Red Shirts (United States)

The Red Shirts or Redshirts of the Southern United States were white supremacist paramilitary terrorist groups that were active in the late 19th century in the last years of, after the end of, the Reconstruction era of the United States. Red Shirt groups originated in Mississippi in 1875, when Democratic Party private terror units adopted red shirts to make themselves more visible and threatening to Southern Republicans, both whites and freedmen. Similar groups in the Carolinas adopted red shirts. Among the most prominent Red Shirts were the supporters of Democratic Party candidate Wade Hampton during the campaigns for the South Carolina gubernatorial elections of 1876 and 1878; the Red Shirts were one of several paramilitary organizations, such as the White League in Louisiana, arising from the continuing efforts of white Democrats to regain political power in the South in the 1870s. These groups acted as "the military arm of the Democratic Party."While sometimes engaging in violent acts of terrorism, the Red Shirts, the White League, rifle clubs, similar groups in the late nineteenth century worked and were better organized than the secret vigilante groups such as the Ku Klux Klan.

They used organization and force to achieve political purposes of restoring the Democrats to power, overturning Republicans, repressing civil and voting rights of freedmen. During the 1876, 1898 and 1900 campaigns in North Carolina, the Red Shirts played prominent roles in intimidating non-Democratic Party voters. According to E. Merton Coulter in The South During Reconstruction, the red shirt was adopted in Mississippi in 1875 by "southern brigadiers" of the Democratic Party who were opposed to black Republicans; the Red Shirts disrupted Republican rallies, intimidated or assassinated black leaders, discouraged and suppressed black voting at the polls. Men wearing red shirts appeared in Charleston, South Carolina on August 25, 1876, during a Democratic torchlight parade; this was to mock the waving the bloody shirt speech by Benjamin Franklin Butler of Massachusetts, in which he was falsely claimed to have held up a shirt stained with the blood of a carpetbagger whipped by the Ku Klux Klan during the Reconstruction Era.

"Waving the bloody shirt" became an idiom in the South, attributed to rhetoric by Republican politicians such as Oliver Hazard Perry Morton in the Senate, who used emotional accounts of injustices done to Northern soldiers and carpetbaggers to bolster support for the Republicans' Reconstruction policies in South Carolina. The red shirt symbolism spread. Suspects accused in the Hamburg Massacre wore red shirts as they marched on September 5 to their arraignment in Aiken, South Carolina. Martin Gary, the organizer in South Carolina of the Democratic campaign in 1876, mandated that his supporters were to wear red shirts at all party rallies and functions. Wearing a red shirt became a source of pride and resistance to Republican rule for white Democrats in South Carolina. Women made other garments of red, it became fashionable for women to wear red ribbons in their hair or about their waists. Young men adopted the red shirts to express militancy after being too young to have fought in the Civil War.

State Democrats organized rallies in every county of South Carolina. Many of the participants were mounted. Mounted men gave an impression of numbers; when Wade Hampton and other Democrats spoke, the Red Shirts would respond enthusiastically, shouting the campaign slogan "Hurrah for Hampton". This created a massive spectacle that motivated his followers. Red Shirts sought to intimidate both white and black watchers into voting for the Democrats or not at all; the Red Shirts and similar groups were active in those states with an African-American majority. They broke up Republican meetings, disrupted their organizing, intimidated black voters at the polls. Many freedmen stopped voting from fear, others voted for Democrats under pressure; the Red Shirts did the other private militia groups. In the Piedmont counties of Aiken and Barnwell, freedmen who voted were driven from their homes and whipped, while some of their leaders were murdered. During the 1876 presidential election, Democrats in Edgefield and Laurens counties voted "early and often", while freedmen were barred from the polls.

Armed and mounted Red Shirts accompanied Hampton on his tour of the state. They attended Republican meetings and would demand equal time, but they only stood in silence. At times, Red Shirts would hold a barbecue nearby to lure Republicans and try to convince them to vote for the Democratic ticket. Hampton positioned himself as a statesman, promising support for education, offering protection from violence that Governor Daniel Henry Chamberlain did not seem able to provide. Few freedmen voted for Hampton, most remained loyal to the Republican Party of Abraham Lincoln; the 1876 campaign was the "most tumultuous in South Carolina's history". "An anti-Reconstruction historian estimated that 150 Negroes were murdered in South Carolina during the campaign."After the election on November 7, a protracted dispute between Chamberlain and Hampton ensued as both claimed victory. Because of the massive election fraud, Edmund William McGregor Mackey, a Republican member of the South Carolina House of Representatives, called upon the "Hunkidori Club" from Charleston to eject Democratic members from Edgefield and Laurens counties from the House.

Word spread through the state. By December 3 5,000 Red Shirts assembled at the State House to defend the Democrats. Hampton appealed for calm and the Red Shirts dispersed; as a result of a national political compromise, President Rutherf

Fuadi Ndayisenga

Fuadi Ndayisenga is a Burundian footballer who plays for Sofapaka in the Kenyan Premier League and the Burundi national team as a midfielder. On 24 June 2015, it was announced that Ndayisenga joined Kenyan side Sofapaka, after spending ten years in Burundi and Rwanda with Vital'O, A. P. R. Kiyovu Sports and Rayon Sports. On 27 June 2015, he made his debut for the club in 1–0 league win over Western Stima, playing 82 minutes before being substituted by Erastus Mwaniki at the Kenyatta Stadium in Machakos. Ndayisenga made his debut for the Burundi national team on 1 June 2008 against Seychelles. Fuadi Ndayisenga – FIFA competition record Fuadi Ndayisenga at