William Clarke (cricketer)
William Clarke was an English cricketer and team manager who played first-class cricket from 1826 to 1855. He founded and captained the All-England Eleven and he has been described as one of certain figures who, in the history of cricket, stand like milestones along the way. In the late 1820s, he lost sight in one eye after being there by a fives ball on the court behind the Bell Inn in Nottingham. Clarke was originally a bricklayer by trade, but from his earnings as a bowler and he married Mary Chapman, the landlady of the Trent Bridge Inn, and they arranged for the land behind the inn to be made available. He opened the enclosed Trent Bridge cricket ground behind the inn and, from July 1840, it became the venue for Nottinghamshire matches instead of the Forest racecourse. A stand at Trent Bridge has been named after Clarke, Clarke was a great spin bowler. He began his first-class career as roundarm bowling was being introduced, in his career, he took 795 wickets at the outstanding average of 10.06 in 143 known first-class matches with a best analysis of 9/29.
He took five wickets in an innings 82 times and ten wickets in a match 26 times and he was a moderate batsman, scoring first-class 2133 runs at an average of 10.35 with a highest score of 75. Clarke played in the inaugural North v. South fixture at Lords and he is believed to be the only player ever to take a first-class hat-trick that included the same batsman twice. Besides his bowling, Clarkes greatest attribute was his captaincy and leadership and he was an astute tactician and perhaps the sports first truly tactical captain who could think out the opposition by means of planned field positions and rotation of his bowlers. In 1845, Clarke had become a ground bowler at Lords as an MCC employee, another ground bowler was William Lillywhite. Clarke had a season in 1845 and few batsmen could play him well. Although most MCC ground staff were satisfied with their pay, Clarke was not, the team played three matches in 1846 against 22 of Sheffield,18 of Manchester and 18 of Yorkshire. Clarkes team was indeed a top-class side worthy of its title and he kept the surplus for himself and became very wealthy.
John Arlott wrote of him, He was the first man to make an out of cricket, he was, also. A History of Cricket, Volume 1, a Social History of English Cricket. Cricket, A History of its Growth and Development, the Date-Book of Remarkable and Memorable Events Connected with Nottingham and its Neighbourhood, 1750–1850. West Norwood Cemeterys Sportsmen, Friends of West Norwood Cemetery,1995 William Clarke at CricketArchive William Clarke at ESPNcricinfo Notts CCC – Early Nottinghamshire cricketers
Marylebone Cricket Club
Marylebone Cricket Club is a cricket club in London, founded in 1787. It owns, and is based at, Lords in St Johns Wood, MCC was formerly the governing body of cricket both in England and Wales as well as worldwide. In 1993 many of its functions were transferred to the International Cricket Council and its English governance passed to the Test. MCC revised the Laws of Cricket in 1788 and continues to reissue them, since its foundation, the club has raised its own teams which are essentially occasional and have never taken part in any formal competition. Depending on the quality of the opposition in any match, MCC teams have held important match status from 1787 to 1894. MCC has never played in a List A match, MCC teams play many matches against minor opposition and, on these occasions, they relinquish their first-class status. Traditionally, to mark the beginning of each English season in April, MCC plays the reigning County Champions at Lords, the exact date of MCCs foundation is lost but seems to have been sometime in the late spring or the summer of 1787.
Many of its members became dissatisfied with the surroundings and complained that the site was too public. They asked Thomas Lord, a bowler at the White Conduit, to secure a more private venue within easy distance of London. When Lord opened his new ground in May 1787, the White Conduit moved there, there was a match at Lords starting on 30 July 1787 titled Marylebone Cricket Club v White Conduit Club. The England touring team wore the red and yellow stripes of the Marylebone Cricket Club as their colours for the last time on the tour to New Zealand in 1996/97. The true provenance of MCCs colours is unknown, but its players often turned out sporting Sky Blue, until well into the 19th century. Another theory, which chimes with the origins, is that MCC borrowed its colours from the livery colours of a founding patron, Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond. Although MCC remains the framer and copyright holder of the Laws of Cricket, in recent times the ICC has begun instituting changes to match regulations without much consultation with MCC.
