The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Christiansborg Palace (1st)
The first Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen, Denmark was built on Slotsholmen in 1745 as a new main residence for King Christian VI of Denmark. It was built on the site as its predecessor, Copenhagen Castle. The palace only existed for just under half a century since it was almost completely destroyed by a fire in 1794. The surviving parts, which included the grounds, the court theatre. Demolition of the overextended and antiquated Copenhagen Castle began in 1731 to make room for the new palace which was named Christiansborg after its founder, the king commissioned architect Elias David Häusser to build the new palace. Construction of the magnificent new palace began in 1733, from 1736 the younger architects Lauritz de Thurah and Nicolai Eigtved were put in charge of designing the interior. In 1738 a palace commission was set up to supervise the construction, work only progressed slowly due to lack of funds and on several occasions threatened to come to a complete standstill. However, by 1740 the main wing was ready for use.
When Häusser retired from the project in 1742, Eigtved was charged with completing the palace, the palace commission was dissolved on 22 February 1745. The total costs of the new palace were 2.7 million Rigsdaler, on 26 February 1794, Christiansborg Palace was devastated by a fire. It began in an overheated stove close to the Grand Hall, there was an attached chapel located at the site of the present-day Christiansborg Chapel. It was the largest palace in Europe for a short while, the main approach to the palace was across the still existing Marble Bridge, today located on the rear side of present-day Christiansborg, and the show grounds. The main building stood 36 metres high with a copper-clad roof, the façade was covered in sandstone and lavishly decorated with vases, reliefs and ornamental details on cornices and window frames. The interior was in Rococo style and lavishly decorated
Christian VI of Denmark
Christian VI was King of Denmark and Norway from 1730-46. He was the first king of the Oldenburg dynasty to refrain from entering in any war and he was married to Sophia Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach and was the father of Frederick V. His chosen motto was deo et populo, from 1706, Christian came to understand Danish but used German for everyday speaking and writing. He got an education and acquired more knowledge than his father and grandfather. As Crown Prince he was allowed by his father to find a wife by himself, Sophia Magdalene came from a minor margraviate of the Hohenzollern dynasty where able consciousness was inversely proportional to the funds, half of the land was mortgaged, and her father died young. She had 13 siblings and was considered a match for the Danish prince. In Christians letters, he describes his feelings for the princesss intense religiosity and they were married on 7 August 1721, while Christian was crown prince. The wedding was held at Pretzsch in Saxony, the king was shy and introverted by nature, and stayed away from the public.
For the first ten years of his government he consulted often with his cousin, the count took part in almost everything, from the dismissal of cooks in the Queens kitchen to determining alliance policy. He encouraged the king as long as possible to maintain the English alliance, around 1740, Count Christian Ernsts preference swung towards France and he ceased his influence. This coincided with the situation in Germany no longer allowing him, as a vassal German prince. In 1733, the couple travelled to Norway. A poem/speech by Peter Höyer was performed in his honor when he visited the city of Trondheim on 18 July, the act would be abolished in 1788. The Pietist views of King Christian influenced much of his ecclesiastical polity, on the surface the king was victorious, but both nobility and many common people secretly resisted the kings influence. This did not mean that it was without effect and it influenced much of the poetry of the age, among others, that of the great hymn writer Hans Adolph Brorson.
Another lasting result of the efforts was the introduction of mandatory confirmation in 1736. This resulted in a need for a school system, which was created by decree in 1739 and 1741. There were numerous building activities connected to Christian VI, and he was probably the greatest Danish builder of the 18th century and his queen made a notable effort
Caroline Matilda of Great Britain
Caroline Matilda of Great Britain was Queen consort of Denmark and Norway by marriage to King Christian VII. Caroline Matilda was born in Leicester House, London, on 22 July 1751 as the ninth and youngest child of Frederick, Prince of Wales and her father died suddenly about three months before her birth, on 31 March 1751. Both of her names were used to distinguish her from her paternal aunt, the princess was christened ten days after being born, on 1 August, at the same house, by the Bishop of Norwich, Thomas Hayter. Her godparents were her brother George, her aunt Caroline and her sister Augusta. She was brought up by her mother away from the English court and was described as natural and informal. She spent most of the time with her family in Leicester House, in 1764, a marriage was suggested between the Danish House of Oldenburg and the British House of Hanover, specifically between Christian, Crown Prince of Denmark, and a British princess. The marriage was suitable because both the British and Danish royal families were Protestant and of the rank, and thus had the same status as well as religion.
