1752 in science
- Thomas Melvill delivers a lecture entitled Observations on light and colours to the Medical Society of Edinburgh, a precursor of flame emission spectroscopy.
- Dmitry Ivanovich Vinogradov and Mikhail Lomonosov advertise the first hard-paste porcelain to be produced in Russia.
- Benjamin Franklin's kite experiment determines that lightning is an electrical phenomenon.
- Foundation of what will become the Manchester Royal Infirmary as a cottage hospital in Garden Street, Manchester, England, by Charles White (surgeon).
- John Pringle publishes Observations on the Diseases of the Army in Camp and Garrison in London, a pioneering text in modern military medicine.
- Approximate date – James Ayscough begins experimenting with tinted lenses in spectacles.
- May 9 – Antonio Scarpa, Italian anatomist (died 1832)
- May 11 – Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, German physiologist and anthropologist (died 1840)
- July 7 – Joseph Marie Jacquard, French inventor (died 1834)
- July 23 – Marc-Auguste Pictet, Swiss physicist (died 1825)
- September 18 – Adrien-Marie Legendre, French mathematician (died 1833)
- Pierre Joseph Bonnaterre, French naturalist (died 1804)
- January 4 – Gabriel Cramer, Swiss mathematician (born 1704)
- February 9 – Frederik Hasselquist, Swedish traveller and naturalist (born 1722)
- April 10 – William Cheselden, surgeon (born 1688)
- Pechlaner, Helmut; Schratter, Dagmar (2005). Von Kaiser bis Känguru: Neues zur Geschichte des ältesten Zoos der Welt. Vienna: Gerhard Heindl. ISBN 3-7003-1497-3.
- "The Museum of the Imperial Porcelain Factory". The State Hermitage Museum. Archived from the original on 2011-08-05. Retrieved 2011-08-09.
- Crilly, Tony (2007). 50 Mathematical Ideas you really need to know. London: Quercus. p. 92. ISBN 978-1-84724-008-8.
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 315–316. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.