Also, in moving its location from Lords to Dubai, the ICC gave a signal of breaking with the past and from MCC, changes to the laws of cricket are still made by the MCC. Any changes to these require a resolution of the MCC committee. MCC has long had an involvement in coaching the game of cricket. As of 2013 the clubs head coach Mark Alleyne heads an operation involving the running of an indoor-cricket school
John Sackville, 3rd Duke of Dorset
John Frederick Sackville, 3rd Duke of Dorset KG was the only son of Lord John Philip Sackville, second son of Lionel Sackville, 1st Duke of Dorset. He succeeded to the dukedom in 1769 on the death of his uncle, Charles Sackville and he was the British Ambassador to France between 1783 and 1789 in the lead up to the French Revolution. He is best remembered for his love of cricket and he was both a good player and an important patron, but his interest was sharpened by gambling, cricket being a major attraction for gamblers throughout the 18th century. His other sporting interests included billiards and tennis, while he acquired a reputation as a womaniser. He was returned unopposed as the Member of Parliament for the county of Kent in 1768 and he was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Kent in 1769, a position he held until 1797. He was Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard from 1789 until his death, the young John Sackville was schooled at Westminster, where he first became a noted proponent of cricket.
He went on to join Hambledon Cricket Club, based in Hambledon, Hampshire and he was joined there by Sir Horatio Mann, a Carthusian, and Lord Tankerville of Eton and Surrey, who was his keenest rival. Dorset gained a reputation as a keen competitor, the Morning Post in 1773 wrote, The Duke. In the same year, Dorset presented the Vine Cricket Ground, at Knole, Kent, to the town, at a peppercorn rent and it is one of the oldest cricket grounds in England. The first nationally reported cricket match had taken place here in the 1734 season when The Gentlemen of Kent beat The Gentlemen of Sussex, Sevenoaks Town Council still has the Vine Cricket Club, though the rent doubled to two peppercorns after the pavilion was built in the 19th century. They must pay the Lord Sackville one cricket ball on 21 July each year, in 1775, a full-scale riot broke out at the Artillery Ground when Dorsets side was not performing too well. In 1782 the Morning Chronicle noted that His Grace is one of the few noblemen who endeavour to combine the elegance of modern luxury with the manly sports of the old English times.
Dorsets patronage of cricket was expensive — the Whitehall Evening Post in 1783 noted that the cost to Dorset of maintaining his team and this was a lot, but less than the amounts some of his contemporaries were spending on racing. The report went to say that Dorset was unrivalled at cricket, tennis, in 1784 Dorset moved to Paris, surprising his critics with newfound public dedication, to serve as ambassador to France. From this moment we may consider France as a country, the King a very limited monarch. He continued to promote cricket amongst the locals and British expatriates, in 1786 The Times reported on a cricket match played by some English gentlemen in the Champs-Elysées, His Grace of Dorset was, as usual, the most distinguished for skill and activity. The French, cannot imitate us in such vigorous exertions of the body, the following year The Times noted that horse-racing was losing popularity in France, with cricket, on Dorsets recommendation, taking its place. In 1789 Dorset planned what might have become the first international cricket tour and his touring side, which included William Yalden, William Bedster and Lumpy Stevens, got as far as congregating on 10 August at Dover
Sir John Major, KG, CH, PC is a British politician who served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1990 to 1997. A cabinet minister from 1987, he served Margaret Thatcher in the Treasury, Major was Member of Parliament for Huntingdon from 1979 to 2001. He is currently the oldest living former Prime Minister, following the death of Thatcher on 8 April 2013, at the beginning of his premiership, Major presided over British participation in the Gulf War in March 1991 and negotiated the Maastricht Treaty in December 1991. Shortly after this, even though a supporter of the ERM. This event led to a loss of confidence in Conservative economic policies, Major went on to lose the 1997 general election months later, in one of the largest electoral defeats since the Great Reform Act of 1832. After defeat, Major resigned as Prime Minister and was succeeded as Leader of the Conservative Party by William Hague and he went on to retire from active politics, leaving the House of Commons at the 2001 general election.