Additionally, the deceased Queen Louise had been popular in Denmark. The official betrothal was announced on 10 January 1765, on 14 January 1766, in the middle of preparations for the wedding, King Frederick V died and his 17-year-old son became King Christian VII. On 1 October of that year in the chapel of St Jamess Palace the marriage was celebrated by proxy, in which the groom was represented by Prince Edward, Duke of York. Twelve days later, Caroline Matilda arrived in Roskilde, where she met her future husband, the official wedding ceremony took place on 8 November 1766 in the Royal Chapel at Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen. Marriage celebrations and balls lasted for another month, on 1 May 1767, Caroline Matilda was crowned Queen of Denmark in Copenhagen. The young Queen at the Danish court was described as particularly temperamental, however, her natural and unaffected personality was not popular at the strict Danish court, despite the fact that originally she was warmly received in Copenhagen.
The weak-willed, self-centered, and mentally ill Christian VII was cold to his wife and this was not difficult, as Christian VII did not like her. Caroline Matilda, though not interested in politics, after the birth of an heir has come to play a key role at the court. Her dislike of the favorites of her husband increased when, in 1768, Holck managed to exile Louise von Plessen from court and she refused to accept von Plessens successor, Anne Sofie von Berckentin, whom she suspected to have taken part in the plot to exile von Plessen. Thus, Plessen was not replaced until Margrethe von der Lühe agreed to accept the post in 1768, in May 1768 Christian VII took his long tour of Europe, including stays in Altona and London. Caroline Matilda spent the summer at Frederiksborg Castle with her son before returning to Copenhagen in the autumn
Christian VII of Denmark
Christian VII was a monarch of the House of Oldenburg who was King of Denmark-Norway and Duke of Schleswig and Holstein from 1766 until his death. For his motto he chose, Gloria ex amore patriae, Christian VIIs reign was marked by mental illness and for most of his reign Christian was only nominally king. His half-brother Frederick was designated as regent of Denmark in 1772, from 1784 until Christian VIIs death in 1808, Christians son, Frederick VI, acted as unofficial regent. Christian was the son of King Frederick V and his first wife Louise of Great Britain and he was born in the Queens Bedchamber at Christiansborg Palace, the Royal residence in Copenhagen. He was baptized a few hours the same day and his godparents were King Frederick V, Queen Dowager Sophie Magdalene, Princess Louise and Princess Charlotte Amalie. A former heir to the throne, named Christian, had died in infancy in 1747, therefore and his mother Queen Louise died in 1751, two years after his birth. The following year his father married to Juliane Marie of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, after a long period of infirmity, Frederick V died 14 January 1766, just 42 years old.
Later the same day, Christian was proclaimed king from the balcony of Christiansborg Palace, Christians reign was marked by mental illness which affected government decisions, and for most of his reign Christian was only nominally king. His court physicians were especially worried by his frequent masturbation and his royal advisers changed depending on who won power struggles around the throne. In the late 1760s, he came under the influence of his personal physician Johann Friedrich Struensee, from 1770 to 1772, Struensee was de facto regent of the country, and introduced progressive reforms signed into law by Christian VII. The dynastic marriage took place at Christiansborg Palace on 8 November 1766, after his marriage, he abandoned himself to the worst excesses, especially sexual promiscuity. In 1767, he entered into a relationship with the courtesan Støvlet-Cathrine and he publicly declared that he could not love Caroline Matilda, because it was unfashionable to love ones wife. He ultimately sank into a condition of mental stupor, symptoms during this time included paranoia, self-mutilation and hallucinations.
