RMS Olympic was a British transatlantic crossing ocean liner, the lead ship of the White Star Line's trio of Olympic-class liners. Unlike the other ships in the class, Olympic had a long career spanning 24 years from 1911 to 1935; this included service as a troopship during the First World War, which gained her the nickname "Old Reliable". She returned to civilian service after the war and served as an ocean liner throughout the 1920s and into the first half of the 1930s, although increased competition, the slump in trade during the Great Depression after 1930, made her operation unprofitable. Olympic was the largest ocean liner in the world for two periods during 1911–13, interrupted only by the brief tenure of the larger Titanic, before she was surpassed by SS Imperator. Olympic retained the title of the largest British-built liner until RMS Queen Mary was launched in 1934, interrupted only by the short careers of her larger sister ships; the Olympic was withdrawn from service and sold for scrap in 1935.
Decorative elements of Olympic were removed and sold at auction before she was scrapped, now adorn buildings and a cruise ship. By contrast with Olympic, the other two ships in the class and Britannic, did not have long service lives. Titanic collided with an iceberg in the North Atlantic on her maiden voyage and sank, while Britannic struck a mine and sank in the Kea Channel in Greece in 1916. Britannic never served her intended role as a passenger ship. Built in Belfast, Olympic was the first of the three Olympic-class ocean liners – the others were Titanic and Britannic, they were by far the largest vessels of the British shipping company White Star Line's fleet, which comprised 29 steamers and tenders in 1912. The three ships had their genesis in a discussion in mid-1907 between the White Star Line's chairman, J. Bruce Ismay, the American financier J. Pierpont Morgan, who controlled the White Star Line's parent corporation, the International Mercantile Marine Co; the White Star Line faced a growing challenge from its main rivals Cunard, which had just launched Lusitania and Mauretania – the fastest passenger ships in service – and the German lines Hamburg America and Norddeutscher Lloyd.
Ismay preferred to compete on size and economics rather than speed and proposed to commission a new class of liners that would be bigger than anything that had gone before as well as being the last word in comfort and luxury. The company sought an upgrade in their fleet in response to the Cunard giants but to replace their largest and now outclassed ships from 1890, RMS Teutonic and RMS Majestic; the former was replaced by Olympic. Majestic would be brought back into her old spot on White Star's New York service after Titanic's loss; the ships were constructed by the Belfast shipbuilders Harland and Wolff, who had a long established relationship with the White Star Line dating back to 1867. Harland and Wolff were given a great deal of latitude in designing ships for the White Star Line. Cost considerations were low on the agenda and Harland and Wolff was authorised to spend what it needed on the ships, plus a five percent profit margin. In the case of the Olympic-class ships, a cost of £3 million for the first two ships was agreed plus "extras to contract" and the usual five percent fee.
Harland and Wolff put their leading designers to work designing the Olympic-class vessels. It was overseen by a director of both Harland and Wolff and the White Star Line. Carlisle's responsibilities included the decorations and all general arrangements, including the implementation of an efficient lifeboat davit design. On 29 July 1908, Harland and Wolff presented the drawings to Bruce Ismay and other White Star Line executives. Ismay approved the design and signed three "letters of agreement" two days authorising the start of construction. At this point the first ship –, to become Olympic – had no name, but was referred to as "Number 400", as it was Harland and Wolff's four hundredth hull. Titanic was based on a revised version of the same design and was given the number 401. Bruce Ismay's father Thomas Henry Ismay had planned to build a ship named Olympic as a sister ship to Oceanic; the senior Ismay died in 1899 and the order for the ship was cancelled. Construction of Olympic began three months before Titanic to ease pressures on the shipyard.