Major was born in 1943 at St Helier Hospital in Sutton, Surrey and he was christened John Roy Major but only John was recorded on his birth certificate. He used his name until the early 1980s. He attended primary school at Cheam Common and from 1954 he attended Rutlish School, in 1955, with his fathers garden ornaments business in decline, the family moved to Brixton. He credited a chance meeting with former Prime Minister Clement Attlee on the Kings Road shortly afterwards, Major left school at the age of 16 in 1959 with three O-levels in History, English Language and English Literature. He gained three more O-levels by correspondence course, in the British Constitution and Economics, Majors first job was as a clerk in the insurance brokerage firm Pratt & Sons in 1959. Major joined the Young Conservatives in Brixton at this time, Major was almost 19 years old when his father died at the age of 82 on 27 March 1962. His mother died eight and a years in September 1970 at the age of 65. After Major became Prime Minister it was misreported that his failure to get a job as a bus conductor resulted from his failing to pass a maths test and he had in fact passed all of the necessary tests but had been passed over owing to his height.
After a period of unemployment, Major started working at the London Electricity Board in 1963 which is incidentally his successor as Prime Minister, Tony Blair. He decided to undertake a course in banking. Major took up a post as an executive at the Standard Chartered Bank in May 1965 and he was sent to work in Jos, Nigeria, by the bank in 1967 and he nearly died in a car accident there. Major was interested in politics from an early age, encouraged by fellow Conservative Derek Stone, he started giving speeches on a soap-box in Brixton Market
Sevenoaks is a town and civil parish with a population of 29,506 situated south-east of London in western Kent, England. The population of the parish had reduced to 20,409 at the 2011 Census and it is served by a commuter main line railway and is 21 miles from London Charing Cross. It is the town of the Sevenoaks district, followed by Swanley. A settlement was recorded in the 13th century, when a market was established, construction of Knole House in the 15th century helped develop the village. Sevenoaks became part of the communications network when one of the early turnpikes was opened in the 18th century. In the 21st century, it has a large commuting population, located to the south-east of the town is Knole Park, within which lies Knole House. Educational establishments in the include the independent Sevenoaks School and Knole Academy. The towns name is derived from the Old English word Seouenaca, there are few records earlier than the 13th century for the town, when it was given market status.
The weekly cattle market was held in Hitchen Hatch Lane until 1999 and it was closed to make way for the 160 BT building in London Road. A food market is held in the centre of town every Saturday, in the Middle Ages two hospitals were provided by religious orders for the care of old or sick people, especially those going on pilgrimage. Sevenoaks School, at the end of High Street, is one of the oldest lay foundations in England. It was founded by William Sevenoke in 1432, Sevenoke, a foundling, had been brought up in the town. In life he became a merchant and served as alderman, founding the school and adjacent almshouses was his thanks to the town. In 1560 the school was granted letters patent by Queen Elizabeth I and it was for the education of boys and youths in grammar and learning. In 1456 Thomas Bourchier, Archbishop of Canterbury, purchased the Knole estate, the eponymous oak trees in Knole Park have been replaced several times over the centuries. In 1902 seven oaks were planted on the side of The Vine cricket ground to commemorate the coronation of King Edward VII.
During the Great Storm of 1987, six of those trees were blown down, the trees have been replaced and eight Oak trees of varying ages line The Vine. A serious railway accident occurred nearby on 24 August 1927, Southern Railway K class passenger tank engine No
Trent Bridge and is the headquarters of Nottinghamshire County Cricket Club. As well as International cricket and Nottinghamshires home games, the ground has hosted the Finals Day of the Twenty20 Cup twice, in 2009 the ground was used for the ICC World Twenty20 and hosted the semi-final between South Africa and Pakistan. The site takes its name from the main bridge over the Trent, and is close to Meadow Lane and the City Ground. Trent Bridge was first used as a ground in the 1830s. The first recorded match was held on an area of ground behind the Trent Bridge Inn in 1838. Trent Bridge hosted its first Test match in 1899, for England playing against Australia, the ground was first opened in 1841 by William Clarke, husband of the proprietress of the Trent Bridge Inn and himself Captain of the All England Cricket Team. He was commemorated in 1990 by the opening of the new William Clarke Stand which incorporates the Rushcliffe Suite, the West Park Sports Ground in West Bridgford was the private ground of Sir Julien Cahn, a furniture millionaire, who often played host to touring national sides.
