1753 in science
The year 1753 in science and technology involved some significant events. Ruđer Boškovićs De lunae atmosphaera demonstrates the lack of atmosphere on the Moon, may 1 – Publication of Linnaeus Species Plantarum, the start of formal scientific classification of plants. June – Establishment in Florence of the Accademia dei Georgofili, the worlds oldest society devoted to agronomy, claude François Geoffroy demonstrates that bismuth is distinct from lead and tin. January 1 – Retrospectively, the date value for a datetime field in an SQL Server due to this being the first full year since Britains adoption of the Gregorian calendar. James Lind publishes the first edition of A Treatise on the Scurvy, benjamin Franklin invents the lightning rod, to ring a bell when struck by lightning, following his 1752 kite and key tests. George Semple uses hydraulic lime cement in rebuilding Essex Bridge in Dublin
A chemist is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry. Chemists study the composition of matter and its properties, chemists carefully describe the properties they study in terms of quantities, with detail on the level of molecules and their component atoms. Chemists carefully measure substance proportions, reaction rates, and other chemical properties, the word chemist is used to address Pharmacists in Commonwealth English. Chemists may specialize in any number of subdisciplines of chemistry, materials scientists and metallurgists share much of the same education and skills with chemists. The roots of chemistry can be traced to the phenomenon of burning, fire was a mystical force that transformed one substance into another and thus was of primary interest to mankind. It was fire that led to the discovery of iron and glasses, after gold was discovered and became a precious metal, many people were interested to find a method that could convert other substances into gold. This led to the protoscience called alchemy, the word chemist is derived from the New Latin noun chimista, an abbreviation of alchimista.
Alchemists discovered many chemical processes that led to the development of modern chemistry, Chemistry as we know it today, was invented by Antoine Lavoisier with his law of conservation of mass in 1783. The discoveries of the elements has a long history culminating in the creation of the periodic table by Dmitri Mendeleev. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry created in 1901 gives an excellent overview of chemical discovery since the start of the 20th century. Jobs for chemists usually require at least a degree, but many positions, especially those in research. At the Masters level and higher, students tend to specialize in a particular field, postdoctoral experience may be required for certain positions. Workers whose work involves chemistry, but not at a complexity requiring an education with a degree, are commonly referred to as chemical technicians. Such technicians commonly do such work as simpler, routine analyses for quality control or in clinical laboratories, there are degrees specific to become a Chemical Technologist, which are somewhat distinct from those required when a student is interested in becoming a professional Chemist.
A Chemical technologist is more involved in the management and operation of the equipment and they are part of the team of a chemical laboratory in which the quality of the raw material, intermediate products and finished products is analyzed. They perform functions in the areas of quality control. The higher the level achieved in the field of Chemistry, the higher the responsibility given to that chemist. Chemistry, as a field, have so many applications that different tasks/objectives can be given to workers/scientists with these different levels of education and/or experience
Jean le Rond d'Alembert
Jean-Baptiste le Rond dAlembert was a French mathematician, physicist and music theorist. Until 1759 he was co-editor with Denis Diderot of the Encyclopédie, DAlemberts formula for obtaining solutions to the wave equation is named after him. The wave equation is referred to as dAlemberts equation. Born in Paris, dAlembert was the son of the writer Claudine Guérin de Tencin and the chevalier Louis-Camus Destouches. Destouches was abroad at the time of dAlemberts birth, days after birth his mother left him on the steps of the Saint-Jean-le-Rond de Paris church. According to custom, he was named after the saint of the church. DAlembert was placed in an orphanage for foundling children, but his father found him and placed him with the wife of a glazier, Madame Rousseau, Destouches secretly paid for the education of Jean le Rond, but did not want his paternity officially recognized. DAlembert first attended a private school, the chevalier Destouches left dAlembert an annuity of 1200 livres on his death in 1726.
