Carl Friedrich Zelter
Carl Friedrich Zelter was a German composer and teacher of music. Working in his fathers bricklaying business, Zelter attained mastership in that profession, Zelter was born and died in Berlin. He became friendly with Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, and his works include settings of Goethes poems, during his career, he composed about two hundred lieder, as well as cantatas, a viola concerto and piano music. Amongst Zelters pupils were Felix Mendelssohn, Fanny Mendelssohn, Giacomo Meyerbeer, Eduard Grell, Otto Nicolai, Johann Friedrich Naue, List of music students by teacher, T to Z#Carl Friedrich Zelter. Felix Mendelssohn was perhaps Zelters favorite pupil and Zelter wrote to Goethe boasting of the 12-year olds abilities and this epochal event sparked a general re-evaluation and revival of Bachs works, which were largely forgotten and regarded as old-fashioned and beyond resuscitation. Mendelssohn had hoped to succeed Zelter on the death as leader of the Singakademie. Zelter was married to Julie Pappritz in 1796, one year after his first wife, Sophie Eleonora Flöricke, Pappritz was a well-known singer at the Berlin Opera.
Zelter is buried at the Sophienkirche in Berlin, the violinist Daniel Hope is a direct descendant of Zelter. Zelter was the author of a biography of Carl Friedrich Christian Fasch, free scores by Carl Friedrich Zelter at the International Music Score Library Project Garratt, James. Palestrina and the German Romantic Imagination, Interpreting Historicism in Nineteenth-century Music at Google Books, greenes Biographical Encyclopedia of Composers at Google Books. Grove, Fuller-Maitland, John Alexander, ed. Groves Dictionary of Music, volume V. Tillard, Françoise, Camille. Karl Friedrich Christian Fasch, Mit 1 Bildn
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. Born in Salzburg, he showed prodigious ability from his earliest childhood, already competent on keyboard and violin, he composed from the age of five and performed before European royalty. At 17, Mozart was engaged as a musician at the Salzburg court, while visiting Vienna in 1781, he was dismissed from his Salzburg position. He chose to stay in the capital, where he achieved fame, during his final years in Vienna, he composed many of his best-known symphonies and operas, and portions of the Requiem, which was largely unfinished at the time of his death. The circumstances of his death have been much mythologized. He was survived by his wife Constanze and two sons and he composed more than 600 works, many acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, chamber and choral music. He is among the most enduringly popular of classical composers, Ludwig van Beethoven composed his own early works in the shadow of Mozart, and Joseph Haydn wrote, posterity will not see such a talent again in 100 years.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born on 27 January 1756 to Leopold Mozart and Anna Maria, née Pertl and this was the capital of the Archbishopric of Salzburg, an ecclesiastic principality in what is now Austria, part of the Holy Roman Empire. He was the youngest of seven children, five of whom died in infancy and his elder sister was Maria Anna Mozart, nicknamed Nannerl. Mozart was baptized the day after his birth, at St. Ruperts Cathedral in Salzburg, the baptismal record gives his name in Latinized form, as Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart. He generally called himself Wolfgang Amadè Mozart as an adult, Leopold Mozart, a native of Augsburg, was a minor composer and an experienced teacher. In 1743, he was appointed as fourth violinist in the establishment of Count Leopold Anton von Firmian. Four years later, he married Anna Maria in Salzburg, Leopold became the orchestras deputy Kapellmeister in 1763. During the year of his sons birth, Leopold published a textbook, Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule.
When Nannerl was 7, she began lessons with her father. Years later, after her brothers death, she reminisced, He often spent much time at the clavier, picking out thirds, which he was ever striking, and his pleasure showed that it sounded good. In the fourth year of his age his father, for a game as it were, began to teach him a few minuets and he could play it faultlessly and with the greatest delicacy, and keeping exactly in time. At the age of five, he was composing little pieces
Richard Leveridge was an English bass singer of the London stage and a composer of baroque music, including many popular songs. His first important role of which anything is known was as the magician Ismeron in Henry Purcells opera The Indian Queen, Purcell himself remained loyal to the company, and for several months Leveridge worked closely with him. It is likely that Arise, ye subterranean winds in the music for The Tempest was written for him. After Purcells death he continued to work with composers Daniel Purcell and Jeremiah Clarke, Leveridge composed, and in February 1699 all three provided music for Motteuxs adaptation of Fletchers The Island Princess, in which Leveridges performance was widely acclaimed. He sang the role of Hecate in this work for nearly 50 years, and he participated in the introduction of opera in the Italian style from 1705, appearing in Arsinoë, Rosamond and Loves Triumph. Some of these productions had mixed English and Italian singers, and he began a short association with Handel, in 1713 to 1714, and acted in the first performances of Il pastor fido and Teseo and played Argantes in a revival of Rinaldo.
