1.
1741 in science
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The year 1741 in science and technology involved some significant events. August 29 – Pluto reached perihelion, december 11 – a Fire-ball and explosion heard over southern England, about 11 a. m. a countryman. Saw a flash of Lightening Before he heard the Noise, took its Course to the East. It divided into Two Heads left a Train of Smoke. which continued ascending for 20 minutes, the description is reminiscent of the Chelyabinsk meteor of 2013. Anders Celsius establishes the Uppsala Astronomical Observatory, pehr Wilhelm Wargentin publishes his first paper on the moons of Jupiter, in the Acta of the Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala. Edmund Weaver publishes The British Telescope, Being an Ephemeris of the Coelestial Motions, johann Jacob Dillenius publishes Historia Muscorum, a significant work on cryptogams. May – Vitus Bering sets out from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky to map the coasts of Siberia, july 15 – Alexei Chirikov sights land in Southeast Alaska. He sends some men ashore in a longboat, making them the first Europeans to visit Alaska, nicolas Andry publishes Orthopédie, giving a name to the discipline of orthopedics. December 25 – Anders Celsius proposes a centigrade temperature scale, on the return voyage he discovers Stellers sea cow
2.
1753 in science
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The year 1753 in science and technology involved some significant events. Ruđer Boškovićs De lunae atmosphaera demonstrates the lack of atmosphere on the Moon, may 1 – Publication of Linnaeus Species Plantarum, the start of formal scientific classification of plants. June – Establishment in Florence of the Accademia dei Georgofili, the worlds oldest society devoted to agronomy, claude François Geoffroy demonstrates that bismuth is distinct from lead and tin. January 1 – Retrospectively, the date value for a datetime field in an SQL Server due to this being the first full year since Britains adoption of the Gregorian calendar. James Lind publishes the first edition of A Treatise on the Scurvy, benjamin Franklin invents the lightning rod, to ring a bell when struck by lightning, following his 1752 kite and key tests. George Semple uses hydraulic lime cement in rebuilding Essex Bridge in Dublin
3.
1758 in science
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The year 1758 in science and technology involved some significant events. Comet Halley reappears as predicted by Edmond Halley in 1705, angélique du Coudray demonstrates the first obstetric mannequin. Scottish physician Francis Home makes the first attempt to deliver a measles vaccine, ruđer Bošković publishes his atomic theory in Philosophiæ naturalis theoria redacta ad unicam legem virium in natura existentium. Carl Linnaeus applies his binomial system to animal classification in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae
4.
1740s in archaeology
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The decade of the 1740s in archaeology involved some significant events. 1747, The mummified remains known as Amcotts Moor Woman, a bog body, is unearthed from a bog in Lincolnshire. 1747, Substantial remains of the Temple of Apollo are discovered in Mdina, many of the ruins are dispersed among private collections. 1748, Pompeii rediscovered as the result of excavations by Spanish military engineer Rocque Joaquin de Alcubierre. 1740, Nicholas Mahudels Les Monumens les plus anciens de lindustrie des hommes, des Arts et reconnus dans les pierres de Foudres,1744, First volume of Le Antichità di Ercolano, account of discoveries at Herculaneum. 1743, The Papenbroek Collection is bequeathed to Leiden University, comprising about 150 antiquities and it is put on public display and published in 1746, but poorly cared for until it gets an official curator, half a century later. 1743, November 23 - Théophile Corret de la Tour dAuvergne, French antiquary 1747, March 7 - Nicholas Mahudel, French antiquary Archaeology timeline
5.
1748 in architecture
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The year 1748 in architecture involved some significant events. Duke Street, Bath, England, designed by John Wood, holywell Music Room, Oxford, England, the oldest purpose-built concert hall in Europe, designed by Dr. Thomas Camplin. Mansion House, Doncaster, Yorkshire, England, designed by James Paine, is completed, margravial Opera House in Bayreuth, Bavaria, designed by Joseph Saint-Pierre with interior by Giuseppe Galli Bibiena and his son Carlo, is completed. Rebuilt Teatro San Samuele in Venice is opened, chapel at Fulneck Moravian Settlement, Yorkshire, England, completed. Igreja Matriz de Belazaima do Chão, Águeda Municipality, Portugal, Åkerö Manor in Södermanland, Sweden, designed by Carl Hårleman, built. Honing Hall in Norfolk, England, built, garron Bridge on Inveraray Castle estate in Scotland, designed by Roger Morris and/or his kin Robert Morris, completed
6.