Several years would pass. In order to accommodate the construction of the class and Wolff upgraded their facility in Belfast. Olympic and Titanic were constructed side by side. Olympic's keel was laid on 16 December 1908 and she was launched on 20 October 1910, without having been christened beforehand. For her launch, the hull was painted in a light grey colour for photographic purposes, her hull was repainted black following the launch. The ship was dry-docked for her fitting out (at the moment of the launching, the ship was an empty shell, without mac
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of the province of Manitoba in Canada. Centred on the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine rivers, it is near the longitudinal centre of North America 110 kilometres north of the Canada–United States border; the city is named after the nearby Lake Winnipeg. The region was a trading centre for aboriginal peoples long before the arrival of Europeans. French traders built the first fort on the site in 1738. A settlement was founded by the Selkirk settlers of the Red River Colony in 1812, the nucleus of, incorporated as the City of Winnipeg in 1873; as of 2011, Winnipeg is the seventh most populated municipality in Canada. Being far inland, the local climate is seasonal by Canadian standards with average January lows of around −21 °C and average July highs of 26 °C. Known as the "Gateway to the West", Winnipeg is a railway and transportation hub with a diversified economy; this multicultural city hosts numerous annual festivals, including the Festival du Voyageur, the Winnipeg Folk Festival, the Jazz Winnipeg Festival, the Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival, Folklorama.
Winnipeg was the first Canadian host of the Pan American Games. It is home to several professional sports franchises, including the Winnipeg Blue Bombers, the Winnipeg Jets, Manitoba Moose, Valour FC, the Winnipeg Goldeyes. Winnipeg lies at the confluence of the Assiniboine and the Red River of the North, a location now known as "The Forks"; this point was at the crossroads of canoe routes travelled by First Nations before European contact. Winnipeg is named after nearby Lake Winnipeg. Evidence provided by archaeology, rock art and oral history indicates that native peoples used the area in prehistoric times for camping, hunting, tool making, trading and, farther north, for agriculture. Estimates of the date of first settlement in this area range from 11,500 years ago for a site southwest of the present city to 6,000 years ago at The Forks. In 1805, Canadian colonists observed First Nations peoples engaged in farming activity along the Red River; the practice expanded, driven by the demand by traders for provisions.
The rivers provided an extensive transportation network linking northern First Peoples with those to the south along the Missouri and Mississippi rivers. The Ojibwe made some of the first maps on birch bark, which helped fur traders navigate the waterways of the area. Sieur de La Vérendrye built the first fur trading post on the site in 1738, called Fort Rouge. French trading continued at this site for several decades before the arrival of the British Hudson's Bay Company after France ceded the territory following its defeat in the Seven Years' War. Many French men who were trappers married First Nations women, they developed as an ethnicity known as the Métis because of sharing a traditional culture. Lord Selkirk was involved with the first permanent settlement, the purchase of land from the Hudson's Bay Company, a survey of river lots in the early 19th century; the North West Company built Fort Gibraltar in 1809, the Hudson's Bay Company built Fort Douglas in 1812, both in the area of present-day Winnipeg.
The two companies competed fiercely over trade. The Métis and Lord Selkirk's settlers fought at the Battle of Seven Oaks in 1816. In 1821, the Hudson's Bay and North West Companies merged. Fort Gibraltar was renamed Fort Garry in 1822 and became the leading post in the region for the Hudson's Bay Company. A flood destroyed the fort in 1826 and it was not rebuilt until 1835. A rebuilt section of the fort, consisting of the front gate and a section of the wall, is near the modern-day corner of Main Street and Broadway Avenue in downtown Winnipeg. In 1869–70, present-day Winnipeg was the site of the Red River Rebellion, a conflict between the local provisional government of Métis, led by Louis Riel, newcomers from eastern Canada. General Garnet Wolseley was sent to put down the uprising; the Manitoba Act of 1870 made Manitoba the fifth province of the three-year-old Canadian Confederation. Treaty 1, which encompassed the city and much of the surrounding area, was signed on 3 August 1871 by representatives of the Crown and local Indigenous groups, comprising the Brokenhead Ojibway, Long Plain, Roseau River Anishinabe, Sandy Bay and Swan Lake communities.
On 8 November 1873, Winnipeg was incorporated with the Selkirk settlement as its nucleus. Métis legislator and interpreter James McKay named the city. Winnipeg's mandate was to govern and provide municipal services to citizens attracted to trade expansion between Upper Fort Garry / Lower Fort Garry and Saint Paul, Minnesota. Winnipeg developed after the coming of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1881; the railway divided the North End, which housed Eastern Europeans, from the richer Anglo-Saxon southern part of the city. It contributed to a demographic shift beginning shortly after Confederation that saw the francophone population decrease from a majority to a small minority group; this shift resulted in Premier Thomas Greenway controversially ending legislative bilingualism and removing funding for French Catholic Schools in 1890. By 1911, Winnipeg was Canada's third-largest city. However, the city faced financial difficulty when the Panama Canal opened in 1914; the canal reduced reliance on Canada's rail system for international trade.
