History of Monaco
Part of Ligurias history since the fall of the Roman Empire, from the 14th to the early 15th century the area was contested for primarily political reasons. Since that point, excepting a period of French occupation. The Rock of Monaco served as a shelter for the early humans from the end of the Paleolithic period, approximately 400,000 BC. Phocaeans from Massalia founded the colony of Monoikos, the Roman emperor Julian wrote of Herculess construction of Monacos port and a coastal road. The road was dotted with altars to Hercules, and a dedicated to him was established on the Rock of Monaco. The name Port Hercules was subsequently used for the ancient port, monoeci meaning Single One or Monoikos meaning Single House could be a reference to Hercules or his temple, or the isolated community inhabiting the area around the rock. According to the travels of Hercules theme, documented by Diodorus Siculus and Strabo, after the Gallic Wars, which served as a stopping-point for Julius Caesar on his way to campaign in Greece, fell under Roman control as part of the Maritime Alps province.
The Roman poet Virgil called it that castled cliff, Monoecus by the sea, either because Hercules drove off everyone else and lived there alone, or because in his temple no other of the gods is worshipped at the same time. No temple to Hercules has been found at Monaco, although the rocky ground, the port is mentioned in Pliny the Elders Natural History and in Tacitus Histories, when Fabius Valens was forced to put into the port. Monaco remained under Roman control until the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in 476, the city was under the domain of Odoacer until his fall at the hands of the Ostrogoths in the late 5th century. Monaco was recaptured by the Romans during the reign of Justinian in the century and was held until its capture by the Lombards in the 7th century. Monaco passed hands between the Lombards and Franks, though these raids left the area almost entirely depopulated, the Saracens were expelled in 975, and by the 11th century the area was again populated by Ligurians. In 1191, Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI granted suzerainty over the area to the city of Genoa, on June 10,1215, a detachment of Genoese Ghibellines led by Fulco del Cassello began the construction of a fortress atop the Rock of Monaco.
This date is cited as the beginning of Monacos modern history. The Grimaldis, descended from Otto Canella and taking their name from his son Grimaldo, were an ancient and prominent Guelphic Genoese family, francesco Grimaldi seized the Rock of Monaco in 1297, starting the Grimaldi dynasty, under the sovereignty of the Republic of Genoa. The Grimaldis acquired Menton in 1346 and Roquebrune in 1355, enlarging their possessions, in 1338 Monegasque ships under the command of Carlo Grimaldi participated, along with those of France and Genoa, in the English Channel naval campaign. Plunder from the sack of Southampton was brought back to Monaco, honoré II, Prince of Monaco secured recognition of his independent sovereignty from Spain in 1633, and from Louis XIII of France by the Treaty of Péronne. The principality was re-established in 1814, only to be designated a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia by the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Monaco remained in this position until 1860, when by the Treaty of Turin, Sardinia ceded to France the surrounding county of Nice
History of Hungary
For the history of the area before this period, see Pannonian basin before Hungary. The oldest archaeological site in Hungary is Vértesszőlős, where palaeolithic Oldowan pebble tools, the Roman Empire conquered territory west of the Danube River between 35 and 9 BC. From 9 BC to the end of the 4th century AD, among the first to arrive were the Huns, who built up a powerful empire under Attila the Hun in 435 AD. Attila was regarded in past centuries as a ruler of the Hungarians. They entered what is now Hungary in the 7th century AD, the Avar Khaganate was weakened by constant wars and outside pressure, and the Franks under Charlemagne managed to defeat the Avars to end their 250-year rule. Árpád was the leader who unified the Magyar tribes via the Covenant of Blood and he led the new nation to the Carpathian Basin in the 9th century. Between 895 and 902 the whole area of the Carpathian Basin was conquered by the Hungarians, an early Hungarian state was formed in this territory in 895. The military power of the nation allowed the Hungarians to conduct successful fierce campaigns, Prince Géza of the Árpád dynasty, who ruled only part of the united territory, was the nominal overlord of all seven Magyar tribes.
