Congress of Vienna of 1815 formalized the system of diplomatic rank under international law: Ambassadors are diplomats of the highest rank, formally representing the head of state, with plenipotentiary powers. In modern usage, most ambassadors on foreign postings as head of mission carry the full title of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. "Ordinary" ambassadors and non-plenipotentiary status are used, although they may be encountered in certain circumstances. The only difference between an extraordinary ambassador and an ordinary ambassador is that while the former's mission is permanent, the latter serves only for a specific purpose.
Among European powers, the ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary was regarded as the personal representative of the Sovereign. The custom of dispatching ambassadors to the h
Pope Benedict XIII
Pope Benedict XIII, born Pietro Francesco Orsini and called Vincenzo Maria Orsini, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 29 May 1724 to his death in 1730. A Dominican friar, Orsini focused on his religious responsibilities as bishop rather than on papal administration. Orsini's lack of political expertise led him to rely on an unscrupulous secretary whose financial abuses ruined the papal treasury, causing great damage to the Church in Rome. In the process towards sainthood, his cause for canonization opened in 1755, it was re-opened on 21 February 1931, but it was closed once again in 1940. It was opened once more on 17 January 2004, with the official process commencing in 2012 and concluding in 2017, he now has the posthumous title of Servant of God. He was born in Gravina in Puglia, the eldest of six sons of Ferdinando III Orsini, duke of Gravina, Giovanna Frangipani della Tolfa, from Toritto. A member of the Orsini of Rome, he was the last member of that family to become Pope.
At the age of eighteen he resigned his inheritance and entered the Dominican Order where he received the name of "Vincenzo Maria". He was ordained to the priesthood in February 1671. Through the influence of his family, he was named, by Pope Clement X, Cardinal-Priest of San Sisto on 22 February 1672, he lectured in philosophy at Brescia. He was bishop of Manfredonia, bishop of Cesena and archbishop of Benevento. After an earthquake in 1688 and another in 1702 he organized relief efforts for the victims, he remained a close friend of Serafina di Dio. Upon the death of Pope Innocent XIII in 1724, a conclave was convoked to elect a successor. There were four divisions in the College of Cardinals and there were no clear candidates. At the conclave, Orsini was considered one of the papabili. Orsini was proposed to be elected because he led a modest, austere life, considered to be a pastor, his lack of political expertise suggested that he would be malleable. Orsini refused to be elected prior to the final ballot.
He was persuaded to accept by Agustín Pipia, Master of the Order of Preachers and on 29 May 1724, Orsini was elected pontiff. He chose the regnal name of "Benedict XIII" in honour of Pope Blessed Benedict XI because he was of the Dominican Order. On 4 June 1724, he was crowned by the cardinal protodeacon. On the following 24 September, he took possession of the Basilica of St. John Lateran. At first, he called himself Benedict XIV, but afterwards altered the title to Benedict XIII. Not a man of worldly matters, Benedict XIII made an effort to maintain his monastic lifestyle, he endeavoured to put a stop to the decadent lifestyles of the Italian priesthood and of the cardinalate. He abolished the lottery in Rome and the Papal States, which only served to profit the neighboring states that maintained the public lottery. A man fond above all of asceticism and religious celebrations, he built several hospitals, but according to Cardinal Lambertini "did not have any idea about how to rule". In 1727 he founded the University of Camerino.
In 1728, Benedict's intervention settled a controversy, regarding the relics of St Augustine, that erupted in Pavia, Italy. He confirmed the authenticity of Augustine's bones, discovered in 1695 in the Basilica San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro; the government of the Papal States was held in Benedict XIII's stead by Cardinal Niccolò Coscia, the pope's secretary when he was archbishop of Benevento, who committed a long series of financial abuses to his own advantage, causing the ruin of the Papal treasury. Coscia and his associates isolated Benedict from other advisors. According to Montesquieu, "All the money of Rome goes to Benevento... as the Beneventani direct weakness". In foreign relations, he struggled with both John V of Portugal and the Jansenists in France. Benedict XIII beatified Bernardine of Feltre in 1728 and beatified Peter Fourier on 20 January 1730, he beatified Hyacintha of Mariscotti on 1 September 1726, Fidelis of Sigmaringen on 24 March 1729, Vincent de Paul on 13 August 1729 and John del Prado on 24 May 1728.
