Canadian Expeditionary Force
The Canadian Expeditionary Force was the designation of the field force created by Canada for service overseas in the First World War. The force fielded several combat formations on the Western Front in France and Belgium, the largest of, the Canadian Corps, consisting of four divisions; the Canadian Cavalry Brigade and the Canadian Independent Force, which were independent of the Canadian Corps fought on the Western Front. The CEF had a large reserve and training organization in England, a recruiting organization in Canada. In the stages of the European war after their success at Vimy Ridge and Passchendaele, the Canadian Corps was regarded by friend and foe alike as one of the most effective Allied military formations on the Western Front. In August 1918, the CEF's Canadian Siberian Expeditionary Force travelled to revolution-torn Russia, it reinforced an anti-Bolshevik garrison in Vladivostok during the winter of 1918–19. At this time, another force of Canadian soldiers were placed in Archangel, where they fought against Bolsheviks.
The Canadian Expeditionary Force was volunteers. In all, 24,132 conscripts had been sent to France to take part in the final Hundred Days campaign; as a Dominion in the British Empire, Canada was automatically at war with Germany upon the British declaration. Popular support for the war was found in English Canada. Of the first contingent formed at Valcartier, Quebec in 1914, about two-thirds were men, born in the United Kingdom. By the end of the war in 1918, at least half of the soldiers were British-born. Recruiting was difficult among the French-Canadian population, many of whom did not agree with supporting Canada's participation in the war. To a lesser extent, several other cultural groups within the Dominion enlisted and made a significant contribution to the Force including Indigenous people of the First Nations, Black Canadians as well as Black Americans. Many British nationals from the United Kingdom or other territories who were resident in Canada joined the CEF. A sizeable percentage of Bermuda's volunteers who served in the war joined the CEF, either because they were resident in Canada or because Canada was the easiest other part of the Empire and Commonwealth to reach from Bermuda.
As several CEF battalions were posted to the Bermuda Garrison before proceeding to France, islanders were able to enlist there. Although the Bermuda Militia Artillery and Bermuda Volunteer Rifle Corps both sent contingents to the Western Front, the first would not arrive there until June 1915. By many Bermudians had been serving on the Western Front in the CEF for months. Bermudians in the CEF enlisted under the same terms as Canadians, all male British Nationals resident in Canada became liable for conscription under the Military Service Act, 1917; the CEF raised 260 numbered infantry battalions, two named infantry battalions, 17 mounted regiments, 13 railway troop battalions, five pioneer battalions, four divisional supply trains, four divisional signals companies, a dozen engineering companies, over 80 field and heavy artillery batteries, fifteen field ambulance units, 23 general and stationary hospitals, many other medical, forestry, tunnelling and service units. Two tank battalions did not see service.
Most of the infantry battalions were broken up and used as reinforcements, with a total of fifty being used in the field, including the mounted rifle units, which were re-organized as infantry. The artillery and engineering units underwent significant re-organization as the war progressed, in keeping with changing technological and tactical requirements. Another entity within the Canadian Expeditionary Force was the Canadian Machine Gun Corps, it consisted of several motor machine gun battalions, the Eatons and Borden Motor Machine Gun Batteries, nineteen machine gun companies. During the summer of 1918, these units were consolidated into four machine gun battalions, one being attached to each of the four divisions in the Canadian Corps; the Canadian Corps with its four infantry divisions comprised the main fighting force of the CEF. The Canadian Cavalry Brigade served in France. Support units of the CEF included the Canadian Railway Troops, which served on the Western Front and provided a bridging unit for the Middle East.