He aimed to integrate Hungary into Christian Western Europe by rebuilding the state according to the Western political and social models, Géza established a dynasty by naming his son Vajk as his successor. This decision was contrary to the dominant tradition of the time to have the eldest surviving member of the ruling family succeed the incumbent. By ancestral right, Prince Koppány, the oldest member of the dynasty, should have claimed the throne, Koppány did not relinquish his ancestral rights without a fight. After Gézas death in 997, Koppány took up arms, the rebels claimed to represent the old political order, ancient human rights, tribal independence and pagan belief. Stephen won a victory over his uncle Koppány and had him executed. Hungary was recognized as a Catholic Apostolic Kingdom under Saint Stephen I, Stephen was the son of Géza and thus a descendant of Árpád. Stephen was crowned with the Holy Crown of Hungary in the first day of 1000 AD in the city of Esztergom. Pope Sylvester II conferred on him the right to have the cross carried before him, with full authority over bishoprics.
By 1006, Stephen had solidified his power by eliminating all rivals who either wanted to follow the old traditions or wanted an alliance with the Eastern Christian Byzantine Empire. Then he initiated sweeping reforms to convert Hungary into a feudal state, complete with forced Christianization
The 17th century was the century that lasted from January 1,1601, to December 31,1700, in the Gregorian calendar. The greatest military conflicts were the Thirty Years War, the Great Turkish War, in the Islamic world, the Ottoman, Safavid Persian and Mughal empires grew in strength. In Japan, Tokugawa Ieyasu established the Edo period at the beginning of the century, European politics were dominated by the Kingdom of France of Louis XIV, where royal power was solidified domestically in the civil war of the Fronde. With domestic peace assured, Louis XIV caused the borders of France to be expanded and it was during this century that English monarch became a symbolic figurehead and Parliament was the dominant force in government – a contrast to most of Europe, in particular France. It was a period of development of culture in general,1600, On February 17 Giordano Bruno is burned at the stake by the Inquisition. 1600, Michael the Brave unifies the three Romanian countries, Wallachia and Transylvania after the Battle of Șelimbăr from 1599.
1601, Battle of Kinsale, England defeats Irish and Spanish forces at the town of Kinsale, driving the Gaelic aristocracy out of Ireland and destroying the Gaelic clan system. 1601, Michael the Brave, voivode of Wallachia and Transylvania, is assassinated by the order of the Habsburg general Giorgio Basta at Câmpia Turzii, 1601–1603, The Russian famine of 1601–1603 kills perhaps one-third of Russia. 1601, Panembahan Senopati, first king of Mataram and passes rule to his son Panembahan Seda ing Krapyak 1601,1602, Matteo Ricci produces the Map of the Myriad Countries of the World, a world map that will be used throughout East Asia for centuries. 1602, The Portuguese send an expeditionary force from Malacca which succeeded in reimposing a degree of Portuguese control. 1602, The Dutch East India Company is established by merging competing Dutch trading companies and its success contributes to the Dutch Golden Age. 1602, Two emissaries from the Aceh Sultanate visit the Dutch Republic,1603, Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James VI of Scotland, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England.
1603, Tokugawa Ieyasu takes the title of Shogun, establishing the Tokugawa Shogunate and this begins the Edo period, which will last until 1869. 1603–1623, After modernizing his army, Abbas I expands the Persian Empire by capturing territory from the Ottomans,1603, First permanent Dutch trading post is established in Banten, West Java. First successful VOC privateering raid on a Portuguese ship,1604, A second English East India Company voyage commanded by Sir Henry Middleton reaches Ternate, Tidore and Banda. 1605, Gunpowder Plot failed in England,1605, The fortresses of Veszprém and Visegrad are retaken by the Ottomans. 1605, The VOC in alliance with Hitu prepare to attack a Portuguese fort in Ambon,1605, Panembahan Seda ing Krapyak of Mataram establishes control over Demak, former center of the Demak Sultanate. 1606, Treaty of Vienna ends anti-Habsburg uprising in Royal Hungary,1606, Assassination of Stephen Bocskay of Transylvania
1745 in Ireland
Events from the year 1745 in Ireland. 19 October - Jonathan Swift and Dean of St. Patricks Cathedral, bartholomew Mosse establishes The Dublin Lying-In Hospital. The town walls of Youghal are repaired,14 April - Richard Annesley, 2nd Earl Annesley, politician. 24 December - William Paterson, jurist in the United States,13 May - Charles Coffey and composer. 19 October - Jonathan Swift, satirist, essayist,16 November - James Butler, 2nd Duke of Ormonde and statesman
The 19th century was the century marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Holy Roman and Mughal empires. After the defeat of the French Empire and its allies in the Napoleonic Wars, the Russian Empire expanded in central and far eastern Asia. By the end of the century, the British Empire controlled a fifth of the worlds land, the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and spread to continental Europe, North America and Japan. The Victorian era was notorious for the employment of children in factories and mines, as well as strict social norms regarding modesty. Japan embarked on a program of rapid modernization following the Meiji Restoration, before defeating China, under the Qing Dynasty, europes population doubled during the 19th century, from approximately 200 million to more than 400 million. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more during this century, London became the worlds largest city and capital of the British Empire. Its population increased from 1 million in 1800 to 6.7 million a century later, liberalism became the pre-eminent reform movement in Europe.