Through the process of equipollent canonization, Benedict XIII canonized Pope Gregory VII on 24 May 1728. He conferred sainthood upon Agnes of Montepulciano in 1726, Aloysius Gonzaga on 31 December 1726, Boris of Kiev in 1724, Francis Solano on 27 March 1726, Gleb in 1724, James of the Marches and Turibius of Mogroveio on 10 December 1726, John of Nepomuk on 19 March 1729, John of the Cross and Peregrine Laziosi on 27 December 1726, Margaret of Cortona on 16 May 1728 and Serapion of Algiers on 14 April 1728; the pope named Saint Peter Chrysologus as a Doctor of the Church in 1729. Benedict XIII elevated 29 new cardinals into the cardinalate in a total of 12 consistories. Benedict XIII, whose orders were descended from Scipione Rebiba consecrated at least 139 bishops for various important European sees, including German, French and New World bishops; these bishops in turn consecrated bishops exclusively for their respective countries causing other episcopal lineages to die. As a result, more than 90% of present-day bishops trace their episcopal lineage through him to Cardinal Rebiba.
With the papal bull Pretiosus dated May 26, 1727
Pope Alexander VIII
Pope Alexander VIII, born Pietro Vito Ottoboni, was Pope from 6 October 1689 to his death in 1691. He is the last pope to take the pontifical name of "Alexander" upon his election to the papacy. Pietro Vito Ottoboni was born in 1610 of a noble Venetian family, was the youngest of nine children of Vittoria Tornielli and Marco Ottoboni, grand chancellor of the Republic of Venice, his early studies were made with marked brilliance at the University of Padua where, in 1627, he earned a doctorate in canon and civil law. Ottoboni went to Rome during the pontificate of Pope Urban VIII and served as the Referendary of the Apostolic Signatura, served as the governor of the cities Terni, Citta di Castello and Spoleto, he served as the auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. Pope Innocent X appointed him to the cardinalate and in 1652 at the request of the Venetian government and he was made the Cardinal-Priest of San Salvatore in Lauro, he was appointed as Bishop of Brescia in 1654 and received episcopal consecration in the church of San Marco in Rome.
He would spend a quiet decade in his diocese. He opted to be Cardinal-Priest of San Marco in 1660 and resigned as Bishop of Brescia in 1664. Ottoboni opted to become Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria in Trastevere in 1677 and as Cardinal-Priest of Santa Prassede in 1680, he became the Cardinal-Bishop of Sabina in 1681 and to Frascati in 1683. His last swap was that of Porto e Santa Rufina in 1687. Ottoboni was the Vice-Dean of the College of Cardinals from 1687 to his pontifical election; the ambassador of King Louis XIV of France succeeded in procuring his election on 6 October 1689, as the successor to Pope Innocent XI. He chose the pontifical name of "Alexander VIII" in gratitude to Cardinal Flavio Chigi, the nephew of Pope Alexander VII, who had helped support his candidacy. Ottoboni was crowned as pontiff on 16 October 1689 by the protodeacon Cardinal Francesco Maidalchini and took possession of the Basilica of Saint John Lateran on 28 October 1689. Old but of a strong constitution, Alexander VIII was said to be an able diplomat.
During his brief pontificate he managed to destroy most of his predecessor's good work. All the money saved by Innocent XI was spent on enriching the Ottoboni family and to a cardinal he said: "I have no time to lose. Louis XIV, whose political situation was now critical, profited by the peaceful dispositions of the new pope, restored Avignon to him, renounced the long-abused right of asylum for the French Embassy. Charities on a large scale and unbounded nepotism exhausted the papal treasury, reversing the policies of his predecessor. Among the various nominations, his 22-year-old grandnephew Pietro was made cardinal and vice-chancellor of the Church, nephew Marco, son of his brother Agostino, was made inspector of naval fortifications and Duke of Fiano, nephew Antonio, another of Agostino's children, was made general of the church, his nephew Giovanni Rubin was made secretary of bishop of Vicenza. Out of compassion for the poor of the impoverished Papal States, he sought to help them by reducing taxes.