The 1915 Battle of Ypres, the first engagement of Canadian forces in the Great War, exposed Canadian soldiers and their commanders to modern war. They had experienced the effects of shellfire and participated in aggressive trench raiding despite a lack of formal training and inferior equipment, they were equipped with the malfunctioning Ross rifle, the older and less reliable Colt machine gun and an inferior Canadian copy of British webbing equipment that rotted and fell apart in the wet of the trenches. In April 1915, they were introduced to yet another facet of gas; the Germans employed chlorine gas to create a hole in the French lines adjacent to the Canadian force and poured troops into the gap. The Canadians, operating for the most part in small groups and under local commanders, fi
Medicine Hat is a city in southeast Alberta, located along the South Saskatchewan River. It is 169 km east of Lethbridge and 295 km southeast of Calgary; this city and the adjacent Town of Redcliff to the northwest are within Cypress County. Medicine Hat was the sixth-largest city in Alberta in 2016 with a population of 63,230. Started as a railway town, today Medicine Hat is served by the Trans-Canada Highway and the eastern terminus of the Crowsnest Highway. Nearby communities considered part of the Medicine Hat area include the Town of Redcliff and the hamlets of Desert Blume, Irvine, Seven Persons, Veinerville; the Cypress Hills is a short distance to the southeast of the city. Medicine Hat has been known for its large natural gas fields, being immortalized by Rudyard Kipling as having "all hell for a basement"; because of these reserves, the city is known as "The Gas City". The name "Medicine Hat" is the English translation of Saamis – the Blackfoot word for the eagle tail feather headdress worn by medicine men.
Several legends are associated with the name of a mythical mer-man river serpent named Soy-yee-daa-bee – the Creator – who appeared to a hunter and instructed him to sacrifice his wife to get mystical powers which were manifest in a special hat. Another legend tells of a battle long ago between the Blackfoot and the Cree in which a retreating Cree "Medicine Man" lost his headdress in the South Saskatchewan River. A number of natural factors have always made Medicine Hat a gathering place; the sloping valley with its converging waterways and hardy native cottonwood trees attracted both the migratory bison herds which passed through the area, humans who used the waterways and hunted the bison. Before Europeans arrived, the historic Blackfoot and Assiniboine nations used the area for hundreds of years, but they had been preceded for thousands of years by previous indigenous cultures. Beginning in 1971, archeological excavations supervised by scholars from Medicine Hat College were conducted at what became known as Saamis Archeological Site along Seven Persons Creek, near a historic Blackfoot buffalo jump.
These revealed numerous artifacts associated with bands of First Nations ancestors, known as the Old Women's Phase to archeologists. They found "quantities of stone tools, fire cracked rock, butchered bone and pottery", marking this as an important spot. Most of the bones were identified as bison. Additional excavations were conducted in 1972 and 1973, a field school for college students was based there, they "excavated and mapped over 3,200 sq. ft. of living floors and nearly 80 features including hearths and stone boiling pits. Radiocarbon dates indicate the Saamis Site was occupied about AD 1500 and again around AD 1750", well before most European contact. In this area, further to the west, other MHC students and faculty were part of an excavation in 2000 at what became known as the Hillside Campsite, where two layers of finds were made; the upper layer had artifacts from the Old Women's Phase, but the lower layers were found to be much older, containing Pelican Lake Phase remains that were dated to between 1000 and 1500 BC.
In 1883, when the Canadian Pacific Railway reached Medicine Hat and crossed the river, European Canadians established a town site. They named it from the First Nations legends; as growth took place, in 1889 Medicine Hat built the first hospital west of Winnipeg. The CPR established this town as a railway divisional point; the frontier settlement was incorporated as a town on October 31, 1898, as a city on May 9, 1906. Medicine Hat is halfway between British Columbia, on the Pacific Coast. Rich in natural resources including natural gas, coal and farmland, the town became industrialized and was known in its early days as "the Pittsburgh of the West", referring to the industrial city in western Pennsylvania of the United States. A number of large industries located here, attracted by the plentiful energy resources. Coal mines, brick works and glass bottle manufacturing plants, flour mills, etc. became established. With transportation access via the railway and river, the town became a service and trade center for the agriculture and its products, both commodity crops and livestock, of the surrounding area.
