1765

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1765 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1765
MDCCLXV
Ab urbe condita2518
Armenian calendar1214
ԹՎ ՌՄԺԴ
Assyrian calendar6515
Balinese saka calendar1686–1687
Bengali calendar1172
Berber calendar2715
British Regnal yearGeo. 3 – 6 Geo. 3
Buddhist calendar2309
Burmese calendar1127
Byzantine calendar7273–7274
Chinese calendar甲申(Wood Monkey)
4461 or 4401
    — to —
乙酉年 (Wood Rooster)
4462 or 4402
Coptic calendar1481–1482
Discordian calendar2931
Ethiopian calendar1757–1758
Hebrew calendar5525–5526
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1821–1822
 - Shaka Samvat1686–1687
 - Kali Yuga4865–4866
Holocene calendar11765
Igbo calendar765–766
Iranian calendar1143–1144
Islamic calendar1178–1179
Japanese calendarMeiwa 2
(明和2年)
Javanese calendar1690–1691
Julian calendarGregorian minus 11 days
Korean calendar4098
Minguo calendar147 before ROC
民前147年
Nanakshahi calendar297
Thai solar calendar2307–2308
Tibetan calendar阳木猴年
(male Wood-Monkey)
1891 or 1510 or 738
    — to —
阴木鸡年
(female Wood-Rooster)
1892 or 1511 or 739

1765 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1765th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 765th year of the 2nd millennium, the 65th year of the 18th century, and the 6th year of the 1760s decade. As of the start of 1765, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Events[edit]

January–March[edit]

  • January 23Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor marries Princess Maria Josepha of Bavaria in Vienna.
  • January 29 — One week before his death, Mir Jafar, who had been enthroned as the Nawab of Bengal and ruler of the Bengali people with the support and protection of the British East India Company, abdicates in favor of his 18-year old son, Najmuddin Ali Khan. [1]
  • February 8
    • Frederick the Great, the King of Prussia, issues a decree abolishing the historic punishments against unmarried women in Germany for "sex crimes", particularly the Hurenstrafen (literally "whore shaming") practices of public humiliation. [2]
    • Isaac Barré, a member of the British House of Commons for Wycombe and a veteran of the French and Indian War in the British American colonies, coins the term "Sons of Liberty" in a rebuttal to Charles Townshend's derisive description of the American colonists during the introduction of the proposed Stamp Act. MP Barré notes that "They fled from your tyranny to a then uncultivated and unhospitable country... And yet, actuated by the principles of true English liberty, they met all these hardships with pleasure, compared with those they suffered in their own country, from the hands of those who should have been their friends." American colonists adopt the term for their own organization after reading the accounts of Barré's speech. [3]
  • February 14Spain's five-member "special junta", appointed by Prime Minister Jerónimo Grimaldi, delivers its report regarding "ways to address the backwardness of Spain's commerce with its colonies and with foreign nations". The report provides detailed orders to be delivered to José de Gálvez, the visitador general in charge of New Spain. [4]
  • March 9 – After a public campaign by the writer Voltaire, judges in Paris posthumously exonerate Jean Calas of murdering his son. Calas had been tortured and executed in 1762 on the charge, though his son may have committed suicide.
  • March 22 – Royal assent is given to the Duties in American Colonies Act 1765, historically referred to as the Stamp Act, imposing the first direct tax levied from Great Britain on the thirteen American colonies, effective November 1. [5] The revenue measure (which requires the purchase of a stamp to be affixed for validation of all legal documents, but also to licensed newspapers and even playing cards and dice) is made to help defray the costs for British military operations in North America, including the French and Indian War. [6]
  • March 24 – Great Britain passes the Quartering Act, requiring private households in the thirteen American colonies to house British soldiers if necessary.

April–June[edit]

  • April 4 – At Fort Tombecbe, near what is now the town of Epes, Alabama, representatives of the British Empire and of the Choctaw Indian tribe in Mississippi sign a peace treaty in the wake of French cession of claims to the British. A boundary is fixed between land to be occupied by the Choctaws and for lands which British settlers can use; in addition, the British agree to provide a police official and a gunsmith at Fort Tombecbe for the Choctaws to use for trespassing complaints and for weapons repairs. By 1775, however, the Choctaws are outnumbered in Mississippi. [7]
  • April 5 – After completing the portion of the Mason–Dixon line marking the semi-circular boundary between Pennsylvania and Delaware, English surveyors Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon begin the two and a half year process of plotting out the 230-mile boundary between Pennsylvania and Maryland along the latitude of 39°43′20″ N. [8]
  • April 14 – Three days after getting the news that the Stamp Act has passed, American colonists invade the British Army arsenal near the New York City Hall and sabotage guns inside by spiking them. [9]
  • April 26 – At Saint Petersburg, German engineer Christian Kratzenstein presents to the Russian Academy of Sciences a perfected version of the arithmetical machine originally invented by Gottfried Leibniz. Kratzenstein claims that his machine solves the problem with the Leibniz machine has with calculations above four digits, perfecting the flaw where the machine is "prone to err whenever it is necessary to make a number of 9999 move to 10000", but the machine is not developed further. [10]
  • May 18 – Not long after British rule has started over the formerly French colony of Quebec, an accidental fire destroys one quarter of the town of Montreal. [11]
  • May 26 – During a stroll in the park "on a fine Sabbath afternoon" at Glasgow Green, Scottish engineer James Watt receives the inspiration that provides the breakthrough in his development of the steam engine; he recounts later that "The idea came into my mind, that as steam was an elastic body it would rush into a vacuum, and if a communication was made between the cylinder and an exhausted vessel, it would rush into it, and might be there condensed without cooling the cylinder... I had not walked further than the Golf-house when the whole thing was arranged in my mind." [12]
  • June 21 – The Isle of Man is brought under British control, the Isle of Man Purchase Act (coming into force 10 May) confirming HM Treasury's purchase of the feudal rights of the Dukes of Atholl, as Lord of Mann over the island, and revesting them into the British Crown.[13]

