History of monarchy in Canada
The history of monarchy in Canada stretches from pre-colonial times through to the present day. Through both these lineages, the present Canadian monarchy can trace back to the Anglo-Saxon period and ultimately to the kings of the Angles. Kings and queens reigning over Canada have included the monarchs of France, those of the United Kingdom, throughout the 18th century, via war and treaties, the Canadian colonies of France were ceded to King George III. The colonies were confederated by Queen Victoria in 1867 to form the Dominion of Canada, Canada became a fully independent country through the Constitution Act of 1982 proclaimed by Elizabeth II, the Queen of Canada. The French monarch moved quickly and it was in 1602 that Aymar de Chaste was appointed as Viceroy of Canada to represent King Henry IV, the Acadians refused, and were subsequently deported from the area in what became known as the Great Upheaval. This was regarded by American colonists as one of the Intolerable Acts that together led to the outbreak of the American Revolution.
This conflict led some 46,000 people loyal to the Crown—dubbed United Empire Loyalists—to flee north from the United States, continuing today, Ontario residents descended from these original refugees retain the post-nominals UE, standing for United Empire. This makes me much doubt their remaining long dependent, Prince William arrived in Canada in July 1786, when he stated of the country, and more specifically, St. Johns, truly deplorable. A most dreadful and barren country, though, he changed his opinion after meeting the local women. He became, in 1787, the first member of the Royal Family to visit Quebec, the Prince lived at Quebec City, where he oversaw the establishment of the Holy Trinity Anglican Cathedral, a project of personal interest to his father, the King. In 1792, when the first elections for the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada took place, Prince Edward was said to have climbed up to where he could be heard and addressed the crowd, Part in peace. I urge you to unanimity and accord, let me hear no more of the odious distinctions of English and French.
You are all His Britannic Majestys beloved Canadian subjects and it was reportedly the first time the word Canadian, which had previously been reserved only for Francophones, was used in a manner that included all colonialists. Almost twenty years later, Prince Edwards only legitimate daughter, was born on 24 May 1819, at Kensington Palace. However, Edward died shortly thereafter, leaving Victoria as heir to the throne until, upon the death of William IV, at the 1864 Charlottetown Conference, the deligates agreed unanimously that the new federation should be a constitutional monarchy. By the mid-1860s, neither the nor the location of the capital of the hypothetical new union had been settled. The proposal, caused worries in the Foreign and Colonial Office in London that such a title would provoke the republican United States, the new constitution vested in the Queen responsibility for peace and good government, as DArcy McGee had desired. In practice, the Second Reform Act,1867, in the same year, Ruperts Land was ceded to the Crown in Right of Canada from the Hudsons Bay Company, pulling it into the jurisdiction of the Northwest Territories
Provinces and territories of Canada
Canadas geography is divided into administrative divisions known as provinces and territories that are responsible for delivery of sub-national governance. Over its history, Canadas international borders have changed several times, the ten provinces are Alberta, British Columbia, New Brunswick and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Saskatchewan. Several of the provinces were former British colonies, Quebec was originally a French colony, the three territories are Northwest Territories and Yukon, which govern the rest of the area of the former British North America. Together, the provinces and territories make up the worlds second-largest country by area, the powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the federal government and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be co-sovereign divisions, the territories are not sovereign, but simply part of the federal realm, and have a commissioner who represents the federal government.
Notes, There are three territories in Canada, unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent sovereignty and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government. They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of Hudson Bay, the following table lists the territories in order of precedence. Prior to Confederation and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada, over the following years, British Columbia, and Prince Edward Island were added as provinces. The Hudsons Bay Company controlled large swathes of western Canada referred to as Ruperts Land and the North-Western Territory until 1870, the area was re-organized into the province of Manitoba and the Northwest Territories. The remaining Arctic islands were transferred by Britain to Canada in 1880,1898 saw the Yukon Territory, renamed simply as Yukon, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields. On September 1,1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan.