Between 1909–1914 the town had an economic boom that increased the population to more than 10,000. Little growth occurred between the World Wars. During World War II, one of the largest prisoner-of-war camps in Canada was established here in the mid-1940s, used to hold German and Italian prisoners, it was not until the 1950s of the post-war period. In the 21st century, Medicine Hat promotes its quality of life and affordable cost of living, enjoying the savings of a city-owned gas utility and power generation plant. Major industries have included chemical plants, a Goodyear tire and rubber plant, numerous oil and gas related companies, a foundry, I-XL Industries, to name a few. Friends of Medalta is a non-profit, formed to preserve some of the city's industrial heritage; the Medicine Hat landscape is dominated by the South Saskatchewan River valley. In addition, the tributaries Seven Persons Creek and Ross Creek both flow into the South Saskatchewan River within the boundaries of the city; these waterways have cut a dramatic valley landscape with numerous cliffs, finger coulees throughout the city.
Beyond the city and river valley, the land is flat to rolling and is characterized by short-grass vegetation. Locat
Alberta is a western province of Canada. With an estimated population of 4,067,175 as of 2016 census, it is Canada's fourth most populous province and the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces, its area is about 660,000 square kilometres. Alberta and its neighbour Saskatchewan were districts of the Northwest Territories until they were established as provinces on September 1, 1905; the premier has been Rachel Notley since May 2015. Alberta is bounded by the provinces of British Columbia to the west and Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest Territories to the north, the U. S. state of Montana to the south. Alberta is one of three Canadian provinces and territories to border only a single U. S. state and one of only two landlocked provinces. It has a predominantly humid continental climate, with stark contrasts over a year. Alberta's capital, Edmonton, is near the geographic centre of the province and is the primary supply and service hub for Canada's crude oil, the Athabasca oil sands and other northern resource industries.
About 290 km south of the capital is the largest city in Alberta. Calgary and Edmonton centre Alberta's two census metropolitan areas, both of which have populations exceeding one million, while the province has 16 census agglomerations. Tourist destinations in the province include Banff, Drumheller, Sylvan Lake and Lake Louise. Alberta is named after the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. Princess Louise was the wife of Marquess of Lorne, Governor General of Canada. Lake Louise and Mount Alberta were named in her honour. Alberta, with an area of 661,848 km2, is the fourth-largest province after Quebec and British Columbia. To the south, the province borders on the 49th parallel north, separating it from the U. S. state of Montana, while to the north the 60th parallel north divides it from the Northwest Territories. To the east, the 110th meridian west separates it from the province of Saskatchewan, while on the west its boundary with British Columbia follows the 120th meridian west south from the Northwest Territories at 60°N until it reaches the Continental Divide at the Rocky Mountains, from that point follows the line of peaks marking the Continental Divide in a southeasterly direction until it reaches the Montana border at 49°N.
The province extends 660 km east to west at its maximum width. Its highest point is 3,747 m at the summit of Mount Columbia in the Rocky Mountains along the southwest border while its lowest point is 152 m on the Slave River in Wood Buffalo National Park in the northeast. With the exception of the semi-arid steppe of the south-eastern section, the province has adequate water resources. There are numerous lakes used for swimming, fishing and a range of water sports. There are three large lakes, Lake Claire in Wood Buffalo National Park, Lesser Slave Lake, Lake Athabasca which lies in both Alberta and Saskatchewan; the longest river in the province is the Athabasca River which travels 1,538 km from the Columbia Icefield in the Rocky Mountains to Lake Athabasca. The largest river is the Peace River with an average flow of 2161 m3/s; the Peace River originates in the Rocky Mountains of northern British Columbia and flows through northern Alberta and into the Slave River, a tributary of the Mackenzie River.