Science
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Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. The formal sciences are often excluded as they do not depend on empirical observations, disciplines which use science, like engineering and medicine, may also be considered to be applied sciences. However, during the Islamic Golden Age foundations for the method were laid by Ibn al-Haytham in his Book of Optics. In the 17th and 18th centuries, scientists increasingly sought to formulate knowledge in terms of physical laws, over the course of the 19th century, the word science became increasingly associated with the scientific method itself as a disciplined way to study the natural world. It was during this time that scientific disciplines such as biology, chemistry, Science in a broad sense existed before the modern era and in many historical civilizations. Modern science is distinct in its approach and successful in its results, Science in its original sense was a word for a type of knowledge rather than a specialized word for the pursuit of such knowledge. In particular, it was the type of knowledge which people can communicate to each other, for example, knowledge about the working of natural things was gathered long before recorded history and led to the development of complex abstract thought. This is shown by the construction of calendars, techniques for making poisonous plants edible. For this reason, it is claimed these men were the first philosophers in the strict sense and they were mainly speculators or theorists, particularly interested in astronomy. In contrast, trying to use knowledge of nature to imitate nature was seen by scientists as a more appropriate interest for lower class artisans. A clear-cut distinction between formal and empirical science was made by the pre-Socratic philosopher Parmenides, although his work Peri Physeos is a poem, it may be viewed as an epistemological essay on method in natural science. Parmenides ἐὸν may refer to a system or calculus which can describe nature more precisely than natural languages. Physis may be identical to ἐὸν and he criticized the older type of study of physics as too purely speculative and lacking in self-criticism. He was particularly concerned that some of the early physicists treated nature as if it could be assumed that it had no intelligent order, explaining things merely in terms of motion and matter. The study of things had been the realm of mythology and tradition, however. Aristotle later created a less controversial systematic programme of Socratic philosophy which was teleological and he rejected many of the conclusions of earlier scientists. For example, in his physics, the sun goes around the earth, each thing has a formal cause and final cause and a role in the rational cosmic order. Motion and change is described as the actualization of potentials already in things, while the Socratics insisted that philosophy should be used to consider the practical question of the best way to live for a human being, they did not argue for any other types of applied science
7.
Technology
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Technology is the collection of techniques, skills, methods and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, the human species use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The steady progress of technology has brought weapons of ever-increasing destructive power. It has helped develop more advanced economies and has allowed the rise of a leisure class, many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earths environment. Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and raise new questions of the ethics of technology, examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, and the challenges of bioethics. Philosophical debates have arisen over the use of technology, with disagreements over whether technology improves the condition or worsens it. The use of the technology has changed significantly over the last 200 years. Before the 20th century, the term was uncommon in English, the term was often connected to technical education, as in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The term technology rose to prominence in the 20th century in connection with the Second Industrial Revolution, the terms meanings changed in the early 20th century when American social scientists, beginning with Thorstein Veblen, translated ideas from the German concept of Technik into technology. In German and other European languages, a distinction exists between technik and technologie that is absent in English, which translates both terms as technology. By the 1930s, technology referred not only to the study of the industrial arts, dictionaries and scholars have offered a variety of definitions. Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 Real World of Technology lecture, gave another definition of the concept, it is practice, the way we do things around here. The term is used to imply a specific field of technology, or to refer to high technology or just consumer electronics. Bernard Stiegler, in Technics and Time,1, defines technology in two ways, as the pursuit of life by other than life, and as organized inorganic matter. Technology can be most broadly defined as the entities, both material and immaterial, created by the application of mental and physical effort in order to some value. In this usage, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems and it is a far-reaching term that may include simple tools, such as a crowbar or wooden spoon, or more complex machines, such as a space station or particle accelerator. Tools and machines need not be material, virtual technology, such as software and business methods. W. Brian Arthur defines technology in a broad way as a means to fulfill a human purpose
8.
Pompeii
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Pompeii was an ancient Roman town-city near modern Naples, in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei. Pompeii, along with Herculaneum and many villas in the area, was mostly destroyed and buried under 4 to 6 m of volcanic ash. Researchers believe that the town was founded in the seventh or sixth century BC by the Osci or Oscans. It came under the domination of Rome in the 4th century BC, by the time of its destruction,160 years later, its population was estimated at 11,000 people, and the city had a complex water system, an amphitheatre, gymnasium, and a port. The eruption destroyed the city, killing its inhabitants and burying it under tons of ash, the site was lost for about 1,500 years until its initial rediscovery in 1599 and broader rediscovery almost 150 years later by Spanish engineer Rocque Joaquin de Alcubierre in 1748. The objects that lay beneath the city have been preserved for centuries because of the lack of air and these artefacts provide an extraordinarily detailed insight into the life of a city during the Pax Romana. During the excavation, plaster was used to fill in the voids in the ash layers that once held human bodies and this allowed archaeologists to see the exact position the person was in when he or she died. Pompeii has been a tourist destination for over 250 years, today it has UNESCO World Heritage Site status and is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Italy, with approximately 2.5 million visitors every year. Pompeii in Latin is a second declension plural, the ruins of Pompeii are located near the modern suburban town of Pompei. It stands on a formed by a lava flow to the north of the mouth of the Sarno River. Today it is some distance inland, but in ancient times was nearer to the coast, Pompeii is about 8 km away from Mount Vesuvius. It covered a total of 64 to 67 hectares and was home to approximately 11,000 to 11,500 people on the basis of household counts and it was a major city in the region of Campania. Three sheets of sediment have been found on top of the lava that lies below the city and, mixed in with the sediment, archaeologists have found bits of bone, pottery shards. Carbon dating has placed the oldest of these layers from the 8th–6th centuries BC, the other two strata are separated either by well-developed soil layers or Roman pavement, and were laid in the 4th century BC and 2nd century BC. It is theorized that the layers of the sediment were created by large landslides. The town was founded around the 7th-6th century BC by the Osci or Oscans and it had already been used as a safe port by Greek and Phoenician sailors. According to Strabo, Pompeii was also captured by the Etruscans, and in recent excavations have shown the presence of Etruscan inscriptions. Pompeii was captured for the first time by the Greek colony of Cumae, allied with Syracuse, in the 5th century BC, the Samnites conquered it, the new rulers imposed their architecture and enlarged the town
9.
