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MV Kollbjørg (1941)

Kollbjørg was a 8,236 GRT tanker, built in 1941 as Empire Diamond by Harland & Wolff, United Kingdom for the Ministry of War Transport. She was renamed Norsol. In 1946 she was renamed Kollbjørg. A sale to Sweden in 1956 saw her renamed Storo, she served until 1959; the ship was built in 1941 by Belfast. She was yard number 940; the ship was 483 feet with a beam of 59 feet 5 inches. She had a depth of a draught of 34 feet 0 inches, she was assessed at 8,236 GRT. 4,708 NRT. Her DWT was 11,970; the ship was propelled by a 3,500 nhp diesel engine, which had 8 cylinders of 650 millimetres diameter by 1,400 millimetres stroke driving a single screw propeller. The engine was built by Wolff, it could propel her at 12 knots. Empire Diamond was built for the MoWT. Launched on 10 July 1941, she was completed in November; the Official Number 168507 was allocated. Empire Diamond departed from the Belfast Lough on her maiden voyage on 14 November 1941, she was in ballast, joined Convoy ON 36, which had departed from Liverpool, Lancashire on 13 November and dispersed at sea on 26 November.

Her destination was Halifax, Nova Scotia, reached on 29 November. Having loaded a cargo of petrol, she departed from Halifax on 3 December as a member of Convoy HX 163, which arrived at Liverpool on 19 December, she sailed to the Clyde, arriving that day. Empire Diamond departed from the Clyde on 31 December, joining Convoy ON 52, which departed from Liverpool that day and dispersed at sea on 11 January 1942, she sailed to Galveston, United States, arriving on 27 January. Empire Diamond departed from Galveston on 6 February for Houston, arriving the next day and departing on 9 February for Halifax, where she arrived on 21 February. Carrying a cargo of petrol, she joined Convoy HX 177, which departed on 25 February and arrived at Liverpool on 9 March, she left the convoy at the Belfast Lough, joining Convoy BB 147 which arrived at Milford Haven, Pembrokeshire on 10 March. She sailed on to Avonmouth, arriving on 12 March. Empire Diamond departed from Avonmouth on 18 March for Newport, arriving that day.

On 30 March, she was transferred to the Norwegian Government, renamed Norsol. She was placed under the management of Nortraship, her port of registry was Oslo and the Code Letters LNAB were allocated. Norsol sailed the next day for Milford Haven, she departed on 3 April to join Convoy ON 83, which departed from Liverpool on 4 April and arrived at Halifax on 17 April. Her intended destination was Port Arthur, but she returned, arriving at the Belfast Lough on 4 April, she departed for Port Arthur on 16 April, joining Convoy ON 87, which departed from Liverpool that day and dispersed at 36°03′N 46°15′W on 26 April. Norsol sailed to Beaumont, United States, where she arrived on 6 May, she sailed a week for Key West, Florida. On 14 May, Norsol rescued two survivors from David McKelvy, torpedoed and set on fire by U-506 the previous day, they were taken to Key West. She sailed four days later. Norsol may have been a member of Convoy KN 102, which arrived at the Hampton Roads, Virginia on 26 May, she arrived at New York the next day and sailed to Boston, She joined Convoy BX 21, which departed on 29 May and arrived at Halifax two days later.

She sailed that day for Belfast Lough. She was carrying a cargo of petrol. Arrival at Belfast Lough was on 10 June, with departure the next day for Swansea, Glamorgan, as a member of Convoy BB 185, which arrived at Milford Haven the next day, Swansea was reached that day. Norsol departed from Swansea on 17 June bound for New York. Via Milford Haven, from where she departed on 18 June to join Convoy ON 105, which departed from Liverpool on 19 June and arrived at Halifax on 30 June, she arrived at Belfast Lough on 19 June, departing on 18 July to join Convoy ON 113 which departed from Liverpool the previous day and arrived at Halifax on 31 July. Norsol sailed on to New York, she departed six days for the Hampton Roads, from where she departed on 13 August with Convoy KS 530, which arrived at Key West on 18 August. She detached from the convoy and sailed to New Orleans, arriving on 21 August, she sailed to Pilottown, Corpus Christi, Galveston and back to Pilottown, from where she departed on 30 August for Key West, arriving on 3 September.

She sailed to New York, from where she departed on 17 September as a member of Convoy HX 208, which arrived at Liverpool on 2 October. Norsol was commended by the Convoy Commodore for her good station keeping, she sailed to Swansea, joining either Convoy BB 225 or BB 226 as far as Milford Haven. Norsol departed from Swansea on 7 October and sailed to Milford Haven and to Belfast Lough, from where she joined Convoy ON 137, which departed from Liverpool on 9 October and arrived at New York on 29 October, she joined Convoy NG 318, which departed from New York on 31 October and arrived at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba on 7 November. She departed that day as a member of Convoy GAT 20, she left the convoy at Territory of Curaçao, arriving on 10 November. Norsol departed from Curaçao six days to join Convoy TAG 21, which had departed from Trinidad on 14 November and arrived at Guantanamo Bay on 19 November, she departed that day as a member of Convo

Johannesburg freeways

Johannesburg is dependent upon freeways for transport around the city due to its location 1,500 metres above sea level, far from the coast or any major bodies of water. There are 10 freeways in the Greater Johannesburg Metropolitan Area: the N1, N3, N12, N14, N17, R21, R24, R59, M1 and M2. In addition, three new freeways are planned: the G5, G9 and G14. Freeways are sometimes called motorways colloquially; the N1, N3, N12 form the Johannesburg Ring Road around the city. The N14 connects the West Rand with Pretoria, could form part of a future Johannesburg second outer ring road; the N17 connects the Johannesburg Central Business District and southern parts of the city with Springs on the East Rand and the province of Mpumalanga. The R21 connects the East OR Tambo International Airport with Pretoria; the R24 connects central Johannesburg to the airport. The R59 connects Johannesburg with Vereeniging in the Vaal Triangle; the M1 runs the length of the city north-south, from Soweto to Buccleuch, where it becomes the N1.

The Johannesburg-Pretoria highway is called the Ben Schoeman Highway. The M2 runs the length of the central part of the city east-west, from Germiston to Main Reef Road in Crown, just south-west of the Johannesburg Central Business District; the N1 between Johannesburg and Pretoria is now becoming overloaded. Reports suggest; the road is congested as traffic enters Johannesburg in the mornings and leaves at night, as many people work in Johannesburg but live in Pretoria. As a result, the Gauteng Provincial Government has put in motion plans to alleviate heavy traffic congestion, to worsen. One plan, completed before South Africa hosted the 2010 FIFA World Cup is the Gautrain: a rapid rail system with a north-south line between Johannesburg and Pretoria, an east-west line between OR Tambo International Airport and Sandton; the east-west line opened in June 2010, just before the World Cup. The north-south line opened from Pretoria to Rosebank in August 2011; the Star and Engineering News report that three new freeways have been planned for Johannesburg: The PWV9, linking the northern part of Johannesburg with the western part of Pretoria, aligned along the existing R80 axis known as the Mabopane Freeway.

It will run parallel to the N1 and will intersect with the N14. The PWV5, which will link the R21 with the new PWV9, crossing the N1 at the Olifantsfontein interchange; the PWV14 will provide a new link between the existing M2 and OR Tambo International Airport via Germiston. In addition, there are plans afoot to extend the N17 from its end in Johannesburg central, to Krugersdorp, which will allow motorists to traverse the metropolitan area in under an hour in free-flowing traffic