July–December[edit]

Date unknown[edit]

Births[edit]

Deaths[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Abdul Majed Khan, The Transition in Bengal, 1756-75: A Study of Saiyid Muhammad Reza Khan (Cambridge University Press, 2007) p69
  2. ^ Isabel V. Hull, Sexuality, State, and Civil Society in Germany, 1700-1815 (Cornell University Press, 1997) p127
  3. ^ Jonathan Mercantini, The Stamp Act of 1765: A History in Documents (Broadview Press, 2017) p71
  4. ^ Stanley J. Stein and Barbara H. Stein, Apogee of Empire: Spain and New Spain in the Age of Charles III, 1759–1789 (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003) p69
  5. ^ "Sunday's and Monday's Posts", in The Leeds Intelligencer, March 26, 1765, p3
  6. ^ Richard Archer, As If an Enemy's Country: The British Occupation of Boston and the Origins of Revolution (Oxford University Press, 2010) pp20-21
  7. ^ "Mississippi", by Kathrin Dodds, in Native America: A State-by-State Historical Encyclopedia, ed. by Daniel S. Murphree (ABC-CLIO, 2012) p611
  8. ^ Andro Linklater, The Fabric of America: How Our Borders and Boundaries Shaped the Country and Forged Our National Identity (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2009) p29
  9. ^ Edward Robb Ellis, The Epic of New York City: A Narrative History (Basic Books, 2011)
  10. ^ Matthew L. Jones, Reckoning with Matter: Calculating Machines, Innovation, and Thinking about Thinking from Pascal to Babbage (University of Chicago Press, 2016) p133
  11. ^ William Henry Atherton, Montreal, 1535-1914: Under British rule, 1760-1914" (S. J. Clarke, 1914) p397
  12. ^ H. W. Dickinson, James Watt: Craftsman and Engineer (Cambridge University Press, 1936) pp36-37
  13. ^ Hartley Booth, V. E.; Sells, Peter (1980). British extradition law and procedure: including extradition between the United Kingdom and foreign states, the Commonwealth and dependent countries and the Republic of China. Alphen aan den Rijn: Sijthoff & Noordhoff. p. 5. ISBN 978-90-286-0079-9. OCLC 6890466. 
  14. ^ Ajoy Kumar Kundu, Aircraft Design (Cambridge University Press, 2010) p3
  15. ^ Nicholas K. Robinson, Edmund Burke: A Life in Caricature (Yale University Press, 1996) p17
  16. ^ Arrell M. Gibson, Kickapoos: Lords of the Middle Border (University of Oklahoma Press, 1975)
  17. ^ "Nanicksah", in Native Peoples A to Z: A Reference Guide to Native Peoples of the Western Hemisphere, ed. by Donald Ricky (Native American Book Publishers, 2009) p1779
  18. ^ John Wiley Spiers, How Small business Trades Worldwide (Writer's Showcase, 2001) p86
  19. ^ "Karim Khan Zand (ca. 1705-1779)" in The Ottoman Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia, by Mehrdad Kia (ABC-CLIO, 2017) p133
  20. ^ Bert Anson, The Miami Indians (University of Oklahoma Press, 2000) p74
  21. ^ Robert Blair St. George, Conversing by Signs: Poetics of Implication in Colonial New England Culture (University of North Carolina Press, 2000) p246
  22. ^ Bhattacherje, S. B. (May 1, 2009). Encyclopaedia of Indian Events & Dates. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. pp. A–96. Retrieved March 24, 2014. 
  23. ^ Bisha, Robin (2002). Russian Women, 1698-1917 Experience and Expression: An Anthology of Sources. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. pp. 162–163. 
  24. ^ "Smithsonian History, James Smithson". Smithsonian Institution Archives Website. Smithsonian Institution Archives. Retrieved 28 February 2018. 

Further reading[edit]