Thomas Frye
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Thomas Frye (c.1710 –3 April 1762 was an Anglo-Irish painter, best known for his portraits in oil and pastel, including some miniatures and his early mezzotint engravings. The Bow porcelain works did not long survive Fryes death, their final auctions took place in May 1764, Frye was born at Edenderry, County Offaly, Ireland, in 1710, in his youth he went to London to practice as an artist. His earliest works are a pair of portraits of boys. For the Worshipful Company of Saddlers he painted a portrait of Frederick, Prince of Wales. He died of consumption on 2 April 1762 and was buried at Hornsey, Frye had five children, his two daughters assisted him in painting porcelain at Bow until their marriages. One of them, who married a Mr Willcox, was employed by Josiah Wedgwood at the Wedgwood Etruria works in painting figure-subjects from 1759 to 1776, Thomas Frye on-line Drawn From Nature and as Large As Life, Thomas Fryes Fancy Heads, exhibition 2006-07 National Portrait Gallery
10.
Bow porcelain factory
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The Bow porcelain factory was an emulative rival of the Chelsea porcelain factory in the manufacture of early soft-paste porcelain in Great Britain. The factory was located near Bow, in what is now the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, the local council owns a significant collection, which is in the care of the boroughs Heritage and Arts Service. Designs imitated imported Chinese and Japanese porcelains and the wares being produced at Chelsea, meissen figures were copied, both directly and indirectly through Chelsea. Quality was notoriously uneven, the warm, creamy body of Bow porcelains is glassy, the earliest Bow porcelains are of soft-paste incorporating bone ash, forming a phosphatic body that was a precursor of bone china. By 1750 Frye was serving as manager of the factory, under new owners, John Crowther, in 1753 they were advertising in Birmingham for painters and a modeller. The works, designated New Canton, were sited on the Essex side of the River Lea, about 1758, the manufactorys high point,300 persons were employed,90 of whom were painters, all under one roof. An account of the returns for a period of five years shows that the cash receipts, which were £6,573 in 1750–51, increased steadily from year to year. The total amount of sales in 1754 realized £18,115. The firm had a shop in Cornhill and a warehouse at St Katharines near the Tower. The part-owner Weatherby died in 1762 and his partner Crowther was listed as bankrupt the following year, three sales dispersed his effects in March and May 1764. The large white figure of the Farnese Flora, a point in the Bow production, was taken, it has been suggested. Some were enamelled by William Duesbury, some Bow figures were imitated from Chelsea models. Bow porcelain adopted the newly invented technique of printing from Battersea enamels in the 1750s. Derby porcelain Adam, Elizabeth and David Redstone, Bow Porcelain 1991, bradshaw, Peter Bow Porcelain Figures circa 1748–17741992. Rococo in English ceramics in, Rococo, Art and Design in Hogarths England, tait, Hugh, Bow porcelain in, R. J. British Porcelain 1745–18501965 Daniels, Pat, including the Participation of the Royal Society, Andrew Duche and the American Contribution 2007. 364 pp.48 colour and 51 b/w illustrations
11.
London
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London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region. Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud. From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a later date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
12.
Bone china
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Bone china is a type of soft-paste porcelain that is composed of bone ash, feldspathic material, and kaolin. It has been defined as ware with a translucent body containing a minimum of 30% of phosphate derived from animal bone and calculated calcium phosphate. Bone china is the strongest of the porcelain or china ceramics, having very high strength and chip resistance. Its high strength allows it to be produced in thinner cross-sections than other types of porcelain, like stoneware it is vitrified, but is translucent due to differing mineral properties. The first commercially widespread bone china was developed by the English potter Josiah Spode in the early 1790s, from its initial development and up to the later part of the 20th century, bone china was almost exclusively an English product, with production being effectively localised in Stoke-on-Trent. Most major English firms made or still make it, including Fortnum & Mason, Mintons, Coalport, Spode, Royal Crown Derby, Royal Doulton, Wedgwood and Worcester. In the UK, references to china or porcelain can refer to bone china, the first development of what would become known as bone china was made by Thomas Frye at his Bow porcelain factory near Bow in East London in 1748. His factory was located close to the cattle markets and slaughterhouses of Essex. Frye used up to 45% bone ash in his formulation to create what he called fine porcelain, although in quality it rivalled porcelain imported from Europe and China the factory was not a commercial success. Among his developments was to abandon Fryes procedure of calcining the bone together with some of the other raw materials. Bone china quickly proved to be popular, leading to its production by other English pottery manufacturers. The production of china is similar to porcelain, except more care is needed because of its lower plasticity. The traditional formulation for bone china is about 25% kaolin, 25% Cornish stone, the bone ash that is used in bone china is made from cattle bones that have a lower iron content. These bones are crushed before being degelatinised and then calcined at up to 1250 °C to produce bone ash, the ash is milled to a fine particle size. The kaolin component of the body is needed to give the unfired body plasticity which allows articles to be shaped and this mixture is then fired at around 1200 °C. The raw materials for bone china are comparatively expensive, and the production is labour-intensive, bone china consists of two crystalline phases, anorthite and β-tricalcium phosphate/whitlockite embedded in a substantial amount of glass. For almost 200 years from its development bone china was almost exclusively produced in the UK, during the middle part of the 20th century manufacturers in other countries began production, with the first successful ones outside the UK being in Japan, Noritake, Nikko and Narumi. In more recent years production in China has expanded considerably, other countries producing considerable amounts of bone china are Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Iran, Sri Lanka and Thailand
13.