Alberta's capital city, Edmonton, is located at about the geographic centre of the province. It is the most northerly major city in Canada, serves as a gateway and hub for resource development in northern Canada; the region, with its proximity to Canada's largest oil fields, has most of western Canada's oil refinery capacity. Calgary is about 280 km south of Edmonton and 240 km north of Montana, surrounded by extensive ranching country. 75% of the province's population lives in the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor. The land grant policy to the railroads served as a means to populate the province in its early years. Most of the northern half of the province is boreal forest, while the Rocky Mountains along the southwestern boundary are forested; the southern quarter of the province is prairie, ranging from shortgrass prairie in the southeastern corner to mixed grass prairie in an arc to the west and north of it. The central aspen parkland region extending in a broad arc between the prairies and the forests, from Calgary, north to Edmonton, east to Lloydminster, contains the most fertile soil in the province and most of the population.
Much of the unforested part of Alberta is given over either to grain or to dairy farming, with mixed farming more common in the north and centre, while ranching and irrigated agriculture predominate in the south. The Alberta badlands are located in southeastern Alberta, where the Red Deer River crosses the flat prairie and farmland, features deep canyons and striking landforms. Dinosaur Provincial Park, near Brooks, showcases the badlands terrain, desert flora, remnants from Alberta's past when dinosaurs roamed the lush landscape. Alberta has a humid continental climate with cold winters; the province is open to cold arctic weather systems from the north, which produce cold conditions in winter. As the fronts between the air masses shift north and south across Alberta, the temperature can change rapidly. Arctic
South Alberta Light Horse
The South Alberta Light Horse, or SALH, is a Reserve armoured reconnaissance regiment unit of the Canadian Army based in Medicine Hat and Lethbridge, Alberta. The SALH is part of 3rd Canadian Division's 41 Canadian Brigade Group; the "Light Horse" designation mounted infantry origins. Major David Vivian Currie VC The South Alberta Light Horse traces its beginnings to the period of the Riel Rebellion of 1885. During this conflict The Rocky Mountain Rangers of Fort Macleod with 150 officers and men were tasked with the protection of the area ranging from the U. S. border from the Rockies to Medicine Hat. The RMR saw no action during their three months of existence during the rebellion, the SALH carries the battle honour "North West Canada, 1885" on their colours; this irregular light cavalry unit is seen as the true genesis of the regiment. The 15th Light Horse, the official direct ancestor of the SALH, was raised in Calgary on July 3, 1905, it consisted of four newly organized cavalry squadrons: Calgary, Fort MacLeod, High River, Cochrane.
From this point until the mid-1950s the regiment's history can be described as a series of complicated amalgamations and redesignations of Alberta army reserve units of all arms until the regiment as it is now was formed in Calgary in 1954. At the beginning of the First World War, the Alberta militia units destined to become part of SALH were four cavalry regiments – 15th Light Horse in Calgary, 19th Alberta Dragoons in Edmonton, 21st Alberta Hussars in Medicine Hat and 23rd Alberta Rangers in Fort Macleod – and two infantry regiments – 101st Regiment "Edmonton Fusiliers" and 103rd Regiment "Calgary Rifles"; the Early Years 1. A Trooper of the Rocky Mountain Rangers, 1885. 2. Lieutenant Lionel F. Page and members of his troop of the Red Deer Independent Squadron of the 15th Canadian Light Horse on manoeuvres at Sarcee Camp near Calgary, Alberta, 1910. 3. Officers of the 15th Alberta Light Horse, Sarcee Camp, July 1925. In the First World War, the Canadian militia units were not mobilized, but instead new units were formed from volunteers from the militia and new recruits.