Under the influence of the Destouches family, at the age of twelve entered the Jansenist Collège des Quatre-Nations. Here he studied philosophy and the arts, graduating as baccalauréat en arts in 1735, in his life, DAlembert scorned the Cartesian principles he had been taught by the Jansenists, physical promotion, innate ideas and the vortices. The Jansenists steered DAlembert toward a career, attempting to deter him from pursuits such as poetry. Theology was, rather unsubstantial fodder for dAlembert and he entered law school for two years, and was nominated avocat in 1738. He was interested in medicine and mathematics, Jean was first registered under the name Daremberg, but changed it to dAlembert. The name dAlembert was proposed by Johann Heinrich Lambert for a moon of Venus. In July 1739 he made his first contribution to the field of mathematics, at the time Lanalyse démontrée was a standard work, which dAlembert himself had used to study the foundations of mathematics. DAlembert was a Latin scholar of note and worked in the latter part of his life on a superb translation of Tacitus.
In 1740, he submitted his second scientific work from the field of fluid mechanics Mémoire sur la réfraction des corps solides, in this work dAlembert theoretically explained refraction. In 1741, after failed attempts, dAlembert was elected into the Académie des Sciences
Carl Linnaeus, known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish botanist and zoologist, who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature. He is known by the father of modern taxonomy. Many of his writings were in Latin, and his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus, Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland, in southern Sweden. He received most of his education at Uppsala University. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and published a first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands and he returned to Sweden, where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala. In the 1740s, he was sent on journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals and minerals, at the time of his death, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe. The philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau sent him the message, Tell him I know no man on earth. The German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote, With the exception of Shakespeare and Spinoza, Swedish author August Strindberg wrote, Linnaeus was in reality a poet who happened to become a naturalist.
Among other compliments, Linnaeus has been called Princeps botanicorum, The Pliny of the North and he is considered as one of the founders of modern ecology. In botany, the abbreviation used to indicate Linnaeus as the authority for species names is L. In older publications, sometimes the abbreviation Linn. is found, Linnæus was born in the village of Råshult in Småland, Sweden, on 23 May 1707. He was the first child of Nicolaus Ingemarsson and Christina Brodersonia and his siblings were Anna Maria Linnæa, Sofia Juliana Linnæa, Samuel Linnæus, and Emerentia Linnæa. One of a line of peasants and priests, Nils was an amateur botanist, a Lutheran minister. Christina was the daughter of the rector of Stenbrohult, Samuel Brodersonius, a year after Linnæus birth, his grandfather Samuel Brodersonius died, and his father Nils became the rector of Stenbrohult. The family moved into the rectory from the curates house, even in his early years, Linnæus seemed to have a liking for plants, flowers in particular.
Whenever he was upset, he was given a flower, which calmed him. Nils spent much time in his garden and often showed flowers to Linnaeus, soon Linnæus was given his own patch of earth where he could grow plants
Royal Victoria Infirmary
The Royal Victoria Infirmary is an 673-bed tertiary referral centre in Newcastle upon Tyne, England. The hospital is part of the Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and is a hospital for the University of Newcastle upon Tyne. The fully furnished and equipped hospital, containing twenty wards, a home and five operating theatres. The statue of Queen Victoria was the gift of Riley Lord, the Royal Victoria Infirmary has always had close links with the Faculty of Medical Sciences at Newcastle University as a major teaching hospital. The RVI forms the hub of one of the four base units for medical students at the university. The New Victoria Wing, including an accident and emergency department, replacing that of the Newcastle General Hospital. The RVI is the site of the Great North Childrens Hospital, the hospital is the only provider of Mohs micrographic surgery for skin cancer in the North East of England. List of hospitals in England Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust.
Hospital Records Database, Royal Victoria Infirmary
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
1741 in science
The year 1741 in science and technology involved some significant events. August 29 – Pluto reached perihelion, december 11 – a Fire-ball and explosion heard over southern England, about 11 a. m. a countryman. Saw a flash of Lightening Before he heard the Noise, took its Course to the East. It divided into Two Heads left a Train of Smoke. which continued ascending for 20 minutes, the description is reminiscent of the Chelyabinsk meteor of 2013. Anders Celsius establishes the Uppsala Astronomical Observatory, pehr Wilhelm Wargentin publishes his first paper on the moons of Jupiter, in the Acta of the Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala. Edmund Weaver publishes The British Telescope, Being an Ephemeris of the Coelestial Motions, johann Jacob Dillenius publishes Historia Muscorum, a significant work on cryptogams. May – Vitus Bering sets out from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky to map the coasts of Siberia, july 15 – Alexei Chirikov sights land in Southeast Alaska. He sends some men ashore in a longboat, making them the first Europeans to visit Alaska, nicolas Andry publishes Orthopédie, giving a name to the discipline of orthopedics.