Neptunism
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Neptunism, a superseded scientific theory of geology proposed by Abraham Gottlob Werner in the late 18th century, proposed rocks formed from the crystallisation of minerals in the early Earths oceans. The theory took its name from Neptune, the ancient Roman god of the sea, Modern geology acknowledges many different forms of rock formation, and explains the formation of sedimentary rock through processes very similar to those described by neptunism. In the mid-eighteenth century as the investigation of geology found evidence such as fossils, georges de Buffon proposed that the Earth was over 75,000 years old, possibly much older, and showed signs of historical development in a series of distinct epochs. Abraham Gottlob Werner was the inspector of mines and professor of mining and he based his historical sequence of rock formation on the theory that the Earth had originally consisted of water. There is no indication that any of the floods in Werners cosmogony were Noahs flood, a rival theory known as plutonism held that rocks were formed in fire. Neptunists differed from the plutonists in holding that basalt was a deposit which included fossils. Hutton correctly asserted that basalt never contained fossils and was always insoluble, hard and he found geological formations in which basalt cut through layers of other rocks, supporting his theory that it originated from molten rock under the Earths crust. The debate was not just between scientists, johann Wolfgang von Goethe, one of the most respected authors of the day, took sides with the neptunists. The fourth act of his famous work Faust contains a dialogue between a neptunist and a plutonist, the latter being Mephistopheles, the antagonist of the play who is a devil. Doing so he expressed his favour for the neptunist theory, though he also did so explicitly. The controversy lasted into the years of the 19th century, but the works of Charles Lyell in the 1830s gradually won over support for the uniformitarian ideas of Hutton. Gustav Bischof, founder of geochemistry, introduced chemical analysis into widespread use in geology, the theory, and its intellectual context, are treated with engaging irony in Daniel Kehlmanns fictionalised account of the travels of Alexander von Humboldt, Die Vermessung der Welt of 2006. Erickson, Jon, Plate Tectonics, New York, Facts On File,1992 Baigrie, Brian, Scientific Revolutions, Course Notes and Study Material, History of Science, Early Modern Geology. And Still We Evolve, A Handbook on the History of Modern Science, Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College, Nanaimo, BC
14.
Leonhard Euler
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He also introduced much of the modern mathematical terminology and notation, particularly for mathematical analysis, such as the notion of a mathematical function. He is also known for his work in mechanics, fluid dynamics, optics, astronomy, Euler was one of the most eminent mathematicians of the 18th century, and is held to be one of the greatest in history. He is also considered to be the most prolific mathematician of all time. His collected works fill 60 to 80 quarto volumes, more than anybody in the field and he spent most of his adult life in Saint Petersburg, Russia, and in Berlin, then the capital of Prussia. A statement attributed to Pierre-Simon Laplace expresses Eulers influence on mathematics, Read Euler, read Euler, Leonhard Euler was born on 15 April 1707, in Basel, Switzerland to Paul III Euler, a pastor of the Reformed Church, and Marguerite née Brucker, a pastors daughter. He had two sisters, Anna Maria and Maria Magdalena, and a younger brother Johann Heinrich. Soon after the birth of Leonhard, the Eulers moved from Basel to the town of Riehen, Paul Euler was a friend of the Bernoulli family, Johann Bernoulli was then regarded as Europes foremost mathematician, and would eventually be the most important influence on young Leonhard. Eulers formal education started in Basel, where he was sent to live with his maternal grandmother. In 1720, aged thirteen, he enrolled at the University of Basel, during that time, he was receiving Saturday afternoon lessons from Johann Bernoulli, who quickly discovered his new pupils incredible talent for mathematics. In 1726, Euler completed a dissertation on the propagation of sound with the title De Sono, at that time, he was unsuccessfully attempting to obtain a position at the University of Basel. In 1727, he first entered the Paris Academy Prize Problem competition, Pierre Bouguer, who became known as the father of naval architecture, won and Euler took second place. Euler later won this annual prize twelve times, around this time Johann Bernoullis two sons, Daniel and Nicolaus, were working at the Imperial Russian Academy of Sciences in Saint Petersburg. In November 1726 Euler eagerly accepted the offer, but delayed making the trip to Saint Petersburg while he applied for a physics professorship at the University of Basel. Euler arrived in Saint Petersburg on 17 May 1727 and he was promoted from his junior post in the medical department of the academy to a position in the mathematics department. He lodged with Daniel Bernoulli with whom he worked in close collaboration. Euler mastered Russian and settled life in Saint Petersburg. He also took on a job as a medic in the Russian Navy. The Academy at Saint Petersburg, established by Peter the Great, was intended to improve education in Russia, as a result, it was made especially attractive to foreign scholars like Euler
15.