In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec and Manitoba were expanded northward, Manitobas to the 60° parallel, Ontarios to Hudson Bay, in 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status. In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada with Newfoundland facing a period of economic crisis. In 2001, it was officially renamed Newfoundland and Labrador, in 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute fixed British Columbias northwestern boundary. This was one of two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. In 1999, Nunavut was created from the portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the portion of The North, while Nunavut is in the east. All three territories combined are the most sparsely populated region in Canada, covering 3,921,739 km2 in land area and they are often referred to as a single region, The North, for organisational and economic purposes
Economic history of Canada
Canadian historians until the 1980s tended to focus on economic history, including labour history. In part this is because Canada has had far fewer political or military conflicts than other societies and this was especially true in the first half of the twentieth century when economic history was overwhelmingly dominant. Many of the most prominent English Canadian historians from this period were economic historians, such as Harold Innis, Donald Creighton, scholars of Canadian history were heirs to the traditions that developed in Europe and the United States, but frameworks that worked well elsewhere often failed in Canada. The heavily Marxist influenced economic history that dominates Europe has little relevance to most of Canadian history, a focus on class, urban areas, and industry fails to address Canadas rural and resource based economy. Similarly, the monetarist school that is dominant in the United States has been difficult to transfer north of the border, the study of economic history in Canada became highly focused on economic geography, and for many years the dominant school of thought has been the staples thesis.
This school of thought bases the study of the Canadian economy on the study of natural resources and this approach has since become used outside of Canada in Australia and in many developing nations. Before the arrival of Europeans, the First Nations of what would become Canada had a large, tools, decorative items, and other goods were often transported thousands of kilometres, mostly by canoe throughout the many rivers and lakes of the region. The earliest European settlements in Canada were the fisheries of the East Coast, boats from France, Portugal and Great Britain would traverse the Atlantic, fish for a summer and return laden with fish. The trade was dominated by fishers from southern Europe. In Catholic countries, demand for fish was much greater and it was from the northern nations of Britain and France that the first settlers came, however. Spain and the south of France had abundant supplies of salt because in the warm climates it was a matter to evaporate seawater. They would thus bring barrels of salt with them to the grounds, salt the fish aboard ship.
In the colder and wetter climate of the British Isles and northern France, to preserve the fish, they were dried by hanging them on large fish racks on the coast of Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. These drying stations were active for months of the year, and this economic idea sought to derive the maximum material benefit from the colony, for the homeland, with a minimum of imperial investment in the colony itself. It was in turn replaced by La Compagnie des Cent-Associés created in 1627, by the King of France, Louis XIII and these were the first corporations to operate in what is now Canada. Harold Innis, based in the department at the University of Toronto. They argued that the Canadian Economy was primarily based on exports of a series of staples—fish, timber, wheat—that shipped to Britain, the thesis explains Canadian economic development as a lateral, east-west conception of trade. Innis argued that Canada developed as it did because of the nature of its staple commodities, raw materials, such as fish, lumber, agricultural products and this trading link cemented Canadas cultural links to Britain
Culture of Canada
The culture of Canada is a term that embodies the artistic, literary, musical and social elements that are representative of Canada and Canadians. Throughout Canadas history, its culture has influenced by European culture and traditions, especially British and French. Over time, elements of the cultures of Canadas immigrant populations have incorporated into mainstream Canadian culture. The population has influenced by American culture because of a shared language, proximity. Canada is often characterized as being progressive, diverse. Canadas federal government has often described as the instigator of multicultural ideology because of its public emphasis on the social importance of immigration. Canadas culture draws from its range of constituent nationalities. Canadians identify with the institutions of health care, military peacekeeping, the National park system. The Canadian government has influenced culture with programs and institutions and it has tried to protect Canadian culture by setting legal minimums on Canadian content in many media using bodies like the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission.