But this same generous nature led him to bestow on his relations the riches they were eager to accumulate. He bought the manuscripts of Queen Christina of Sweden for the Vatican Library. Alexander VIII assisted his native Venice by generous subsidies in the war against the Turks, as well as sending seven galleys and 2,000 infantry for the campaign in Albania. In 1690 he condemned the doctrines of the so-called philosophical sin, taught in the Jesuit schools, he held three consistories that saw 14 new cardinals elevated. Alexander VIII confirmed the cultus of Kinga of Poland on 11 June 1690 which served as the beatification. On 16 October 1690, he canonized several saints: Ss. Pascal Baylon, Lorenzo Giustiniani, John of Sahagun, John of God and John of Capistrano; the pope created 14 cardinals in three consistories and elevated individuals such as his grandnephew Pietro Ottoboni in a restoration of nepotism that had not been seen in his predecessor's reign. Alexander VIII died on 1 February 1691.
His grandiose tomb in St. Peter's was commissioned by his grandnephew, Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni, designed by Count Arrigo di San Martino; the bas-relief at the base and the flanking figures were sculpted by Angelo de' Rossi, while the bronze statue of the pope was cast by Giuseppe Bertosi. Pope Alexander VIII was the principal consecrator of: Cardinals created by Alexander VIII Rendina, Claudio. I papi. Storia e segreti. Rome: Newton Compton. Ottoboni family Publications by or about Pope Alexander VIII at VD 17 "Pope Alexander VIII". Germania Sacra people index. Göttingen Academy of Sciences and Humanities
Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the country's most populated comune, it is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber; the Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been defined as capital of two states. Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe; the city's early population originated from a mix of Latins and Sabines.
The city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, is regarded by some as the first metropolis. It was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the "Caput Mundi". After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome fell under the political control of the Papacy, in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance all the popes since Nicholas V pursued over four hundred years a coherent architectural and urban programme aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world. In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city.
In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. In 2016, Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy, its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The famous Vatican Museums are among the world's most visited museums while the Colosseum was the most popular tourist attraction in world with 7.4 million visitors in 2018. Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is the seat of several specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development; the city hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p. A. and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL.
Its business district, called EUR, is the base of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, financial services. Rome is an important fashion and design centre thanks to renowned international brands centered in the city. Rome's Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies. According to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king, Romulus. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was derived from Rome itself; as early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain: from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the same root as the Greek verb ῥέω and the Latin verb ruo, which both mean "flow". There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from 14,000 years ago, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.
Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the bronze age and the beginning of the Iron age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village. However, none of them had yet an urban quality. Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine; this aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. These in turn boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy; these developments, which according to archaeological ev
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bologna
The Archdiocese of Bologna is a metropolitan archbishopric of the Catholic Church in northern Italy. The cathedra is in the cathedral church of San Pietro in Bologna; the current Archbishop is Matteo Zuppi, installed in 2015. The archdiocese has the following suffragan dioceses: the Diocese of Imola, the Diocese of Faenza-Modigliana, the Archdiocese of Ferrara-Comacchio. A detailed list of the various governments that have ruled Bologna is provided by Giovanni Battista Guidicini. In 1527, the Holy See became the absolute ruler of Bologna, was represented by a Legatus a latere and a Vice-Legate. On 22 February 1530, Pope Clement VII crowned the Emperor Charles V as Holy Roman Empire, the last such event in history; the bishopric of Bologna was founded in the 3rd century. It was a suffragan of the diocese of Milan, but at the end of the 5th century became a suffragan of Ravenna; because of the schism of the Antipope Clement III, Pope Paschal II, at the Council of Guastalla in October 1106, released Bologna from obedience to the church of Ravenna, made it directly dependent on the papal See.