December 25 – Anders Celsius proposes a centigrade temperature scale, on the return voyage he discovers Stellers sea cow
A reflex action is the bodys movement in response to a stimulus. Scientific use of the term refers to a behavior that is mediated via the reflex arc. Eating, walking and doing all that day to day activities that involves your muscles with brain are all voluntary actions, digestion, coughing and breathing can be considered involuntary. The stretch reflexes provide information on the integrity of the nervous system. Generally, decreased reflexes indicate a problem, and lively or exaggerated reflexes a central one. Newborn babies have a number of other reflexes which are not seen in adults and these automatic reactions to stimuli enable infants to respond to the environment before any learning has taken place. Others of these involve just a couple of synapses to function, processes such as breathing and the maintenance of the heartbeat can be regarded as reflex actions, according to some definitions of the term. In medicine, reflexes are often used to assess the health of the nervous system, doctors will typically grade the activity of a reflex on a scale from 0 to 4.
While 2+ is considered normal, some individuals are hypo-reflexive and register all reflexes at 1+, while others are hyper-reflexive. List of reflexes All-or-none law Automatic behavior Conditioned reflex Involuntary action Voluntary action Preflexes
Benjamin Franklin was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. Franklin was a polymath and a leading author, political theorist, freemason, scientist, civic activist, statesman. As a scientist, he was a figure in the American Enlightenment. As an inventor, he is known for the rod, bifocals. He facilitated many civic organizations, including Philadelphias fire department and the University of Pennsylvania, Franklin earned the title of The First American for his early and indefatigable campaigning for colonial unity, initially as an author and spokesman in London for several colonies. As the first United States Ambassador to France, he exemplified the emerging American nation, in the words of historian Henry Steele Commager, In a Franklin could be merged the virtues of Puritanism without its defects, the illumination of the Enlightenment without its heat. To Walter Isaacson, this makes Franklin the most accomplished American of his age, Franklin became a successful newspaper editor and printer in Philadelphia, the leading city in the colonies, publishing the Pennsylvania Gazette at the age of 23.
He became wealthy publishing this and Poor Richards Almanack, which he authored under the pseudonym Richard Saunders, after 1767, he was associated with the Pennsylvania Chronicle, a newspaper that was known for its revolutionary sentiments and criticisms of the British policies. He pioneered and was first president of The Academy and College of Philadelphia which opened in 1751 and he organized and was the first secretary of the American Philosophical Society and was elected president in 1769. Franklin became a hero in America as an agent for several colonies when he spearheaded an effort in London to have the Parliament of Great Britain repeal the unpopular Stamp Act. An accomplished diplomat, he was widely admired among the French as American minister to Paris and was a figure in the development of positive Franco-American relations. His efforts proved vital for the American Revolution in securing shipments of crucial munitions from France, during the Revolution, he became the first US Postmaster General.
He was active in community affairs and colonial and state politics, from 1785 to 1788, he served as governor of Pennsylvania. He initially owned and dealt in slaves but, by the 1750s, he argued against slavery from an economic perspective, Franklins father, Josiah Franklin, was a tallow chandler, a soap-maker and a candle-maker. Josiah was born at Ecton, England on December 23,1657, the son of Thomas Franklin, a blacksmith-farmer, and Jane White. His mother, Abiah Folger, was born in Nantucket, Massachusetts, on August 15,1667, to Peter Folger, a miller and schoolteacher, and his wife, Mary Morrill, Josiah Franklin had seventeen children with his two wives. He married his first wife, Anne Child, in about 1677 in Ecton and emigrated with her to Boston in 1683, after her death, Josiah was married to Abiah Folger on July 9,1689 in the Old South Meeting House by Samuel Willard. Benjamin, their child, was Josiah Franklins fifteenth child and tenth
Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. The formal sciences are often excluded as they do not depend on empirical observations, disciplines which use science, like engineering and medicine, may be considered to be applied sciences. However, during the Islamic Golden Age foundations for the method were laid by Ibn al-Haytham in his Book of Optics. In the 17th and 18th centuries, scientists increasingly sought to formulate knowledge in terms of physical laws, over the course of the 19th century, the word science became increasingly associated with the scientific method itself as a disciplined way to study the natural world. It was during this time that scientific disciplines such as biology, Science in a broad sense existed before the modern era and in many historical civilizations. Modern science is distinct in its approach and successful in its results, Science in its original sense was a word for a type of knowledge rather than a specialized word for the pursuit of such knowledge.