For tens of thousands of years, Canada was inhabited by Aboriginal peoples from a variety of different cultures, although not without conflict and bloodshed, early European interactions with First Nations and Inuit populations in what is now Canada were arguably peaceful. Combined with late economic development in many regions, this comparably nonbelligerent early history allowed Aboriginal Canadians to have an influence on the national culture. Over the course of three centuries, countless North American Indigenous words, inventions and games have become an part of Canadian language. Many places in Canada, both features and human habitations, use indigenous names. The name Canada itself derives from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word meaning village or settlement, the name of Canadas capital city Ottawa comes from the Algonquin language term adawe meaning to trade. The French originally settled New France along the shores of the Atlantic Ocean and symbols of pioneers and traders played an important part in the early development of French Canadian culture.
The British conquest of New France during the century brought 70,000 Francophones under British rule, creating a need for compromise. The migration of 40,000 to 50,000 United Empire Loyalists from the Thirteen Colonies during the American Revolution brought American colonial influences, following the War of 1812 a large wave of Irish and English settlers arrived in Upper Canada and Lower Canada. As a result of the First and Second World Wars, the Government of Canada became more assertive, Canada until the 1940s saw itself in terms of English and French cultural and political identities, and to some extent aboriginal
Outline of Canada
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Canada, Canada /ˈkænədə/ is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west. The lands have been inhabited for millennia by various groups of aboriginal peoples, beginning in the late 15th century and French expeditions explored and settled the Atlantic coast. France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763 after the Seven Years War, in 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. Canada is a federation that is governed as a parliamentary democracy and it is a bilingual and multicultural country, with both English and French as official languages at the federal level. ca International rankings of Canada Canada is. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent jurisdiction, Canada did not acquire any new land to create Yukon, Saskatchewan, or Nunavut.
UN Human Development Program, Country Fact Sheet, Statistics — Country Sheet, Canada Canada travel guide from Wikivoyage Canada from The Canadian Encyclopedia
Benjamin West PRA was an Anglo-American painter of historical scenes around and after the time of the American War of Independence and the Seven Years War. He was the president of the Royal Academy in London. He was offered a knighthood by the British Crown, but declined it and he said that Art is the representation of human beauty, ideally perfect in design and noble in attitude. West was born in Springfield, Pennsylvania, in a house that is now in the borough of Swarthmore on the campus of Swarthmore College, as the child of an innkeeper. The family moved to Newtown Square, where his father was the proprietor of the Square Tavern, Benjamin West was an autodidact, while excelling at the arts, he had little education and, even when president of the Royal Academy, could scarcely spell. From 1746 to 1759, West worked in Pennsylvania, mostly painting portraits, while West was in Lancaster in 1756, his patron, a gunsmith named William Henry, encouraged him to paint a Death of Socrates based on an engraving in Charles Rollins Ancient History.
His resulting composition, which differs from the source, has been called the most ambitious. During this time West met John Wollaston, a painter who had immigrated from London. West was a friend of Benjamin Franklin, whose portrait he painted. Franklin was the godfather of Wests second son, Benjamin, in common with many artists architects and lovers of the fine arts at that time he conducted a Grand Tour. West expanded his repertoire by copying works of Italian painters such as Titian, in Rome he met a number of international neo-classical artists including German-born Anton Rafael Mengs, Scottish Gavin Hamilton, and Austrian Angelica Kauffman. In August 1763, West arrived in England, on what he intended as a visit on his way back to America. In fact, he never returned to America and he stayed for a month at Bath with William Allen, who was in the country, and visited his half-brother Thomas West at Reading at the urging of his father. In London he was introduced to Richard Wilson and his student Joshua Reynolds and he moved into a house in Bedford Street, Covent Garden.