In this period he sang with Nicolini, who was in London from 1708–12, in 1714, he moved to work at the new theatre at Lincolns Inn Fields, managed by entrepreneur John Rich. Remaining there for most of his career, he returned to his English repertoire and a new form and these lightweight works were often comic, and in 1716 Leveridge produced his own afterpiece and Thisbe. For this comic parody of Italian opera, he wrote the music, adapting the words from Shakespeares A Midsummer Nights Dream, and sang the role of Pyramus. However Rich drew him back, and Leveridge scored a success in 1726 in Apollo and Daphne with Silenuss song Tho envious old age seems in part to impair me, from that time forth he became the leading bass at Lincolns Inn Fields and at Covent Garden. His repertoire exploited his firm and powerful voice, and several of his songs became popular favourites, in addition to A New Book of Songs 1697 and A Second Book of Songs 1699, and A New Book of Songs 1711, further volumes were printed in 1727 and 1728.
A number of the 1727 songs are settings of words by Abraham Cowley. Sir John Hawkins remarked, Though he had been a performer in the opera at the time with Nicolino and Valentini he had no notion of grace or elegance in singing, it was all strength. Hawkinss opinion of Leveridge was coloured by perceptions, Being a man of rather coarse manners. Leveridge enjoyed good health and reduced his performances only in the last few seasons before retiring in 1751 and he died aged 87 at his lodgings in High Holborn, London, in 1758. Recordings of works by Richard Leveridge include the songs Black and gloomy as the grave, When daisies pied and violets blue, free scores by Richard Leveridge at the International Music Score Library Project National Portrait Gallery, Portraits of Richard Leveridge
Maria Anna Thekla Mozart
Maria Anna Thekla Mozart, called Marianne, known as Bäsle, was the cousin of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. She was born in Augsburg, the third of five daughters of Franz Alois Mozart, between October 11 and October 26,1777, 19-year-old Marianne met the 21-year-old Wolfgang in Augsburg. The young people developed a close, probably intimate relationship, ten letters of their subsequent correspondence have been preserved, all from Wolfgang to Marianne. These are called the Bäsle letters and they are striking for their abundance of scatological and sexual humor. Maynard Solomon translates one passage into rhymed English as shown below, after Mozarts return from Paris, Marianne accepted an invitation to visit Mozart and his family in Salzburg. She accompanied him in January 1779 from Munich to Salzburg and stayed there for about two-and-a-half months and she may have hoped for marriage to Wolfgang. If so, her wish was shattered, the warm relationship cooled off. Their last reunion was in Augsburg in March 1781, Marianne had been educated accordingly to her rank as citizen of the Free City of the Holy Roman Empire, and, as a teenager, gained further social education in Munich.
She is described as having beautiful, bright, humorous. In 1784, she gave birth to a daughter, Maria Josepha, whose father, canon Dr. Theodor Franz de Paula Maria Baron von Reibeld, provided generously for mother. Marianne Mozart remained unmarried her entire life, after the death of her mother, who had been widowed in 1791, she moved to live with her daughter and son-in-law, postmaster Franz-Joseph Streitel, in 1808. Already in 1803 the only grandchild, Carl Joseph, had died in infancy, moving to Kaufbeuren in 1812, she and her family finally ended up in Bayreuth in 1814, where she lived for 27 years until her death. Fifty years after her famous cousin, Marianne died in Bayreuth, Germany, in her estate, the portrait of her cousin was found, which he had sent her from Mannheim in 1778. Only 15 months later, her 58-year-old daughter died, both were buried in the municipal cemetery in Bayreuth, but the graves can no longer be found. In the course of the years, two plates were placed, one at the Old Coaching House, the other at the entrance of the municipal cemetery.