Canadian Expeditionary Force
The Canadian Expeditionary Force was the designation of the field force created by Canada for service overseas in the First World War. The force fielded several combat formations on the Western Front in France and Belgium, the largest of, the Canadian Corps, consisting of four divisions; the Canadian Cavalry Brigade and the Canadian Independent Force, which were independent of the Canadian Corps fought on the Western Front. The CEF had a large reserve and training organization in England, a recruiting organization in Canada. In the stages of the European war after their success at Vimy Ridge and Passchendaele, the Canadian Corps was regarded by friend and foe alike as one of the most effective Allied military formations on the Western Front. In August 1918, the CEF's Canadian Siberian Expeditionary Force travelled to revolution-torn Russia, it reinforced an anti-Bolshevik garrison in Vladivostok during the winter of 1918–19. At this time, another force of Canadian soldiers were placed in Archangel, where they fought against Bolsheviks.
The Canadian Expeditionary Force was volunteers. In all, 24,132 conscripts had been sent to France to take part in the final Hundred Days campaign; as a Dominion in the British Empire, Canada was automatically at war with Germany upon the British declaration. Popular support for the war was found in English Canada. Of the first contingent formed at Valcartier, Quebec in 1914, about two-thirds were men, born in the United Kingdom. By the end of the war in 1918, at least half of the soldiers were British-born. Recruiting was difficult among the French-Canadian population, many of whom did not agree with supporting Canada's participation in the war. To a lesser extent, several other cultural groups within the Dominion enlisted and made a significant contribution to the Force including Indigenous people of the First Nations, Black Canadians as well as Black Americans. Many British nationals from the United Kingdom or other territories who were resident in Canada joined the CEF. A sizeable percentage of Bermuda's volunteers who served in the war joined the CEF, either because they were resident in Canada or because Canada was the easiest other part of the Empire and Commonwealth to reach from Bermuda.
As several CEF battalions were posted to the Bermuda Garrison before proceeding to France, islanders were able to enlist there. Although the Bermuda Militia Artillery and Bermuda Volunteer Rifle Corps both sent contingents to the Western Front, the first would not arrive there until June 1915. By many Bermudians had been serving on the Western Front in the CEF for months. Bermudians in the CEF enlisted under the same terms as Canadians, all male British Nationals resident in Canada became liable for conscription under the Military Service Act, 1917; the CEF raised 260 numbered infantry battalions, two named infantry battalions, 17 mounted regiments, 13 railway troop battalions, five pioneer battalions, four divisional supply trains, four divisional signals companies, a dozen engineering companies, over 80 field and heavy artillery batteries, fifteen field ambulance units, 23 general and stationary hospitals, many other medical, forestry, tunnelling and service units. Two tank battalions did not see service.
Most of the infantry battalions were broken up and used as reinforcements, with a total of fifty being used in the field, including the mounted rifle units, which were re-organized as infantry. The artillery and engineering units underwent significant re-organization as the war progressed, in keeping with changing technological and tactical requirements. Another entity within the Canadian Expeditionary Force was the Canadian Machine Gun Corps, it consisted of several motor machine gun battalions, the Eatons and Borden Motor Machine Gun Batteries, nineteen machine gun companies. During the summer of 1918, these units were consolidated into four machine gun battalions, one being attached to each of the four divisions in the Canadian Corps; the Canadian Corps with its four infantry divisions comprised the main fighting force of the CEF. The Canadian Cavalry Brigade served in France. Support units of the CEF included the Canadian Railway Troops, which served on the Western Front and provided a bridging unit for the Middle East.