In 1765 he married Elizabeth Shewell, an American to whom he engaged in Philadelphia. All three prelates commissioned work from him, in 1766 West proposed a scheme to decorate St Pauls Cathedral with paintings. It was rejected by the Bishop of London, but his idea of painting an altarpiece for St Stephen Walbrook was accepted, at around this time he received acclaim for his classical subjects, such as Orestes and Pylades and The Continence of Scipio. Benjamin West was known in England as the American Raphael and his Raphaelesque painting of Archangel Michael Binding the Devil is in the collection of Trinity College, Cambridge
History of Ontario
The History of Ontario covers the period from the arrival of Paleo-Indians thousands of years ago to the present day. Before the arrival of Europeans, the region was inhabited both by Algonquian and Iroquoian tribes, a French explorer Étienne Brûlé explored part of the area in 1610–12. Permanent French settlement was hampered by their hostilities with the Iroquois five leagues, the British established trading posts on Hudson Bay in the late 17th century and began a struggle for domination of Ontario. The 1763 Treaty of Paris ended the Seven Years War by awarding nearly all of Frances North American possessions to Britain, the region was annexed to Quebec in 1774. The first European settlements were in 1782–1784 when 5,000 American loyalists entered what is now Ontario following the American Revolution, from 1783 to 1796, Britain granted them 200 acres of land and other items with which to rebuild their lives. John Graves Simcoe was appointed Upper Canadas first Lieutenant-Governor in 1793, American troops in the War of 1812 invaded Upper Canada across the Niagara River and the Detroit River but were defeated and pushed back by British forces, local militia and Native American forces.
The Americans gained control of Lake Erie at the Battle of Lake Erie, the British had to flee on foot, and the American William Henry Harrison caught up and decisively defeated them at the Battle of the Thames. The Americans killed Tecumseh, leader of the anti-American First Nations military force, during the Battle of York Americans occupied the Town of York in 1813. After losing their general Zebulon Pike and having a time holding the town. After the War of 1812, relative stability allowed for increasing numbers of immigrants to arrive from Britain and this deliberate immigration shift was encouraged by the colonial leaders. However, many arriving newcomers from Europe found frontier life difficult, population growth far exceeded emigration in the decades that would follow. Canal projects and a new network of plank roads spurred greater trade within the colony and with the United States, Ontarios numerous waterways aided travel and transportation into the interior and supplied water power for development.
Canals were capital-intensive infrastructure projects that facilitated trade, the Oswego Canal, built in New York 1825–1829, was a vital commercial link in the Great Lakes–Atlantic seaway. It linked into Ontarios Welland Canal in 1829, the newly fashioned Oswego–Welland line offered an alternative route to the St. Lawrence River and Europe, as opposed to the Erie Canal which terminated in New York City. Opponents called it the Family Compact, but its members avoided the term, in the religious sphere, a key leader was John Strachan, the Anglican bishop of Toronto. Strachan was opposed by Methodist leader Egerton Ryerson, the Family Compact consisted of English gentry who arrived before 1800, and the sons of United Empire Loyalists, who were exiles who fled the American revolution. The term family was metaphorical, for they generally were not related by blood or marriage, there were no elections and the leadership controlled appointments, so local officials were generally allies of the leaders.
The Family Compact looked for the model to Britain, where landed aristocrats held power
The 19th century was the century marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Holy Roman and Mughal empires. After the defeat of the French Empire and its allies in the Napoleonic Wars, the Russian Empire expanded in central and far eastern Asia. By the end of the century, the British Empire controlled a fifth of the worlds land, the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and spread to continental Europe, North America and Japan. The Victorian era was notorious for the employment of children in factories and mines, as well as strict social norms regarding modesty. Japan embarked on a program of rapid modernization following the Meiji Restoration, before defeating China, under the Qing Dynasty, europes population doubled during the 19th century, from approximately 200 million to more than 400 million. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more during this century, London became the worlds largest city and capital of the British Empire. Its population increased from 1 million in 1800 to 6.7 million a century later, liberalism became the pre-eminent reform movement in Europe.