Mozart and scatology Dempf, Peter Mir ist so federleicht ums Herz, Eichborn Verlag, Mozarts erste Liebe, Anton H. Konrad Verlag, Weißenhorn. ISBN 978-3-87437-570-2 Solomon, Maynard Mozart, A Life, Ludwig Der Lebenslauf der Marianne Thekla Mozart, Brigg Verlag, Augsburg. Und der nähmliche narr bleibe ich, Verlag C. H, ISBN 3-406-34762-2 Media related to Baesle Briefe at Wikimedia Commons A Visit to Maria Anna Thekla Mozart, biography
1763 in music
January 1 - First performance of William Boyces At length, th’imperious Lord of War. March 24 - Christoph Willibald Gluck leaves Vienna, bound for Bologna where his opera Il trionfo di Clelia is to be premièred, april 26 - Gluck is awarded a pension of 600 gulden by Empress Maria Theresa. May 14 - Nuovo Teatro Pubblico in Bologna opens with the première of Glucks Il trionfo di Clelia, it is the first major house to be constructed with public funds. May 26 - In Paris, François-Joseph Gossec goes to court to retrieve property from the estate of his late patron Alexandre Le Riche de La Poupelinière. July 9 - Mozart family grand tour, The family of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart sets out on a European tour, james Hook becomes musical director of Marylebone Gardens in London
The guitar is a musical instrument classified as a fretted string instrument with anywhere from four to 18 strings, usually having six. The sound is projected either acoustically, using a wooden or plastic and wood box, or through electrical amplifier. It is typically played by strumming or plucking the strings with the fingers, the guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning. There are three types of modern acoustic guitar, the classical guitar, the steel-string acoustic guitar, and the archtop guitar. The tone of a guitar is produced by the strings vibration, amplified by the hollow body of the guitar. The term finger-picking can refer to a tradition of folk, bluegrass. The acoustic bass guitar is an instrument that is one octave below a regular guitar. Early amplified guitars employed a body, but a solid wood body was eventually found more suitable during the 1960s and 1970s.
As with acoustic guitars, there are a number of types of guitars, including hollowbody guitars, archtop guitars and solid-body guitars. The electric guitar has had a influence on popular culture. The guitar is used in a variety of musical genres worldwide. It is recognized as an instrument in genres such as blues, country, folk, jota, metal, reggae, soul. The term is used to refer to a number of chordophones that were developed and used across Europe, beginning in the 12th century and, later, in the Americas. The modern word guitar, and its antecedents, has applied to a wide variety of chordophones since classical times. Many influences are cited as antecedents to the modern guitar, at least two instruments called guitars were in use in Spain by 1200, the guitarra latina and the so-called guitarra morisca. The guitarra morisca had a back, wide fingerboard. The guitarra Latina had a sound hole and a narrower neck. By the 14th century the qualifiers moresca or morisca and latina had been dropped, and it had six courses, lute-like tuning in fourths and a guitar-like body, although early representations reveal an instrument with a sharply cut waist
Benedikt Schack was a composer and tenor of the Classical era, a close friend of Mozart and the first performer of the role of Tamino in Mozarts opera The Magic Flute. Benedikt Schack was born on 7 February 1758 in Mirotice, like Joseph and Michael Haydn, he worked as a chorister as a child, singing from 1773 in the cathedral in Prague, moved to Vienna to study medicine and singing. His voice teacher in Vienna was Carl Friberth, a tenor who performed under Joseph Haydn, Schack worked for several years as Kapellmeister to Prince Heinrich von Schönaich-Carolath in Silesia. In 1786, Schack joined the theatrical troupe of Emanuel Schikaneder. The troupe settled in Vienna in 1789, performing in the suburban Theater auf der Wieden and it was around this time that Schack became a friend and professional colleague of Mozart, who was gradually increasing his involvement with Schikaneders troupe. Schack apparently asked his friend for advice and help in composing, thus several passages in Schacks operas derive from Mozarts own hand and genius.
In 1790, Schack and his fellow singer-composers of the Schikaneder troupe collaborated to write an opera Der Stein der Weisen, Mozart played a part in its composition, contributing a duet and perhaps other passages. This fairy-tale opera can be considered a kind of precursor to The Magic Flute, when The Magic Flute premiered in 1791, Schack took the role of Tamino. According to the New Grove, it is to be presumed that he played Taminos flute solos, an 1815 source indicates that Schack sang the role a total of 116 times. Only two months after the Magic Flute premiere, Mozart died, according to a story that first appeared in an anonymous obituary of Schack, the two men participated in a rehearsal of Mozarts Requiem on the last day of Mozarts life. They were at the first bars of the Lacrimosa when Mozart began to weep bitterly, laid the score on one side and it is worth noting that the tale first appeared 36 years after Mozarts death. Mozart wrote a set of eight variations on Schacks aria Ein Weib ist das herrlichste Ding from the Singspiel Der dumme Gärtner, Schack moved on to posts in Graz and Munich.