Slavery was greatly reduced around the world, following a successful slave revolt in Haiti and France stepped up the battle against the Barbary pirates and succeeded in stopping their enslavement of Europeans. The UKs Slavery Abolition Act charged the British Royal Navy with ending the slave trade. The first colonial empire in the century to abolish slavery was the British, americas 13th Amendment following their Civil War abolished slavery there in 1865, and in Brazil slavery was abolished in 1888. Similarly, serfdom was abolished in Russia, in the 19th century approximately 70 million people left Europe, with most migrating to the United States of America. The 19th century saw the creation and codification of many sports, particularly in Britain. Also, ladywear was a sensitive topic during this time. 1801, Ranjit Singh crowned as King of Punjab,1801, Napoleon signs the Concordat of 1801 with the Pope. 1801, Cairo falls to the British,1801, Assassination of Tsar Paul I of Russia. 1802, Ludwig van Beethoven performs his Moonlight Sonata for the first time,1803, William Symington demonstrates his Charlotte Dundas, the first practical steamboat.
1803, The United States more than doubles in size when it buys out Frances territorial claims in North America via the Louisiana Purchase. This begins the U. S. s westward expansion to the Pacific referred to as its Manifest Destiny which involves annexing and conquering land from Mexico, Britain,1803, The Wahhabis of the First Saudi State capture Mecca and Medina
1748 in Sweden
- The Royal Order of the Seraphim, Order of the Sword and Order of the Polar Star is created. - A new law disbands the privileges of all factories who cannot support themselves with the exception of home manufacture. - The Romani are formally allowed to live in Sweden, the condition is however that they settle permanently and abandon their nomadic life style. - Eva Ekeblad is inducted to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and she is the first female member there. - A fund and a home is established for the support of widows and orphans of sailors
History of Malta
Malta has a long history and has been inhabited since settlers from Sicily arrived around 5200 BC. Malta became an independent state in 1964, and a republic in 1974, since 2004 the country has been a member state of the European Union. Malta stands on a ridge that extends from North Africa to Sicily. At some time in the distant past, Malta was submerged, some caverns in Malta have revealed bones of elephants and other large animals now found in Africa, while others have revealed animals native to Europe. People first arrived in Malta around 5200 BC and these first Neolithic people probably arrived from Sicily, and were mainly farming and fishing communities, with some evidence of hunting activities. They apparently lived in caves and open dwellings, during the centuries that followed there is evidence of further contacts with other cultures, which left their influence on the local communities, evidenced by their pottery designs and colours. One of the most notable periods of Maltas history is the temple period, the Ġgantija Temple in Gozo is one of the oldest free-standing buildings in the world.
The name of the stems from the Maltese word ġgant. Many of the temples are in the form of five semicircular rooms connected at the centre. It has been suggested that these might have represented the head and legs of a deity, the Temple period lasted until about 2500 BC, at which point the civilization that raised these huge monoliths seems to have disappeared. There is much speculation about what might have happened and whether they were wiped out or assimilated. After the Temple period came the Bronze Age, from this period there are remains of a number of settlements and villages, as well as dolmens — altar-like structures made out of very large slabs of stone. They are claimed to belong to a population certainly different from that which built the megalithic temples. It is presumed the population arrived from Sicily because of the similarity to the found in the largest island of the Mediterranean sea. One surviving menhir, which was used to build temples, still stands at Kirkop, among the most interesting and mysterious remnants of this era are the so-called cart ruts as they can be seen at a place on Malta called Clapham Junction.