Slavery was greatly reduced around the world, following a successful slave revolt in Haiti and France stepped up the battle against the Barbary pirates and succeeded in stopping their enslavement of Europeans. The UKs Slavery Abolition Act charged the British Royal Navy with ending the slave trade. The first colonial empire in the century to abolish slavery was the British, americas 13th Amendment following their Civil War abolished slavery there in 1865, and in Brazil slavery was abolished in 1888. Similarly, serfdom was abolished in Russia, in the 19th century approximately 70 million people left Europe, with most migrating to the United States of America. The 19th century saw the creation and codification of many sports, particularly in Britain. Also, ladywear was a sensitive topic during this time. 1801, Ranjit Singh crowned as King of Punjab,1801, Napoleon signs the Concordat of 1801 with the Pope. 1801, Cairo falls to the British,1801, Assassination of Tsar Paul I of Russia. 1802, Ludwig van Beethoven performs his Moonlight Sonata for the first time,1803, William Symington demonstrates his Charlotte Dundas, the first practical steamboat.
1803, The United States more than doubles in size when it buys out Frances territorial claims in North America via the Louisiana Purchase. This begins the U. S. s westward expansion to the Pacific referred to as its Manifest Destiny which involves annexing and conquering land from Mexico, Britain,1803, The Wahhabis of the First Saudi State capture Mecca and Medina
History of British Columbia
British Columbia is the western most province of Canada. Originally politically constituted as a pair of British colonies, British Columbia joined the Canadian Confederation on July 20,1871, perhaps the most influential historian of British Columbia has been Margaret Ormsby. In British Columbia, A History she presented a model that has been adopted by numerous historians. Chad Reimer says, in many aspects, it still has not been surpassed, Human history in what has come to be known as British Columbia dates back thousands of years. Archaeology has identified dates in British Columbia as early as 13,500 years ago, BC is divided by anthropological theory into three cultural areas - the Northwest Coast, The Plateau and the North. First Nations in each area developed customs and approaches to living that fit the resources in the region, through much of British Columbia salmon are available and formed a substantial part of the diet where available. The term pre-contact is used to describe the period prior to contact between First Nations and European explorers.
The precise time of contact varied according to circumstance but took place on the coast between the 1770s and 1800, in places in the Interior it occurred later. There was frequent contact between bands and voyages across the Strait of Georgia and the Strait of Juan de Fuca were common, the abundance of natural resources, such as salmon and cedar, enabled the development of a complex hierarchical society within coastal communities. With so much food being available, the peoples of the regions could focus their time on other pursuits such as art, politics. The first visitors to present-day British Columbia were Spanish sailors and other European sailors who sailed for the Spanish crown, there is not much evidence to suggest that European traders and explorers regularly came to present-day British Columbia in the 17th century. The arrival of Europeans began to intensify in the mid-18th century, Hernández reached 55° north latitude, becoming the first European to sight the Queen Charlotte Islands and Vancouver Island.
He traded with the natives near Estevan Point, although apparently without landing, the expedition was forced to return to Nueva Galicia, due to the lack of provisions. Since Pérez Hernándezs first expedition failed to achieve its objective, the Spanish organized an expedition in 1775 with the same goal. This expedition was commanded by Bruno de Heceta on board the Santiago, piloted by Pérez Hernández, during this expedition, the Spanish made sure to land several times and formally claim the lands for the Spanish Crown, while verifying the absence of Russian settlements along the coast. In the following years, several other Spanish expeditions would set sail from Nueva Galicia bound for the Pacific Northwest, upon trading his goods for sea otter pelts, his crew in turn traded them for an enormous profit in Macau on their way back to Britain. This led to an influx of traders to the British Columbian coast, in 1788, John Meares, an English navigator and explorer, sailed from China and explored Nootka Sound and the neighbouring coasts.
He bought some land from a chief named Maquinna and built a trading post there
The Death of General Wolfe
It is an oil on canvas of the Enlightenment period. West made an additional and nearly identical painting of the scene for King George III in 1771. The Death of General Wolfe depicts the Battle of Quebec, known as the Battle of the Plains of Abraham and this was a pivotal event in the Seven Years War and decided the fate of Frances colonies in North America. The battle was fought between the British Navy and Army and the French Army lasting only fifteen minutes, the British Army was commanded by General Wolfe. Though successful in holding the British line against the French and winning the battle, in death, General Wolfe gained fame as a national hero and became an icon of the Seven Years War and British dominance in late eighteenth century North America. West depicts General Wolfe as a Christ-like figure and this painting has a triangular composition, made by the top of the flag and the positions of the men. It resembles Christian Lamentation scenes, where Christ is held in the embrace of the Virgin Mary, captain Hervey Smythe is pictured holding Wolfes right arm.