With the decline of his voice, he retired in 1813. He died in Munich on 10 December 1826, toward the end of his life, Schack was sent a letter by the former Constanze Mozart, which attests to his friendship with Wolfgang. Constanze, who had remarried to Georg Nikolaus Nissen, was seeking information to include in her second husbands biography-in-progress of her first and she wrote, I could think of absolutely no one who knew him better or to whom he was more devoted than you. Of great and general interest will be what you can instance of Mozarts few compositions in your operas, Schack died before he was able to reply to Constanzes letter. Schack was married to the former Elisabeth Weinhold, who was a singer, testimony for Schacks abilities as a singer comes from Leopold Mozart, who heard his debut performance with the Schikaneder troupe while it was visiting Salzburg in 1786. Leopold described Schack in a letter wrote to his daughter Maria Anna and he sings excellently well and has a beautiful voice, with an easy and flexible throat and a beautiful method
Glafira Ivanovna Alymova was a Russian lady in waiting and harpist. Glafira Alymova was the daughter of Colonel Ivan Akinfievich Alymov and she studied at the Smolny Institute from 1764 to 1776, as one of its first students, and excelled in music. On her graduation in 1776, she was decorated as one of its five best students, the Empress was fond of her because of her good humor and temperament. She was married successively to the writer and nobleman Alexei Rzhevskii in 1777, as his second wife and her second marriage, to a man twenty years younger than her and of lower social status, was regarded a scandal. Mariya Svistunova was her eldest child and only daughter, glafira Alymova was regarded as one of the best harpists of her time. She was awarded the order of St Catherine by Empress Catherine, Памятные записки Глафиры Ивановны Ржевской // Русский архив,1871. Дмитрий Григорьевич Левицкий 1735—1822, Каталог временной выставки — Государственный русский музей, Екатерина, мудрость и любовь, историческая повесть
Anna Sophia Sophie Hagman, née Anna Kristina Stina Hagman, was a Swedish ballet dancer. She was the royal mistress to Prince Frederick Adolf of Sweden from 1778 to 1793. Information about her background is not entirely confirmed Sophie Hagman was likely the daughter of a gamekeeper and former member of the Södermanland regiment and she was the maid to the lady-in-waiting Baroness Virginia Manderström and served as the maid to countess Hedvig Catharina Piper. During her employment with Piper, according to courtier count Lars von Engeström, she was a little girl, and everyone laughed at her because she was in love with Duke Frederik. She ended her employment at Piper and entered into a relationship with a merchant, and brewer. The relationship ended because the man died, and Hagman was forced to end her education to a seamstress, the dates for these events are not clear. From 1775, Sophie Hagman had a position as a dancer in the Royal Ballet. She never became known as a ballet dancer and was said to have been more noted for her appearance than her talent, in 1776.
In 1778, Prince Frederick Adolf noticed her during her performance as a pageboy, after becoming the mistress of Prince Frederick Adolf, Sophie Hagman was said to have studied French and etiquette. She was given the name Sophie instead of the more common Anna Stina, the 2 January 1780, she was presented at the royal court at Gripsholm Castle as the official lover of Frederick Adolf by permission of king Gustav III of Sweden. It is likely that Gustav III gave his permission because of his admiration for the French court and his Majesty duly agreed to this, as it seemed, starting point for future privileges for her. Everything must happen according to a pattern at court. Mamsell Hagman kissed his hand and started to converse the ladies and her conversation was relaxed and pleasant, she displayed much modesty and respect but no shyness or submission. The Duke did not sit, making it necessary for the ladies to remain standing and it would not have been possible for her to sit down in the presence of the Crown Prince.
The ladies of the Crown Prince, initially somewhat scandalised over this visit, soon found themselves content, the Duke had since long planned this and made himself the friend of all the ladies of the court. To be presented for the members of the court, was a sign that she was accepted, as it was socially acceptable to present a mistress for male nobles. Sophie Hagman appeared openly with the prince at court, which together with Hedvig Taube made her one of two official royal mistresses in the history of Sweden. She was called, My little daughter-in-law by the Queen Dowager, the Poet Bellman called her an image of beauty, Her entire being was a fest to my eyes, and the King once embraced her as a sister-in-law at Gripsholm Castle