In particular, it was the type of knowledge which people can communicate to each other, for example, knowledge about the working of natural things was gathered long before recorded history and led to the development of complex abstract thought. This is shown by the construction of calendars, techniques for making poisonous plants edible. For this reason, it is claimed these men were the first philosophers in the strict sense and they were mainly speculators or theorists, particularly interested in astronomy. In contrast, trying to use knowledge of nature to imitate nature was seen by scientists as a more appropriate interest for lower class artisans. A clear-cut distinction between formal and empirical science was made by the pre-Socratic philosopher Parmenides, although his work Peri Physeos is a poem, it may be viewed as an epistemological essay on method in natural science. Parmenides ἐὸν may refer to a system or calculus which can describe nature more precisely than natural languages. Physis may be identical to ἐὸν and he criticized the older type of study of physics as too purely speculative and lacking in self-criticism.
He was particularly concerned that some of the early physicists treated nature as if it could be assumed that it had no intelligent order, explaining things merely in terms of motion and matter. The study of things had been the realm of mythology and tradition, however. Aristotle created a less controversial systematic programme of Socratic philosophy which was teleological and he rejected many of the conclusions of earlier scientists. For example, in his physics, the sun goes around the earth, each thing has a formal cause and final cause and a role in the rational cosmic order. Motion and change is described as the actualization of potentials already in things, while the Socratics insisted that philosophy should be used to consider the practical question of the best way to live for a human being, they did not argue for any other types of applied science
The Copley Medal is a scientific award given by the Royal Society, for outstanding achievements in research in any branch of science. It alternates between the physical and the biological sciences, the medal was created following a donation of £100 to be used for carrying out experiments by Sir Godfrey Copley, for which the interest on the amount was used for several years. A second donation of £1666 13s, 4d. was made by Sir Joseph William Copley in 1881, and the interest from that amount is used to pay for the medal. The medal in its current format is made of silver gilt, since its inception, it has been awarded to many notable scientists, including 52 winners of the Nobel Prize,17 in Physics,21 in Physiology or Medicine, and 14 in Chemistry. John Theophilus Desaguliers has won the medal the most often, winning in 1734,1736 and 1741, in 1976, Dorothy Hodgkin became the first and as of 2015 the only female recipient
Nickeline or niccolite is a mineral consisting of nickel arsenide containing 43. 9% nickel and 56. 1% arsenic. Small quantities of sulfur and cobalt are usually present and this last forms an isomorphous series with breithauptite. They blamed a mischievous sprite of German mythology, Nickel for besetting the copper and this German equivalent of copper-nickel was used as early as 1694. In 1751, Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt was attempting to extract copper from kupfernickel mineral, in modern German and Kupfer-Nickel designates the alloy Cupronickel. The names subsequently given to the ore, nickeline from F. S. Beudant,1832, in 1971, the International Mineralogical Association recommended use of the name nickeline rather than niccolite. This typically results in mineral assemblaged including millerite and metamorphic pentlandite-pyrite via sulfidation, associated minerals include, barite, cobaltite, pentlandite, chalcopyrite and maucherite. Nickeline alters to annabergite on exposure to moist air, most of these minerals can be found in the areas surrounding Sudbury and Cobalt, Ontario.
Other occurrences include within similarly modified nickel mines of the Kambalda area, the unit cell of nickeline is used as the prototype of a class of solids with similar crystal structures. Compounds adopting the NiAs structure are generally the chalcogenides, arsenides and bismuthides of transition metals, when nickel sulfide ore deposits have been altered to produce nickeline, often the presence of arsenic renders the ore uneconomic when concentrations of As reach several hundred parts per million. However, arsenic bearing nickel ore may be treated by blending with clean ore sources, to produce a blended feedstock which the mill, the primary problem for treating nickeline in conventionally constructed nickel mills is the specific gravity of nickeline versus that of pentlandite. This renders the ore difficult to treat via the froth flotation technique, within the smelter itself, the nickeline contributes to high arsenic contents which require additional reagents and fluxes to strip from the nickel metal.
Danas Manual of Mineralogy ISBN 0-471-03288-3