1780 Kippes

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1780 Kippes
Discovery [1]
Discovered by A. Kopff
Discovery site Heidelberg Obs.
Discovery date 12 September 1906
MPC designation (1780) Kippes
Named after
Otto Kippes[2]
(priest and astronomer)[2]
A906 RA · 1935 CC
1938 UC1 · 1943 TL
1943 VD · 1947 NB
1951 ED2 · 1953 SA
1957 LD · 1962 JU
1969 RB2 · 1975 VL6
A911 QE
main-belt · (outer)
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 110.38 yr (40,315 days)
Aphelion 3.1792 AU
Perihelion 2.8538 AU
3.0165 AU
Eccentricity 0.0539
5.24 yr (1,914 days)
0° 11m 17.16s / day
Inclination 9.0022°
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 25.77±0.80 km[5]
27.92±1.8 km[6]
28.164±0.241 km[7]
29.16±0.38 km[8]
31.262±0.341 km[9]
18.0 h[10]
S [3]
10.68[1][3][5][6][8][9][10] · 10.72±0.26[11]

1780 Kippes, provisional designation A906 RA, is an Eoan asteroid from the outer regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 28 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 12 September 1906, by astronomer August Kopff at the Heidelberg-Königstuhl State Observatory in southwest Germany.[12] The asteroid was named after German Catholic priest and amateur astronomer Otto Kippes.[2]

Orbit and classification[edit]

Kippes is a member the Eos family (606), the largest asteroid family of the outer main belt consisting of nearly 10,000 asteroids.[3][4][13]:23 It orbits the Sun in the outer main-belt at a distance of 2.9–3.2 AU once every 5 years and 3 months (1,914 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.05 and an inclination of 9° with respect to the ecliptic.[1]

The body's observation arc begins at Heidelberg in 1906, one week after its official discovery observation.[12]

Physical characteristics[edit]

Kippes is an assumed S-type asteroid,[3] while the overall spectral type of the Eos family is that of a K-type.[13]:23

Rotation period[edit]

In July 1984, a rotational lightcurve of Kippes was obtained from photometric observations by astronomer Richard P. Binzel at the CTIO and McDonald Observatory. Lightcurve analysis gave a rotation period of 18.0 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.23 magnitude (U=2).[10]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Kippes measures between 25.77 and 31.262 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.0966 and 0.143.[5][6][7][8][9]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link adopts the results obtained by IRAS, that is, an albedo of 0.1212 and a diameter of 27.92 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 10.68.[3][6]


This minor planet was named after German Catholic priest and amateur astronomer Otto Kippes (1905–1994). He was a precise observer, acknowledged for his orbit calculations and identifications of hundreds of minor planets in widely separated oppositions.[2][14]

The official naming citation was bestowed and published by the Minor Planet Center before November 1977 (M.P.C. 3508).[15]


  1. ^ a b c d "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1780 Kippes (A906 RA)" (2017-01-27 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c d Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1780) Kippes. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 142. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f "LCDB Data for (1780) Kippes". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  4. ^ a b "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c d e Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  7. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645Freely accessible. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  8. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794Freely accessible. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  9. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407Freely accessible. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  10. ^ a b c Binzel, R. P. (October 1987). "A photoelectric survey of 130 asteroids". Icarus: 135–208. Bibcode:1987Icar...72..135B. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(87)90125-4. ISSN 0019-1035. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  11. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  12. ^ a b "1780 Kippes (A906 RA)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  13. ^ a b Nesvorný, D.; Broz, M.; Carruba, V. (December 2014). "Identification and Dynamical Properties of Asteroid Families" (PDF). Asteroids IV: 297–321. arXiv:1502.01628Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015aste.book..297N. doi:10.2458/azu_uapress_9780816532131-ch016. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  14. ^ Lehmann, Gerhard; Kandler, Jens; Knöfel, André (14 August 2013). "Amateurastronomen am Sternenhimmel" [Amateur astronomers in the starry sky] (in German). Archived from the original on 23 August 2007. 
  15. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 

External links[edit]