Trent Bridge is considered to be one of the best grounds in the world to watch cricket and this increased capacity from 15,358 to 17,500, and the work was completed in time for the 2008 Test match against New Zealand. The stand was opened on 5 June by Prince Philip. Bowling takes place from the Pavilion End and the Radcliffe Road End, with the wickets laid square of the Fox Road, William Clarke, in Test matches held at Trent Bridge, the highest team total is 658 for 8 declared, scored by England against Australia in 1938. The lowest team total is 60, scored by Australia against England in 2015, denis Compton scored 278 against Pakistan in 1954. Sachin Tendulkar passed the 11,000 run mark in the npower 2nd Test on Trent Bridge on July 2007, in 2013, Ashton Agar achieved the highest test score by a no.11 batsman whilst on debut for Australia. Trent Bridge has a history of hosting football matches, Notts County Football Club played their important games at the ground from the 1860s, and moved there permanently in 1883 when Nottingham Forest left.
Unfortunately for the team, games early and late in the season had to be played elsewhere due to the cricket and Notts County finally left in 1910. Trent Bridge even hosted a match, England beating Ireland 6–0 on 20 February 1897
The County Championship is the domestic first-class cricket competition in England and Wales. The competition consists of eighteen clubs named after, and originally representing, historic counties, seventeen from England, from 2016, the Championship will be sponsored by Specsavers, who replaced Liverpool Victoria after 14 years. In contrast, the term County Champions applies in common parlance to a team that has won the title since 1890. The most usual means of claiming the title was by popular or press acclaim. In the majority of cases, the claim or proclamation was retrospective, the unofficial title was not proclaimed in every season up to 1889 because in many cases there were not enough matches or there was simply no clear candidate. The concept of the title has been utilised ad hoc. The official County Championship was constituted in a meeting at Lords Cricket Ground on 10 December 1889 which was called to enable club secretaries to determine the 1890 fixtures. While this was going on, representatives of the eight leading county clubs held a meeting to discuss the method by which the county championship should in future be decided. A majority were in favour of ignoring drawn games altogether and settling the championship by wins, under this system defeats were subtracted from victories and the county with the highest total were champions.
The new competition, which had official sanction, began in the 1890 season and at first featured Gloucestershire, Lancashire, Nottinghamshire, Sussex and it is difficult to know when the concept of a county championship originated. While early matches were often between teams named after counties, they were not the teams the usage would imply today. That may be so re the actual terminology but closer examination of the sources indicate a much earlier expression of the idea. The earliest known inter-county match was in 1709 between Kent and Surrey but match results are unknown until the 1720s. The first time a source refers to the superiority of one county is in respect of a match between Edwin Steads XI and Sir William Gages XI at Penshurst Park in August 1728, Steads XI won by an unknown margin although Gages XI needed just 7 in their second innings. The source says that the game could be called Kent v Sussex as the players were reported as 11 of each county, Sir William Gage was a Sussex landowner and Edwin Stead was a resident of Maidstone in Kent.
