1768 Appenzella

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1768 Appenzella
Discovery [1]
Discovered by P. Wild
Discovery site Zimmerwald Obs.
Discovery date 23 September 1965
MPC designation (1768) Appenzella
Named after
Appenzell (canton)[2]
1965 SA · 1934 PM
1942 TH
main-belt · Nysa[3]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 74.56 yr (27,232 days)
Aphelion 2.8899 AU
Perihelion 2.0141 AU
2.4520 AU
Eccentricity 0.1786
3.84 yr (1,402 days)
0° 15m 24.12s / day
Inclination 3.2582°
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 19.0±1.9 km[4]
19.30±0.17 km[5]
20.221±0.129 km[6][7]
20.86±2.3 km (IRAS:2)[8]
21±2 km[9]
5.18335±0.00001 h[10]
5.1839±0.0001 h[11]
0.0338±0.009 (IRAS:2)[8]
F (Tholen)[1]
C (SMASS)[1]
B–V = 0.615[1]
U–B = 0.230[1]

1768 Appenzella, provisional designation 1965 SA, is a rare-type Nysa asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 20 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 23 September 1965, by Swiss astronomer Paul Wild at Zimmerwald Observatory near Bern, Switzerland.[12] It was later named after the Swiss canton of Appenzell.[2]

Classification and orbit[edit]

Appenzella is a dark carbonaceous asteroid and a member of the Polanian subgroup of the Nysa family. On the Tholen taxonomic scheme, it belongs to the small group of 28 bodies known to have a F-type spectrum.[13]

It orbits the Sun in the inner main-belt at a distance of 2.0–2.9 AU once every 3 years and 10 months (1,402 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.18 and an inclination of 3° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] The first used observation was made at the Finnish Turku Obervatory in 1942, extending the asteroid's observation arc by 23 years prior to its discovery.[12]


In November 2011, a rotational lightcurve of Appenzella was obtained by French astronomer René Roy at his Blauvac Observatory (627) in southeastern France. Lightcurve analysis gave a well-defined a rotation period of 5.1839 hours with a brightness variation of 0.53 magnitude (U=3).[11] In 2016, remodeled photometric data from the Lowell database gave in a very similar period of 5.18335 hours.[10]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

Based on the surveys carried out by NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and its subsequent NEOWISE mission, the asteroid measures between 19.0 and 21 kilometers in diameter and its surface has a low albedo between 0.03 and 0.04.[4][5][6][7][8][9] The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link agrees with the results obtained by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite, IRAS, which found an albedo of 0.034 and a mean diameter of 20.9 kilometers, with an absolute magnitude of 12.7.[1][3]


In 1971, Appenzella was named by the discoverer in honor of the rural Swiss canton of Appenzell, during the treat of the 150th anniversary of the public middle school "Kantonsschule Trogen", Appenzell Ausserrhoden, founded in 1821.[2][14] The approved naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center before November 1977 (M.P.C. 3297).[15]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1768 Appenzella (1965 SA)" (2017-03-30 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 1 July 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1768) Appenzella. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 141. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 10 August 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c "LCDB Data for (1768) Appenzella". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 10 August 2016. 
  4. ^ a b c d Alí-Lagoa, V.; Licandro, J.; Gil-Hutton, R.; Cañ; ada-Assandri, M.; Delbo', M.; et al. (June 2016). "Differences between the Pallas collisional family and similarly sized B-type asteroids". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 591: 11. Bibcode:2016A&A...591A..14A. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201527660. Retrieved 10 August 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794Freely accessible. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 10 August 2016. 
  6. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407Freely accessible. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90. Retrieved 10 August 2016. 
  7. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Dailey, J.; et al. (November 2011). "Main Belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE. I. Preliminary Albedos and Diameters". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 20. arXiv:1109.4096Freely accessible. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...68M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/68. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  8. ^ a b c Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  9. ^ a b c d Alí-Lagoa, V.; de León, J.; Licandro, J.; Delbó, M.; Campins, H.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; et al. (June 2013). "Physical properties of B-type asteroids from WISE data". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 554: 16. arXiv:1303.5487Freely accessible. Bibcode:2013A&A...554A..71A. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201220680. Retrieved 10 August 2016. 
  10. ^ a b Durech, J.; Hanus, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Vanco, R. (March 2016). "Asteroid models from the Lowell photometric database". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 587: 6. arXiv:1601.02909Freely accessible. Bibcode:2016A&A...587A..48D. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201527573. Retrieved 10 August 2016. 
  11. ^ a b Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (1768) Appenzella". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 10 August 2016. 
  12. ^ a b "1768 Appenzella (1965 SA)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 10 August 2016. 
  13. ^ "JPL Small-Body Database Search Engine: [ spec. type = F (Tholen)]". JPL Solar System Dynamics. Retrieved 10 August 2016. 
  14. ^ "Kanstonsschule Trogen". Kantonsschule Trogen (in German). 2014. Archived from the original on 25 May 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2016. 
  15. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 

External links[edit]