The depiction of the Indigenous warrior in the painting—kneeling with his chin on his fist, in art, the touching of ones face with ones hand is a sign of deep thought and intelligence. Some consider it an inspired by the noble savage concept. Original items of clothing that were used as a model for portraying the warrior in the painting can be found in the British Museums collection, on the ground in front of Wolfe are his musket, cartridge box, and bayonet. Wolfe went into battle armed as his men were, although his musket was of higher quality and his dress is of note. He is wearing a red coat, a red waistcoat, red breeches, such dress was rather simple, especially for a commanding officer. Next to Wolfe, in the jacket, is Dr Thomas Hinde. The general died in the doctors hands, in the background, and to the left of the men surrounding Wolfe, an approaching runner is depicted. In the painting, Fraser wears the Fraser tartan, which was worn by officers in that regiment. All in all four of the fourteen men depicted were actually at the battleground.
The clothing West depicted in this scene was controversial at the time. Although the event was relatively recent—only eleven years prior—its subject matter made it an example of the genre of history painting
Military history of Canada
For thousands of years, the area that would become Canada was the site of sporadic intertribal conflicts among Aboriginal peoples. In 1763, after the final colonial war—the Seven Years War—the British emerged victorious and the French civilians, the Americans launched invasions in 1775 and 1812. On both occasions, the Americans were rebuffed by Canadian forces, this threat would remain well into the 19th century, after Confederation, and amid much controversy, a full-fledged Canadian military was created. Canada, remained a British dominion, and Canadian forces joined their British counterparts in the Second Boer War and the First World War. While independence followed the Statute of Westminster, Canadas links to Britain remained strong, and the British once again had the support of Canadians during the Second World War. Since then, Canada has been committed to multilateralism and has gone to war within large multinational coalitions such as in the Korean War, the Gulf War, the Kosovo War, and the Afghan war.
Canada has played an important role in United Nations peacekeeping operations worldwide and has committed more troops than any other country. The causes of aboriginal warfare tended to be over tribal independence, before European colonization, aboriginal warfare tended to be formal and ritualistic, and entailed relatively few casualties. Warfare was common among indigenous peoples of the Subarctic with sufficient population density, inuit groups of the northern Arctic extremes generally did not engage in direct warfare, primarily because of their small populations, relying instead on traditional law to resolve conflicts. Those captured in fights were not always killed, tribes often adopted captives to replace warriors lost during raids and battles, slavery was hereditary, the slaves being prisoners of war and their descendants. Slave-owning tribes of the societies, such as the Tlingit and Haida. Among indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast, about a quarter of the population were slaves, according to Norse sagas, the skraelings of Vinland responded so ferociously that the newcomers eventually withdrew and gave up their plans to settle the area.
Prior to French settlements in the St. Lawrence River valley, the Iroquois League was established prior to major European contact. Most archaeologists and anthropologists believe that the League was formed sometime between 1450 and 1600, existing aboriginal alliances would become important to the colonial powers in the struggle for North American hegemony during the 17th and 18th centuries. By the end of the 17th century, First Nations from the woodlands, eastern subarctic. The adoption of firearms significantly increased the number of fatalities, the bloodshed during conflicts was dramatically increased by the uneven distribution of firearms and horses among competing aboriginal groups. Two years after the French founded Port Royal in 1605, the English began their first settlement, at Jamestown, Virginia, by 1706, the French population was around 16,000 and grew slowly due to a multitude of factors. This lack of immigration resulted in New France having one-tenth of the British population of the Thirteen Colonies by the mid 1700s, La Salles explorations had given France a claim to the Mississippi River valley, where fur trappers and a few colonists set up scattered settlements