Evidently Mr Steads Kent team won two games earlier that season against the Duke of Richmonds XI, the source states that was the third time this summer that the Kent men have been too expert for those of Sussex. This clearly implies that Kent was considered to be the county at that time. In 1729, Sir William Gages Sussex team defeated Kent on 5 September, The latter got in one hand and this may have been the earliest known innings victory
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard-long pitch with a wicket at each end. One team bats, attempting to score as many runs as possible, each phase of play is called an innings. After either ten batsmen have been dismissed or a number of overs have been completed, the innings ends. The winning team is the one that scores the most runs, including any extras gained, at the start of each game, two batsmen and eleven fielders enter the field of play. The striker takes guard on a crease drawn on the four feet in front of the wicket. His role is to prevent the ball hitting the stumps by use of his bat. The other batsman, known as the non-striker, waits at the end of the pitch near the bowler. A dismissed batsman must leave the field, and a teammate replaces him, the bowlers objectives are to prevent the scoring of runs and to dismiss the batsman. An over is a set of six deliveries bowled by the same bowler, the next over is bowled from the other end of the pitch by a different bowler.
If a fielder retrieves the ball enough to put down the wicket with a batsman not having reached the crease at that end of the pitch. Adjudication is performed on the field by two umpires, the laws of cricket are maintained by the International Cricket Council and the Marylebone Cricket Club. Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball. Although crickets origins are uncertain, it is first recorded in south-east England in the 16th century and it spread globally with the expansion of the British Empire, leading to the first international matches in the mid-19th century. ICC, the governing body, has over 100 members. The sport is followed primarily in Australasia, the Indian subcontinent, southern Africa, womens cricket, which is organised and played separately, has achieved international standard. A number of words have been suggested as sources for the term cricket, in the earliest definite reference to the sport in 1598 it is called creckett.
One possible source for the name is the Old English cricc or cryce meaning a crutch or staff, in Samuel Johnsons Dictionary, he derived cricket from cryce, Saxon, a stick
John Small (cricketer)
John Small was an English professional cricketer who played in important matches from c.1756 to 1798, one of the longest careers on record. He is generally regarded as the greatest batsman of the 18th century and was the first to master the use of the straight bat which was introduced in the 1760s. He scored the earliest known century in important cricket and was acclaimed as the greatest player of the famous Hambledon Club, in 1997, he was named by The Times as one of its 100 Greatest Cricketers of All Time. He is the first person known to have described in literature in terms that attest him to have been a superstar. He was an influential player who was involved in the creation of two significant permanent additions to the Laws of Cricket, the maximum width of the bat. Small was a member of Hambledon during its years of greatness. He was definitely playing for Hambledon in 1764 and his name is found in the clubs scorecards right up to 1798 when he was over 60, the earliest definite mention of Small dates from the 1764 season when Hambledon played three important matches against Chertsey.
Hambledon at this time was referred to as Squire Lands Club. In August 1768, Small scored more than 140 runs for Hambledon against Kent at Broadhalfpenny Down and this was a feat almost unheard of at that time but it is not quite clear from the original source if it was in one innings or his match total. Only a week later, playing for Hambledon against Sussex at Broadhalfpenny Down, Small scored about four-score notches. and was not out when the game was finished, on 31 July and 1 August 1769, Hambledon played Caterham at Guildford Bason and won by 4 wickets. Small was involved in one of the most controversial incidents in early history when Hambledon played Chertsey at Laleham Burway on 23 &24 September 1771. Hambledon won the match by 1 wicket, whether that was Whites intention is unclear but his action ensured that a new rule was passed which limited the width to 4.25 inches. This rule supported a written motion presented by Hambledon bowler Thomas Brett that was counter-signed by club captain Richard Nyren, the original of Bretts memorandum, bearing Smalls signature, is maintained by Marylebone Cricket Club in its museum at Lords.
The production of match scorecards became common from the 1772 season, Small played in all three matches and was easily the seasons highest runscorer with 213 in his six innings. The only other player to exceed 100 was William Yalden who made 136, in the first match of the season, Small scored 78 for Hampshire against All-England out of a team total of 146. In the second innings, he scored 34 out of 79 and his team won by 53 runs and his innings of 78 was the highest individual score definitely recorded to that time. Smalls 78 is therefore the startpoint of the world record for the highest individual innings in senior cricket. Smalls 1772 aggregate of 213 runs from six innings would give him an average of 35.50 if all his innings were completed