The 1915 Battle of Ypres, the first engagement of Canadian forces in the Great War, exposed Canadian soldiers and their commanders to modern war. They had experienced the effects of shellfire and participated in aggressive trench raiding despite a lack of formal training and inferior equipment, they were equipped with the malfunctioning Ross rifle, the older and less reliable Colt machine gun and an inferior Canadian copy of British webbing equipment that rotted and fell apart in the wet of the trenches. In April 1915, they were introduced to yet another facet of gas; the Germans employed chlorine gas to create a hole in the French lines adjacent to the Canadian force and poured troops into the gap. The Canadians, operating for the most part in small groups and under local commanders, fi
16th Battalion (Canadian Scottish), CEF
The 16th Battalion, CEF was a unit of the First World War Canadian Expeditionary Force. It was organized at Valcartier on 2 September 1914 in response to the Great War and was composed of recruits from the 91st Canadian Highlanders, the 79th Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders, the 72nd Seaforth Highlanders of Canada, the 50th Regiment; the 16th Battalion served in the 3rd Brigade of the 1st Canadian Division. Since its early beginnings, the battalion had a high standard of conduct on the battlefield and was commanded by outstanding leaders. One such was Lieutenant-General Sir Arthur Currie, KCMG, who rose to command the Canadian Corps during the Great War. Currie was a master tactician whose skills led the Canadians to victory at Vimy Amiens. Lieutenant-Colonel Cyrus Wesley Peck commanded the battalion for many months in the trenches. Four members of the 16th Battalion were awarded the Victoria Cross: Piper James Cleland Richardson, Private William Johnstone Milne, Lance-Corporal William Henry Metcalf, Lieutenant-Colonel Cyrus Peck.
Piper James Richardson was just 18 years old when he enlisted, was killed during the Battle of the Somme shortly after having played his company through No Man's Land. He disappeared in shellfire after going back to retrieve the bagpipes he laid aside to bring back a wounded comrade; the Canadian historian René Chartrand noted that despite the fact that black Canadians were only supposed to serve in construction units, one of the soldiers in the painting The Conquerors is a black man, suggesting that at least some black Canadians served as infantrymen in World War I. The battalion returned to England on 27 March 1919, disembarked in Canada on 4 May 1919, was demobilized on 8 May 1919, was disbanded by General Order 149 of 15 September 1920; the 16th Battalion, CEF is perpetuated by The Canadian Scottish Regiment. Canadian Scottish Regiment Collection at University of Victoria, Special Collections
Military history of Canada
The military history of Canada comprises hundreds of years of armed actions in the territory encompassing modern Canada, interventions by the Canadian military in conflicts and peacekeeping worldwide. For thousands of years, the area that would become Canada was the site of sporadic intertribal conflicts among Aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the 17th and 18th centuries, Canada was the site of four colonial wars and two additional wars in Nova Scotia and Acadia between New France and New England. In 1763, after the final colonial war—the Seven Years' War—the British emerged victorious and the French civilians, whom the British hoped to assimilate, were declared "British Subjects". After the passing of the Quebec Act in 1774, giving the Canadians their first charter of rights under the new regime, the northern colonies chose not to join the American Revolution and remained loyal to the British crown; the Americans launched invasions in 1775 and 1812. On both occasions, the Americans were rebuffed by Canadian forces.
After Confederation, amid much controversy, a full-fledged Canadian military was created. Canada, remained a British dominion, Canadian forces joined their British counterparts in the Second Boer War and the First World War. While independence followed the Statute of Westminster, Canada's links to Britain remained strong, the British once again had the support of Canadians during the Second World War. Since Canada has been committed to multilateralism and has gone to war within large multinational coalitions such as in the Korean War, the Gulf War, the Kosovo War, the Afghan war; the causes of aboriginal warfare tended to be over tribal independence and personal and tribal honour—revenge for perceived wrongs committed against oneself or one's tribe. Before European colonization, aboriginal warfare tended to be formal and ritualistic, entailed few casualties. There is some evidence of much more violent warfare the complete genocide of some First Nations groups by others, such as the total displacement of the Dorset culture of Newfoundland by the Beothuk.