The militia units became organizations for recruiting and preliminary training. The 19th Alberta Dragoons recruited the 1st Divisional Cavalry Squadron, CEF, which landed in France in February 1915. After other divisions joined the 1st Canadian Division in France and the Canadian Corps was formed, the squadron was attached to the corps and became A Squadron, Canadian Light Horse, CEF; the troopers of this squadron wore 19th Alberta Dragoon badges throughout the war. Recruited by SALH's predecessors were three regiments of Canadian Mounted Rifles: the 3rd, 12th and 13th; the 3rd Regiment, Canadian Mounted Rifles, CEF, was mobilized at Medicine Hat and landed in France in September 1915 as part of the 1st CMR Brigade. At the end of 1915, the CMR units in France were converted from two cavalry brigades into one infantry brigade; the troopers of the 3rd Regiment were split up, half going to the 1st CMR Battalion and half to the 2nd CMR Battalion. The 12th and 13th Regiments CMR were broken up for reinforcements in England.
The SALH counts a First World War artillery unit as an ancestor: 22nd Battery, CFA, CEF. The battery landed in France on 19 January 1916, where it served as part of the 6th Brigade, 2nd Canadian Divisional Artillery until the end of the war; the battery was demobilized at Hamilton, 25 May 1919, was disbanded on 1 November 1920. The battery is perpetuated by the 22nd Field RCA, Gleichen Alberta. Of the eight infantry battalions recruited by the SALH's predecessors, only one entered combat as a unit; the 31st Battalion, CEF, landed in France in September 1915 with the 2nd Canadian Division. It was awarded 22 battle honours, including such notable actions as Passchendaele; the other seven battalions – 9th, 66th, 113th Battalion, CEF, 138th, 175th, 187th and 202nd – were broken up for reinforcements in England. The 31st Battalion participated in the first tank attack in history at the Battle of Flers-Courcelette on 15 September 1916, while A Squadron, Canadian Light Horse, made the last cavalry charge in Canadian history at the battle of Iwuy on 10 October 1918.
This means that among the predecessor units of the SALH, one participated in the first military operation involving the tank and another mounted the last cavalry charge in Canadian history. The period between the world wars saw two major reorganizations of the Canadian Militia, the first from 1920 to 1924 and the second from 1935 to 1936. By the outbreak of the Second World War, the ancestors of the SALH were two cavalry regiments an independent artillery battery and two infantry battalions. Cap Badges of the South Alberta Light Horse and Lineage Regiments The 15th Alberta Light Horse contributed to several active service units, including the 31st Reconnaissance Regiment, remaining in the Calgary area until the end of the war; the South Alberta Regiment, recruited an active service battalion in the Medicine Hat area in the summer of 1940. This infantry unit trained in Canada until 1942 when it was reorganized as the 29th Armoured Regiment and moved to England in August; the SAR was granted 15 battle honours for its service over
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Library and Archives Canada
Library and Archives Canada is a federal institution tasked with acquiring and making Canada's documentary heritage accessible. It is the fourth biggest library in the world. LAC reports to Parliament through Pablo Rodríguez, the Minister of Canadian Heritage since August 28, 2018; the Dominion Archives was founded in 1872 as a division within the Department of Agriculture and was transformed into the autonomous Public Archives of Canada in 1912 and renamed the National Archives of Canada in 1987. The National Library of Canada was founded in 1953. Freda Farrell Waldon contributed to the writing of the brief which led to the founding of the National Library of Canada. In 2004, Library and Archives Canada combined the functions of the National Archives of Canada and the National Library of Canada, it was established by the Library and Archives of Canada Act, proclaimed on April 22, 2004. A subsequent Order in Council dated May 21, 2004 united the collections and personnel of the National Archives of Canada and the National Library of Canada.
Since inception LAC has reported to Parliament through the Minister of Canadian Heritage. LAC's stated mandate is: to preserve the documentary heritage of Canada for the benefit of present and future generations. LAC is expected to maintain "effective recordkeeping practices that ensure transparency and accountability". LAC's holdings include the archival records of the Government of Canada, representative private archives, 20 million books acquired through legal deposit, 24 million photographs, more than a petabyte of digital content; some of this content the book collection, university theses and census material, is available online. Many items are only available in physical form; as of May 2013 only about 1% of the collection had been digitized, representing "about 25 million of the more popular and most fragile items". The collection includes: the proclamation of the Canadian Constitution Act, which bears marks left by raindrops during a ceremony on Parliament Hill in April 1982 when Queen Elizabeth II signed it.