Introductio in analysin infinitorum
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Introductio in analysin infinitorum is a two-volume work by Leonhard Euler which lays the foundations of mathematical analysis. Written in Latin and published in 1748, the Introductio contains 18 chapters in the first part and 22 chapters in the second. Boyer also wrote, The analysis of Euler comes close to the modern orthodox discipline, the first translation into English was that by John D. Blanton, published in 1988. The second, by Ian bruce, is available online, a list of the editions of Introductio has been assembled by V. Frederick Rickey
16.
Mathematics
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Mathematics is the study of topics such as quantity, structure, space, and change. There is a range of views among mathematicians and philosophers as to the exact scope, Mathematicians seek out patterns and use them to formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof, when mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry, rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclids Elements. Galileo Galilei said, The universe cannot be read until we have learned the language and it is written in mathematical language, and the letters are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without which means it is humanly impossible to comprehend a single word. Without these, one is wandering about in a dark labyrinth, carl Friedrich Gauss referred to mathematics as the Queen of the Sciences. Benjamin Peirce called mathematics the science that draws necessary conclusions, David Hilbert said of mathematics, We are not speaking here of arbitrariness in any sense. Mathematics is not like a game whose tasks are determined by arbitrarily stipulated rules, rather, it is a conceptual system possessing internal necessity that can only be so and by no means otherwise. Albert Einstein stated that as far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain, Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural science, engineering, medicine, finance and the social sciences. Applied mathematics has led to entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics, Mathematicians also engage in pure mathematics, or mathematics for its own sake, without having any application in mind. There is no clear line separating pure and applied mathematics, the history of mathematics can be seen as an ever-increasing series of abstractions. The earliest uses of mathematics were in trading, land measurement, painting and weaving patterns, in Babylonian mathematics elementary arithmetic first appears in the archaeological record. Numeracy pre-dated writing and numeral systems have many and diverse. Between 600 and 300 BC the Ancient Greeks began a study of mathematics in its own right with Greek mathematics. Mathematics has since been extended, and there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, to the benefit of both. Mathematical discoveries continue to be made today, the overwhelming majority of works in this ocean contain new mathematical theorems and their proofs. The word máthēma is derived from μανθάνω, while the modern Greek equivalent is μαθαίνω, in Greece, the word for mathematics came to have the narrower and more technical meaning mathematical study even in Classical times
17.
Mathematical constant
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A mathematical constant is a special number, usually a real number, that is significantly interesting in some way. Constants arise in areas of mathematics, with constants such as e and π occurring in such diverse contexts as geometry, number theory. The more popular constants have been studied throughout the ages and computed to many decimal places, all mathematical constants are definable numbers and usually are also computable numbers. These are constants which one is likely to encounter during pre-college education in many countries, however, its ubiquity is not limited to pure mathematics. It appears in many formulas in physics, and several physical constants are most naturally defined with π or its reciprocal factored out and it is debatable, however, if such appearances are fundamental in any sense. For example, the textbook nonrelativistic ground state wave function of the atom is ψ =11 /2 e − r / a 0. This formula contains a π, but it is unclear if that is fundamental in a physical sense, furthermore, this formula gives only an approximate description of physical reality, as it omits spin, relativity, and the quantal nature of the electromagnetic field itself. The numeric value of π is approximately 3.1415926535, memorizing increasingly precise digits of π is a world record pursuit. The constant e also has applications to probability theory, where it arises in a way not obviously related to exponential growth, suppose a slot machine with a one in n probability of winning is played n times. Then, for large n the probability that nothing will be won is approximately 1/e, another application of e, discovered in part by Jacob Bernoulli along with French mathematician Pierre Raymond de Montmort, is in the problem of derangements, also known as the hat check problem. Here n guests are invited to a party, and at the door each guest checks his hat with the butler who then places them into labelled boxes, the butler does not know the name of the guests, and so must put them into boxes selected at random. The problem of de Montmort is, what is the probability that none of the hats gets put into the right box, the answer is p n =1 −11. + ⋯ + n 1 n. and as n tends to infinity, the numeric value of e is approximately 2.7182818284. The square root of 2, often known as root 2, radical 2, or Pythagorass constant, and written as √2, is the algebraic number that. It is more called the principal square root of 2. Geometrically the square root of 2 is the length of a diagonal across a square sides of one unit of length. It was probably the first number known to be irrational and its numerical value truncated to 65 decimal places is,1.41421356237309504880168872420969807856967187537694807317667973799. The quick approximation 99/70 for the root of two is frequently used
18.