Bishop Victor, enjoyed the privilege of being consecrated a bishop by Pope Paschal II in 1108. But when he came to die in 1129, the Bolognese resisted the demands of Archbishop Gualterius of Ravenna that he should consecrate the newly elected Bishop Henricus; the papal Legate, Gerardus of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, heard the dispute in his court on 13 April 1130, Archbishop Gualterius established his right to consecrate the bishops of Bologna. In 973, Bishop Albertus participated in a provincial synod of the ecclesiastical province of Ravenna, presided over by Archbishop Honestus, held in the village of Marzalia in the diocese of Parma. Bishop Albertus complained to the assembly that his diocese was so poor that he was not able to sustain his clergy or his churches, on top of which Bishop Ubertus of Parma had taken control of certain territories near Parma which were the property of the diocese of Bologna. Ubertus replied; the Archbishop and bishops agreed with the Bishop of Parma, chastised Albertus for raising the subject in the synod, ordering both parties not to raise the matter again.
A major earthquake struck Bologna on Christmas Day, 1222, causing the vaults of the cathedral ceiling to collapse. Another severe earthquake occurred on 21 April centered at Cremona. In the winter of 1410, Pope Alexander V and the Papal Court arrived in Bologna, on their way from Pistoria toward Rome, which had fallen to papal forces on 1 January 1410. Alexander died, while he was still in Bologna, on 4 May, waiting for the pacification of Rome and its neighborhood. A Conclave therefore took place in Bologna, beginning on 14 May and concluding on 17 May with the election of Cardinal Baldassare Cossa, the Legate of Bologna, who took the name John XXIII. Pope Leo X visited Bologna from 8 December 1515 through 18 February 1516, where he held negotiations with King Francis I of France, their talks resulted in the abrogation of the French Pragmatic Sanction and the conclusion of a new Concordat between the Papacy and France. In 1568, as one of his efforts to implement the decrees of the Council of Trent, Bishop Gabriele Paleotti established the diocesan seminary of Bologna.
In 1582 the diocese of Bologna was raised to the status of a metropolitan archbishopric by Pope Gregory XIII in the bull Universi orbis of 10 December 1582, which removed it from the ecclesiastical province of Ravenna. It was assigned as the diocese of Imola. In a decree of the Vatican Sacred Congregation of Bishops of 8 December 1976, a new arrangement of certain dioceses in ecclesiastical provinces was announced. Nine of the early bishops have been recognized as saints in popular culture, three other bishops and three archbishops have been elected to the Papacy as Pope Innocent VII, Pope Nicholas V, Pope Julius II, Pope Gregory XV, Pope Benedict XIV and Pope Benedict XV. Bishop Adalfredus suffered many sleepless nights, worried about the number and behavior of his Canons and their hangers-on. Exasperated, he acted. On 16 August 1045, citing decrees of the holy Fathers that in each Church clerics should be ordained in accordance with the ability of that church to support those clerics ministering at the altar, he issued a decree in which he limited the number of Canons in the Cathedral of Bologna to fifty.
Mentioned are the Archpriest, the Cantor, the Archdeacon. To support them, he granted them three parts of the ten percent tithe, the episcopal income; the Canons of the Cathedral Chapter were, according to information laid before the pope, interfering with the jurisdiction of the Archdeacon of Bologna. On 28 March 1219, Pope Honorius III wrote to the clergy and people to support the Archdeacon against the rebellion of the Canons. So that the Church of Bologna might not be despoiled of its rights if there were no person in the Chapter to have oversight of it, on 22 April 1219 Honorius granted the Archdeacons of Bologna full and free administration and temporal, to correct and reform and decide matters. In separate letters, the Pope warned the Chapter and the Bishop not to interfere with the legitimate and canonical rights and jurisdiction of the Archdeacon. In 1687, the Chapter of the Cathedral of S. Peter was composed of sixteen Canons. In 1842 there were eignteen Canons