Struensee was a protégé of an Enlightenment circle of aristocrats that had been rejected by the court in Copenhagen and he was a skilled doctor, and having somewhat restored the kings health while visiting the Schleswig-Holstein area, he gained the kings affection. He was retained as travelling physician on 5 April 1768, and accompanied the entourage on the King’s foreign tour to Paris and he was given the title of State Councilor on 12 May 1768, barely a week after leaving Altona. The neglected and lonely Caroline Matilda entered into an affair with Struensee, in 1772, the kings marriage with Caroline Matilda was dissolved by divorce. Christians marriage with Caroline Matilda produced two children, the future King Frederick VI and Princess Louise Auguste, however, it is widely believed that Louise was the daughter of Struensee—portrait comparisons tend to support this hypothesis. Struensee, following a deluge of modernising and emancipating reforms, was arrested and executed the same year, Christian signed Struensees arrest and execution warrant under pressure from his stepmother, Queen Juliane Marie, who had led the movement to have the marriage ended
Count Johann Hartwig Ernst von Bernstorff
Count Johann Hartwig Ernst von Bernstorff was a German-Danish statesman and a member of the Bernstorff noble family of Mecklenburg. He was the son of Joachim Engelke Freiherr von Bernstorff, chamberlain to the Elector of Hanover and his grandfather, Andreas Gottlieb von Bernstorff, had been one of the ablest ministers of George I and the head of the German Chancery. He was introduced into the Danish service by his relations, the brothers Plessen, in 1732, he was sent on a diplomatic mission to the court of Dresden, and from 1738 he represented Holstein at the Eternal Diet of Regensburg. From 1744 to 1750, he represented Denmark at Paris, whence he returned in 1754 to Denmark as Minister of Foreign Affairs, but his chief concern was foreign policy. In intimate connection with the Gottorp affair stood the question of the equilibrium of the north. A friendly alliance with a relatively weak Sweden was the point of Bernstorffs policy. Amidst all these perplexities Bernstorff proved himself a consummate statesman, the first difficult problem he had to face was the Seven Years War.
But the course of the war made this compact inoperative, the coolness and firmness of Bernstorff saved the situation. He protested that the king of Denmark was bound to defend Schleswig so long as there was a sword in Denmark and he rejected the insulting ultimatum of the Russian emperor. He placed the best French general of the day at the head of the well-equipped Danish army, but just as the Russian and Danish armies had come within striking distance, the tidings reached Copenhagen that Peter III had been overthrown by his consort, Catherine II. For his part in this treaty Bernstorff was created count and it is remarkable, that though Bernstorff ruled Denmark for twenty years he never learnt the Danish language. This treaty proved to be a mistake on Denmarks part. Attribution This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Bernstorff, Johann Hartwig Ernst. Poul Vedel, Den ældre Grev Bernstorffs ministerium, Correspondence ministirielle du Comte J. H. E. Bernstorff, ed.
Vedel, Aage Friis, Bernstorfferne og Danmark
Frederick V of Denmark
Frederick V was king of Denmark-Norway and Duke of Schleswig-Holstein from 1746 until his death. He was the son of Christian VI of Denmark and Sophia Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach, Frederick was born on 31 March 1723 at Copenhagen Castle. He was the grandson of King Frederick IV of Denmark and the son of Crown Prince Christian, on 12 October 1730, King Frederick IV died and Fredericks father ascended the throne as King Christian VI. Christian VI and Sophia Magdalene were deeply devoted to Pietism, although not unfamiliar with religious sentiments, Frederick grew into a hedonist who enjoyed the pleasures of life such as wine and women. His mother ironically referred to him as Der Dänische Prinz because he occasionally spoke Danish, Fredericks propensity for debauchery accelerated his marriage negotiations. He was married at Altona, Holstein, on 11 December 1743 to Princess Louise of Great Britain, daughter of King George II and they were the parents of six children, but one was stillborn.
Meanwhile, Frederick continued to enjoy liaisons with others. During the years 1746-51, the king had a favorite named Madam Hansen who bore him five children, the Norwegian Masonic historian Karl Ludvig Tørrisen Bugge claims that Frederik V as crown prince was included in the Copenhagen Masonic Lodge St. Martin. This was probably third June 1744, and inspired by the Prussian king Frederick the Great who was included in a masonic lodge in his youth. They both had fathers who were opposed to the Masons, but unlike the Prussian king. As an active Freemason, he set up on 24 June 1749 the first Masonic lodge in Norway, on 6 August 1746 – the day before his parentss silver marriage festivities– his father died at Hirschholm Palace, the royal familys summer retreat. Christian VI was interred in Roskilde Cathedral and Louise immediately ascended Denmark-Norways throne, being anointed in Frederiksborg Palaces Chapel the following year. The personal influence of Frederick was limited, making him one of absolute rulers who least made for the states strength and these men marked his reign by the progress of commerce and the emerging industry of gunpowder plant and cannon foundry in Frederiksværk, built by Johan Frederik Classen.