Maria Gaetana Agnesi
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Maria Gaetana Agnesi was an Italian mathematician, philosopher, theologian and humanitarian. She was the first woman to write a handbook and the first woman appointed as a Mathematics Professor at a university. She is credited with writing the first book discussing both differential and integral calculus and was a member of the faculty at the University of Bologna and she devoted the last four decades of her life to studying theology and to charitable work and serving the poor. This extended to helping the sick by allowing them entrance into her home where she set up a hospital and she was a devout Catholic and wrote extensively on the marriage between intellectual pursuit and mystical contemplation, most notably in her essay Il cielo mistico. She saw the rational contemplation of God as a complement to prayer and contemplation of the life, death, Maria Teresa Agnesi Pinottini, clavicembalist and composer, was her sister. Maria Gaetana Agnesi was born in Milan, to a wealthy and her father Pietro Agnesi, a University of Bologna mathematics professor, wanted to elevate his family into the Milanese nobility. In order to achieve his goal, he had married Anna Fortunata Brivio in 1717 and her mothers death provided her the excuse to retire from public life. She took over management of the household and she was one of 21 children. Maria was recognized early on as a prodigy, she could speak both Italian and French at five years of age. By her eleventh birthday, she had also learned Greek, Hebrew, Spanish, German, and Latin and she even educated her younger brothers. When she was nine years old, she composed and delivered a speech in Latin to some of the most distinguished intellectuals of the day. The subject was womens right to be educated, Agnesi suffered a mysterious illness at the age of 12 that was attributed to her excessive studying and was prescribed vigorous dancing and horseback riding. This treatment did not work, she began to experience extreme convulsions, by age fourteen, she was studying ballistics and geometry. Maria was very shy in nature and did not like these meetings and her father remarried twice after Marias mother died, and Maria Agnesi ended up the eldest of 21 children, including her half-siblings. In addition to her performances and lessons, her responsibility was to teach her siblings and this task kept her from her own goal of entering a convent, as she had become strongly religious. During that time, Maria studied with him both differential and integral calculus and her family was recognized as one of the wealthiest in Milan. According to Dirk Jan Struik, Agnesi is the first important woman mathematician since Hypatia, the goal of this work was, according to Agnesi herself, to give a systematic illustration of the different results and theorems of infinitesimal calculus. The model for her treatise was Le calcul différentiel et intégral dans l’Analyse by Charles René Reyneau, in this treatise, she worked on integrating mathematical analysis with algebra
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Milan
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Milan is a city in Italy, capital of the Lombardy region, and the most populous metropolitan area and the second most populous comune in Italy. The population of the city proper is 1,351,000, Milan has a population of about 8,500,000 people. It is the industrial and financial centre of Italy and one of global significance. In terms of GDP, it has the largest economy among European non-capital cities, Milan is considered part of the Blue Banana and lies at the heart of one of the Four Motors for Europe. Milan is an Alpha leading global city, with strengths in the arts, commerce, design, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, services, research, and tourism. Its business district hosts Italys Stock Exchange and the headquarters of the largest national and international banks, the city is a major world fashion and design capital, well known for several international events and fairs, including Milan Fashion Week and the Milan Furniture Fair. The city hosts numerous cultural institutions, academies and universities, with 11% of the national total enrolled students, Milans museums, theatres and landmarks attract over 9 million visitors annually. Milan – after Naples – is the second Italian city with the highest number of accredited stars from the Michelin Guide, the city hosted the Universal Exposition in 1906 and 2015. Milan is home to two of Europes major football teams, A. C. Milan and F. C. Internazionale, the etymology of Milan is uncertain. One theory holds that the Latin name Mediolanum comes from the Latin words medio, however, some scholars believe lanum comes from the Celtic root lan, meaning an enclosure or demarcated territory in which Celtic communities used to build shrines. Hence, Mediolanum could signify the central town or sanctuary of a Celtic tribe, indeed, the name Mediolanum is borne by about sixty Gallo-Roman sites in France, e. g. Saintes and Évreux. Alciato credits Ambrose for his account, around 400 BC, the Celtic Insubres settled Milan and the surrounding region. In 222 BC, the Romans conquered the settlement, renaming it Mediolanum, Milan was eventually declared the capital of the Western Roman Empire by Emperor Diocletian in 286 AD. Diocletian chose to stay in the Eastern Roman Empire and his colleague Maximianus ruled the Western one, immediately Maximian built several monuments, such as a large circus 470 m ×85 m, the Thermae Herculeae, a large complex of imperial palaces and several other buildings. With the Edict of Milan of 313, Emperor Constantine I guaranteed freedom of religion for Christians, after the city was besieged by the Visigoths in 402, the imperial residence was moved to Ravenna. In 452, the Huns overran the city, in 539, the Ostrogoths conquered and destroyed Milan during the Gothic War against Byzantine Emperor Justinian I. In the summer of 569, a Teutonic tribe, the Lombards, conquered Milan, some Roman structures remained in use in Milan under Lombard rule. Milan surrendered to the Franks in 774 when Charlemagne took the title of King of the Lombards, the Iron Crown of Lombardy dates from this period
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Thomas Bayes