Warfare was common among indigenous peoples of the Subarctic with sufficient population density. Inuit groups of the northern Arctic extremes did not engage in direct warfare because of their small populations, relying instead on traditional law to resolve conflicts; those captured in fights were not always killed. Slavery was hereditary, the slaves being prisoners of war and their descendants. Slave-owning tribes of the fishing societies, such as the Tlingit and Haida, lived along the coast from what are now Alaska to California. Among indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast, about a quarter of the population were slaves; the first conflicts between Europeans and aboriginal peoples may have occurred around 1000 CE, when parties of Norsemen attempted to establish permanent settlements along the northeastern coast of North America. According to Norse sagas, the skraelings of Vinland responded so ferociously that the newcomers withdrew and gave up their plans to settle the area. Prior to French settlements in the St. Lawrence River valley, the local Iroquoian peoples were completely displaced because of warfare with their neighbours the Algonquin.
The Iroquois League was established prior to major European contact. Most archaeologists and anthropologists believe that the League was formed sometime between 1450 and 1600. Existing aboriginal alliances would become important to the colonial powers in the struggle for North American hegemony during the 17th and 18th centuries. After European arrival, fighting between aboriginal groups tended to be bloodier and more decisive as tribes became caught up in the economic and military rivalries of the European settlers. By the end of the 17th century, First Nations from the northeastern woodlands, eastern subarctic and the Métis had adopted the use of firearms, supplanting the traditional bow; the adoption of firearms increased the number of fatalities. The bloodshed during conflicts was dramatically increased by the uneven distribution of firearms and horses among competing aboriginal groups. Two years after the French founded Port Royal in 1605, the English began their first settlement, at Jamestown, Virginia, to the south.
By 1706, the French population was around 16,000 and grew due to a multitude of factors. This lack of immigration resulted in New France having one-tenth of the British population of the Thirteen Colonies by the mid 1700s. La Salle's explorations had given France a claim to the Mississippi River valley, where fur trappers and a few colonists set up scattered settlements; the colonies of New France: Acadia on the Bay of Fundy and Canada on the St. Lawrence River were based on the fur trade and had only lukewarm support from the French monarchy; the colonies of New France grew given the difficult geographical and climatic circumstances. The more favourably located New England Colonies to the south developed a diversified economy and flourished from immigration. From 1670, through the Hudson's Bay Company, the English laid claim to Hudson Bay and its drainage basin, operated fishing settlements in Newfoundland; the early military of New France consisted of a mix of regular soldiers from the Fren
43rd Battalion (Cameron Highlanders of Canada), CEF
The 43rd Battalion, CEF, was an infantry battalion of the Canadian Expeditionary Force during the Great War. The 43rd Battalion was authorized on 7 November 1914 and embarked for Britain on 1 June 1915, it disembarked in France on 22 February 1916, where it fought as part of the 9th Infantry Brigade, 3rd Canadian Division in France and Flanders until the end of the war. The battalion was disbanded on 30 August 1920; the 43rd Battalion was mobilized at Winnipeg, Manitoba. The 43rd Battalion had five officers commanding: Lt-Col. R. McD. Thomson, 1 June 1915 – 8 October 1916 Lt.-Col. W. Grassie, DSO, 9 October 1916 – 4 November 1917 Lt.-Col. W. K. Chandler, 4 November 1917 – 23 December 1917 Lt-Col. H. M. Urquart, DSO, MC, 23 December 1917 – 16 August 1918 Lt.-Col. W. K. Chandler, DSO, 16 August 1918-DemobilizationOne member of the 43rd Battalion was awarded the Victoria Cross. Lieutenant Robert Shankland was awarded the Victoria Cross for his actions at Passchendaele on 26 October 1917, he had been awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal as a sergeant for his actions at Sanctuary Wood in 1916.
The 43rd Battalion was awarded the following battle honours: MOUNT SORREL SOMME, 1916 Flers-Courcelette Ancre Heights ARRAS, 1917,'18 Vimy, 1917 HILL 70 Ypres 1917 Passchendaele AMIENS Scarpe 1918 Drocourt-Quéant HINDENBURG LINE Canal du Nord PURSUIT TO MONS FRANCE AND FLANDERS, 1916-18The 43rd Battalion, CEF, is perpetuated by The Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders of Canada. Canadian Expeditionary Force 1914-1919 by Col. G. W. L. Nicholson, CD, Queen's Printer, Ontario, 1962