Genealogists account for 70% of LAC's clients. The building at 395 Wellington Street in downtown Ottawa is the main physical location where the public may access the collection in person; the building was opened on June 20, 1967. With the de-emphasis on physical visits, in-person services have been curtailed, for example since April 2012 reference services are by appointment only, the role of this building is decreasing. There are administrative offices in Gatineau and preservation and storage facilities throughout Canada for federal government records; the Preservation Centre in the city centre of Gatineau, about 10 kilometres away from the Ottawa headquarters, was designed to provide a safe environment for the long-term storage and preservation of Canada's valuable collections. It was built at a cost of CDN$107 million, the official opening took place on June 4, 1997, it is a unique building containing 48 climate-controlled preservation vaults and state-of-the-art preservation laboratories.
In 2000, the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada named it one of the top 500 buildings constructed in Canada during the last millennium. A Nitrate Film Preservation Facility on the Communications Research Centre campus in Shirleys Bay, on the outskirts of Ottawa, houses Canada's cellulose nitrate film collection; the collection contains 5,575 film reels dating back to 1912, including some of the first Canadian motion pictures and photographic negatives. The film material is sensitive and requires precise temperatures for its preservation; the state-of-the-art facility, opened on June 21, 2011, is an eco-designed building featuring an environmentally friendly roof that provides better insulation and minimizes energy expenditures. A planned key activity for 2013–14 was to rehouse analogue information resources in a new state-of-the-art high-density storage facility in Gatineau, where the national newspaper collection and records of Second World War veterans will be stored; the facility will feature a high bay metal shelving system with a suitable environment to better protect Canada's published heritage.
In January 2019, Library and Archives Canada announced that negotiations for a new facility to be built next to the existing one in Gatineau were starting, with an opening date in 2022. LAC's online collection is accessible via its website and LAC provides ongoing information online via its blog, the Twitter and Facebook social networking services, the Flickr image-sharing site, the YouTube video-sharing site. RSS feeds provide links to news about LAC services and resources. A new modernized website is being developed and is scheduled for completion in 2013, with both new and old websites accessible during the transition period. In June 2004 LAC issued a discussion paper Creating a New Kind of Knowledge Institution, after consultation in
South Alberta Regiment
The South Alberta Regiment was a Canadian regiment which served in the Second World War. The unit was created in 1924 as infantry and mobilized in 1940 as part of the 4th Canadian Infantry Division; when the division was reorganized as an armoured formation to satisfy demand for a second Canadian armoured division, the South Alberta Regiment was named 29th Armoured Regiment and received Ram tanks in February 1942. The unit was again renamed as 29th Armoured Reconnaissance Regiment in January 1943; the SAR was deployed to northern France in mid-June 1944, replacing their Ram tanks to be equipped with Stuart and Sherman tanks. They participated in the battles of the Invasion of Normandy, taking part in Operation Totalize and closing the Falaise pocket in Operation Tractable; the South Albertas went on to participate in the liberation of the Netherlands and the Battle of the Scheldt. In January 1945, they took part in the Battle for the Kapelsche Veer, they spent the last weeks of the war fighting in northern Germany.
Major David Vivian Currie of the SAR received the Victoria Cross for his actions near Saint-Lambert-sur-Dives, as the allies attempted to seal off the Falaise pocket. It was the only Victoria Cross awarded to a Canadian soldier during the Normandy campaign, the only Victoria Cross awarded to a member of the Royal Canadian Armoured Corps; the Freedom of the City was exercised by the South Alberta Regiment in Nanaimo, British Columbia in April, 1941. The SAR is now incorporated by amalgamation in the reserve reconnaissance regiment the South Alberta Light Horse. South Alberta Regiment Veterans Association