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Thomas Bayes was an English statistician, philosopher and Presbyterian minister who is known for having formulated a specific case of the theorem that bears his name, Bayes theorem. Bayes never published what would become his most famous accomplishment. Thomas Bayes was the son of London Presbyterian minister Joshua Bayes and he came from a prominent nonconformist family from Sheffield. In 1719, he enrolled at the University of Edinburgh to study logic, on his return around 1722, he assisted his father at the latters chapel in London before moving to Tunbridge Wells, Kent, around 1734. There he was minister of the Mount Sion chapel, until 1752, in his later years he took a deep interest in probability. Others speculate he was motivated to rebut David Humes argument against believing in miracles on the evidence of testimony in An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding and his work and findings on probability theory were passed in manuscript form to his friend Richard Price after his death. By 1755 he was ill and by 1761 had died in Tunbridge Wells and he was buried in Bunhill Fields burial ground in Moorgate, London, where many nonconformists lie. Bayes solution to a problem of probability was presented in An Essay towards solving a Problem in the Doctrine of Chances which was read to the Royal Society in 1763 after Bayes death. Richard Price shepherded the work through this presentation and its publication in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London the following year and this was an argument for using a uniform prior distribution for a binomial parameter and not merely a general postulate. This essay contains a statement of a case of Bayes theorem. In the first decades of the century, many problems concerning the probability of certain events. For example, given a number of white and black balls in an urn. Or the converse, given one or more balls has been drawn, what can be said about the number of white. These are sometimes called inverse probability problems, Bayes Essay contains his solution to a similar problem posed by Abraham de Moivre, author of The Doctrine of Chances. In addition, a paper by Bayes on asymptotic series was published posthumously, Bayesian probability is the name given to several related interpretations of probability as an amount of epistemic confidence – the strength of beliefs, hypotheses etc. –, rather than a frequency. This allows the application of probability to all sorts of propositions rather than just ones that come with a reference class, Bayesian has been used in this sense since about 1950. Since its rebirth in the 1950s, advancements in computing technology have allowed scientists from many disciplines to pair traditional Bayesian statistics with random walk techniques, the use of the Bayes theorem has been extended in science and in other fields. Within modern utility theory, the definition would result by rearranging the definition of expected utility to solve for the probability
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Bayes' theorem
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In probability theory and statistics, Bayes’ theorem describes the probability of an event, based on prior knowledge of conditions that might be related to the event. One of the applications of Bayes’ theorem is Bayesian inference. When applied, the involved in Bayes’ theorem may have different probability interpretations. With the Bayesian probability interpretation the theorem expresses how a subjective degree of belief should rationally change to account for availability of related evidence, Bayesian inference is fundamental to Bayesian statistics. Bayes’ theorem is named after Rev. Thomas Bayes, who first provided an equation that allows new evidence to update beliefs. It was further developed by Pierre-Simon Laplace, who first published the modern formulation in his 1812 “Théorie analytique des probabilités. ”Sir Harold Jeffreys put Bayes’ algorithm and Laplaces formulation on an axiomatic basis. Jeffreys wrote that Bayes’ theorem “is to the theory of probability what the Pythagorean theorem is to geometry. ”Bayes theorem is stated mathematically as the equation, P = P P P. P and P are the probabilities of observing A and B without regard to each other, P, a conditional probability, is the probability of observing event A given that B is true. P is the probability of observing event B given that A is true, Bayes’ theorem was named after the Reverend Thomas Bayes, who studied how to compute a distribution for the probability parameter of a binomial distribution. Bayes’ unpublished manuscript was edited by Richard Price before it was posthumously read at the Royal Society. Price edited Bayes’ major work “An Essay towards solving a Problem in the Doctrine of Chances”, Price wrote an introduction to the paper which provides some of the philosophical basis of Bayesian statistics. In 1765 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in recognition of his work on the legacy of Bayes, the French mathematician Pierre-Simon Laplace reproduced and extended Bayes’ results in 1774, apparently quite unaware of Bayes’ work. The Bayesian interpretation of probability was developed mainly by Laplace, stephen Stigler suggested in 1983 that Bayes’ theorem was discovered by Nicholas Saunderson, a blind English mathematician, some time before Bayes, that interpretation, however, has been disputed. Martyn Hooper and Sharon McGrayne have argued that Richard Prices contribution was substantial, By modern standards, Price discovered Bayes’ work, recognized its importance, corrected it, contributed to the article, and found a use for it. The modern convention of employing Bayes’ name alone is unfair but so entrenched that anything else makes little sense, suppose a drug test is 99% sensitive and 99% specific. That is, the test will produce 99% true positive results for drug users, suppose that 0. 5% of people are users of the drug. If a randomly selected individual tests positive, what is the probability that he is a user and this surprising result arises because the number of non-users is very large compared to the number of users, thus the number of false positives outweighs the number of true positives. To use concrete numbers, if 1000 individuals are tested, there are expected to be 995 non-users and 5 users, from the 995 non-users,0.01 ×995 ≃10 false positives are expected
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John Fothergill (physician)