These are pairs of parallel channels cut into the surface of the rock, one suggestion is that beasts of burden used to pull carts along, and these channels would guide the carts and prevent the animals from straying. The society that built these structures eventually died out or at any rate disappeared, phoenicians possibly from Tyre began to colonize the islands in approximately the 8th century BC as an outpost from which they expanded sea explorations and trade in the Mediterranean. The former settlement was known as Maleth meaning safe haven, the Maltese Islands fell under the hegemony of Carthage in around the 6th century BC, along with most other Phoenician colonies in the western Mediterranean
Carl Linnaeus, known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish botanist and zoologist, who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature. He is known by the father of modern taxonomy. Many of his writings were in Latin, and his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus, Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland, in southern Sweden. He received most of his education at Uppsala University. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and published a first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands and he returned to Sweden, where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala. In the 1740s, he was sent on journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals and minerals, at the time of his death, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe. The philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau sent him the message, Tell him I know no man on earth. The German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote, With the exception of Shakespeare and Spinoza, Swedish author August Strindberg wrote, Linnaeus was in reality a poet who happened to become a naturalist.
Among other compliments, Linnaeus has been called Princeps botanicorum, The Pliny of the North and he is considered as one of the founders of modern ecology. In botany, the abbreviation used to indicate Linnaeus as the authority for species names is L. In older publications, sometimes the abbreviation Linn. is found, Linnæus was born in the village of Råshult in Småland, Sweden, on 23 May 1707. He was the first child of Nicolaus Ingemarsson and Christina Brodersonia and his siblings were Anna Maria Linnæa, Sofia Juliana Linnæa, Samuel Linnæus, and Emerentia Linnæa. One of a line of peasants and priests, Nils was an amateur botanist, a Lutheran minister. Christina was the daughter of the rector of Stenbrohult, Samuel Brodersonius, a year after Linnæus birth, his grandfather Samuel Brodersonius died, and his father Nils became the rector of Stenbrohult. The family moved into the rectory from the curates house, even in his early years, Linnæus seemed to have a liking for plants, flowers in particular.
Whenever he was upset, he was given a flower, which calmed him. Nils spent much time in his garden and often showed flowers to Linnaeus, soon Linnæus was given his own patch of earth where he could grow plants
History of Portugal
The history of Portugal dates back to the Early Middle Ages. The country was weakened by the destruction of much of its capital city in an earthquake in 1755, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars. From the middle of the 19th century to the late 1950s, in 1910, there was a revolution that deposed the monarchy. Amid corruption, repression of the church, and the bankruptcy of the state. The new government instituted sweeping reforms and granted independence to all of Portugals African colonies in 1975. Portugal is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. It entered the European Economic Community in 1986, the word Portugal derives from the Roman-Celtic place name Portus Cale. Around 200 BC, the Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War, during the Dark Ages, the region around Portus Cale became known by the Suebi and Visigoths as Portucale. By the 11th and 12th centuries, Portugale was already referred to as Portugal, the precise etymology of the name Cale is somewhat mysterious, although the most plausible origin points to Cale being a Celtic name, like many others found in the region.
Indeed the word cale or cala meant port, an inlet or harbour, furthermore todays Gaelic word for harbour is indeed Cala. Some argue it is the stem of Gallaecia, again of Celtic derivation, another theory claims it derives from the word Caladunum. In any case, the particle Portu in the word Portucale was used as the basis of Porto, and port became the English name of the wine actually produced further inland, in the Upper Douro Valley region, but exported through Porto. The name Cale is today reflected in Gaia, a city on the bank of the river. The region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals, and by Homo sapiens, Neanderthals probably arrived 100,000 years BP. A Neanderthal tooth found at Nova da Columbiera cave in Estremadura is one of the oldest human fossils so far discovered, Homo sapiens sapiens arrived in Portugal in around 35,000 years ago and spread rapidly throughout the country. Pre-Celtic tribes inhabited Portugal leaving a remarkable cultural footprint, the Cynetes developed a written language, leaving many stelae, which are mainly found in the south of Portugal.
Early in the first millennium BC, several waves of Celts invaded Portugal from Central Europe and intermarried with the populations to form several different ethnic groups. The Celtic presence in Portugal is traceable, in outline, through archaeological