They avoided involving Denmark in the European wars of his time, in the same period the Royal Frederiks Hospital and the Royal Orphanage was created, a school intended for poor boys that still exists today, opened in Christianshavn on 1 October 1753. On 29 June 1753 Frederick V created Denmarks first lottery, called the Royal Copenhagen Lottery - a lottery that exists to this day as Klasselotteriet, one of his main tasks was to take care that his dissolute Majesty didnt damage the Royal households reputation with his constant orgies. Frederick purchased what would become known as the Danish West Indies from the Danish West India Company in 1754. Louise died suddenly on 19 December 1751 at Christiansborg Palace, predeceasing her husband by fourteen years and causing great impact on the family and the courts life. She was buried with great pomp at Roskilde Cathedral, at the time of her death, she was pregnant with her sixth child, who died
Philip de Lange
Philip de Lange was a leading Dutch-Danish architect who designed many different types of building in various styles including Dutch Baroque and Rococo. Philip de Lange was probably born near Strasbourg and was trained as a mason in the Netherlands and he arrived in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1729 where he quickly gained a reputation as an architect and master builder. De Lange married twice, first with Jacomine Pieters in the Hague, de Lange created a large number of works of various types including civil and military buildings, country houses, factories and parks. The Dutch Baroque influence in his work can, for example, be seen in the premises he built for Ziegler. While initially he appears to have been struck by Ewert Janssens earlier work, he seems to have been influenced by Elias Häusser. Like Krieger, he participated strongly in creating fine bourgeois dwellings in Copenhagen and his most notable achievements include the Headquarters of the Asiatic Company in Christianshavn, the Masting Crane on Holmen and Stephen Hansens Mansion in Helsingør.
He adapted Glorup Manor on Funen to the Baroque style adding a magnificent mansard roof, for almost 30 years, de Lange was the leading master builder at the Holmen Naval Station. Among other things, he constructed 24 Nyboder two-storey houses from 1754 to 1756, de Lange is remembered above all for his fine, simple buildings in the classical Rococo style. A good example is Damsholte Church on the island of Møn, architecture of Denmark Wedell Mansion Elling, Philip de Lange. 1931,48 pp. Rikke Tønnes, Stephen Hansens palæ - Bygherren - Arkitekten Philip de Lange - Livet i og omkring et helsingørsk handelshus, Arkitektens Forlag,1997,228 pp
Danish Gold Coast
The Danish Gold Coast denotes the colonies that Denmark-Norway controlled in Africa as a part of the Gold Coast, which is on the petroleum and natural gas rich Gulf of Guinea. It was colonized by the Dano-Norwegian fleet, first under indirect rule by the Danish West India Company, on April 20,1663, the Danish seizure of Fort Christiansborg and Carlsborg completed the annexation of the Swedish Gold Coast settlements. From 1674 to 1755 the settlements were administered by the Danish West India-Guinea Company, from December 1680 to 29 August 1682, the Portuguese occupied Fort Christiansborg. In 1750 it was made a Danish crown colony, from 1782 to 1785 it was under British occupation. On 30 March 1850 all of Denmarks Danish Gold Coast Territorial Settlements and forts of the Kingdom of Denmark were sold to Britain, the title of its chief colonial administrator was Opperhoved since 1658, only in 1766 upgraded to Governor. The following forts were in the possession of Denmark until all forts were sold to the United Kingdom in 1850, apart from these main forts, several forts and trading posts were temporarily held by the Danes.
Colonial Heads of Danish Gold Coast the office-holders of the Danish Gold Coast WorldStatesmen- Ghana Closing the Books, Governor Edward Carstensen on Danish Guinea, translated from the Danish by Tove Storsveen. Article about the Danish Gold Coast during the Napoleonic Wars