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John Fothergill FRS was an English physician, plant collector, philanthropist and Quaker. His medical writings were influential, and he built up a botanic garden in what is now West Ham Park in London. Fothergill was born at Carr End, near Bainbridge in Yorkshire, the son of John Fothergill, a Quaker preacher and farmer, after studying at Sedbergh School, Fothergill was apprenticed to an apothecary. He later took the degree of M. D. at Edinburgh, in 1736, followed by studies at St Thomass Hospital. After visiting continental Europe in 1740, he settled in London, for example, during the epidemics of influenza in 1775 and 1776 he is said to have treated sixty patients a day. He is credited with first identifying and naming trigeminal neuralgia in his work Of a Painful Affection of the Face in 1765. Fothergills pamphlet, Account of the Sore Throat attended with Ulcers, contains one of the first descriptions of streptococcal sore throat in English and his rejection of ineffective traditional therapies for this disease saved many lives. He also supported the publication of Benjamin Franklins papers on electricity, in his leisure, John Fothergill made a study of conchology and botany. In 1762 he bought Upton House near Stratford, London and in its grounds he built up a botanical garden. In the garden, with its glasshouses, John Coakley Lettsom, a Quaker physician and a protégé of his, exclaimed that the sphere seemed transposed, as the Arctic Circle joined with the equator. Lettsom published a catalogue of the plants of Fothergills garden Hortus Uptonensis, or a catalogue of the plants in the Dr. Fothergill’s garden at Upton, fothergilla is named in his honour. Fothergill was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1763 and he was the patron of Sydney Parkinson, the South Sea voyager, and also of William Bartram, the American botanist in his Southern travels 1773–76. A translation of the Bible, known as the Quaker Bible by Anthony Purver and he founded Ackworth School, Pontefract, Yorkshire in 1779. John Fothergill died in London on 26 December 1780, aged 68, fanny Burney, having earlier described him as an upright, stern old man. An old prig, later recorded when she was his patient, He really has been… amazingly civil and his niece Betty Fothergill described him in her journal as surely the first of men. With the becoming dignity of age he unites the cheerfulness and liberality of youth and he possesses the most virtues and the fewest failings of any man I know. Memoires of John Fothergill, M. D. John Fothergill, attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Fothergill, John. A Complete Collection of the Medical and Philosophical Works of John Fothergill, memoirs of the Life and Gospel Labours of Samuel Fothergill, with Selections from his Correspondence
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Pierre Le Roy
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Pierre Le Roy was a French clockmaker. He was the inventor of the detent escapement, the temperature-compensated balance and his developments are considered as the foundation of the modern precision clock. Le Roy was born in Paris, eldest son of Julien Le Roy and he had three brothers, Julien Le Roy a clockmaker and watchmaker, Julien-David Le Roy an architect, and Charles Le Roy, a physician and Encyclopédiste. In 1748, he invented a pivoted detent type of escapement, or detached escapement and he was distinguished principally in his mastery and improvement of the clock and chronograph, above all of the marine chronometer, in which he carried forward the pioneering work of John Harrison. He took a different approach from that of Harrison, believing that the way to achieve seaworthiness was to detach the escapement from the balance, after having designed plans in 1754, he constructed his first chronometers by 1756, and accomplished his masterpiece in 1766. This remarkable chronometer incorporated an escapement, a temperature-compensated balance. Harrison demonstrated a reliable chronometer at sea, but these developments by Le Roy are considered by Rupert Gould to be the foundation of the modern chronometer, Pierre Le Roys chronometer had a performance equivalent to that of the Harrison H4 chronometer. In 1769 he was awarded the prize offered by the Académie française for the best method of measuring time at sea. He was the author of several publications on the art and science of clock-making and chronography. He also became Horloger du Roi in 1760 and he died in Vitry in 1785. Hautehorlogerie. org, Longitude at Sea hautehorlogerie. org, Pierre Le Roy Dorange, Auguste Jean,1880, Notice sur Julien Le Roy, horloger
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Escapement
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An escapement is a device in mechanical watches and clocks that transfers energy to the timekeeping element and allows the number of its oscillations to be counted. The impulse action transfers energy to the timekeeping element to replace the energy lost to friction during its cycle. The escapement is driven by force from a spring or a suspended weight. Each swing of the pendulum or balance wheel releases a tooth of the escape wheel gear. This regular periodic advancement moves the hands forward at a steady rate. At the same time the tooth gives the timekeeping element a push, before another tooth catches on the escapements pallet, the sudden stopping of the escapements tooth is what generates the characteristic ticking sound heard in operating mechanical clocks and watches. Escapements are used elsewhere as well, manual typewriters used escapements to step the carriage as each letter was typed. The importance of the escapement in the history of technology is that it was the key invention that made the all-mechanical clock possible, oscillating timekeepers are used in every modern clock. The earliest liquid-driven escapement was described by the Greek engineer Philo of Byzantium in his technical treatise Pneumatics as part of a washstand, a counterweighted spoon, supplied by a water tank, tips over in a basin when full, releasing a spherical piece of pumice in the process. Once the spoon has emptied, it is pulled up again by the counterweight, remarkably, Philos comment that its construction is similar to that of clocks indicates that such escapement mechanisms were already integrated in ancient water clocks. In China, the Tang dynasty Buddhist monk Yi Xing along with government official Liang Lingzan made the escapement in 723 to the workings of an armillary sphere. Song dynasty horologists Zhang Sixun and Su Song duly applied escapement devices for their astronomical clock towers, according to historian Derek J. de Solla Price, the medieval Chinese escapement spread west and was the source for Western escapement technology. Hassan, a mercury escapement in a Spanish work for Alfonso X in 1277 can be traced back to earlier Arabic sources, knowledge of these mercury escapements may have spread through Europe with translations of Arabic and Spanish texts. However, none of these were true mechanical escapements, since they depended on the flow of liquid through an orifice to measure time. For example, in Su Songs clock, water flowed into a container on a pivot, the escapements role was to tip the container over each time it filled up, thus advancing the clocks wheels each time an equal quantity of water was measured out. The time between releases depended on the rate of flow, which decreased with water pressure as the level of water in the source container dropped. The development of mechanical clocks depended on the invention of an escapement which would allow a movement to be controlled by an oscillating weight. The Chinese one worked intermittently, the European, in discrete, both systems used gravity as the prime mover, but the action was very different