Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Carl Wilhelm Scheele was a Swedish Pomeranian and pharmaceutical chemist. Isaac Asimov called him hard-luck Scheele because he made a number of discoveries before others who are generally given the credit. For example, Scheele discovered oxygen, and identified molybdenum, barium, Scheele discovered organic acids tartaric, uric and citric, as well as hydrofluoric and arsenic acids. He preferred speaking German to Swedish his whole life, as German was commonly spoken among Swedish pharmacists, Scheele was born in Stralsund, in western Pomerania, which at the time was a Swedish Dominion inside the Holy Roman Empire. Scheeles father Joachim Christian Scheele, was a dealer and brewer from a respected German family. His mother was Margaretha Eleanore Warnekros, friends of Scheeles parents taught him the art of reading prescriptions and the meaning of chemical and pharmaceutical signs. Then, in 1757, at age fourteen Carl was sent to Gothenburg as an apprentice pharmacist with another family friend, Scheele retained this position for eight years.
During this time he ran experiments late into the night and read the works of Nicolas Lemery, Caspar Neumann, Johann von Löwenstern-Kunckel, much of Scheeles theoretical speculations were based upon Stahl. Scheele arrived in Stockholm between 1767 and 1769 and worked as a pharmacist, during this period he discovered tartaric acid and with his friend, studied the relation of quicklime to calcium carbonate. While in the capital, he became acquainted with many luminaries, such as, Abraham Bäck, Peter Jonas Bergius, Bengt Bergius. In the fall of 1770 Scheele became director of the laboratory of the pharmacy of Locke. The laboratory supplied chemicals to Professor of Chemistry Torbern Bergman, a friendship developed between Scheele and Bergman after Scheele analyzed a reaction which Bergman and his assistant Johan Gottlieb Gahn could not resolve. The reaction was between melted saltpetre and acetic acid produced a red vapor. Further study of this led to Scheeles discovery of oxygen. Based upon this friendship and respect Scheele was given use of Bergmans laboratory.
Both men were profiting from their working relationship, in 1774 Scheele was nominated by Peter Jonas Bergius to be a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and was elected February 4,1775. In 1775 Scheele managed for a time a pharmacy in Köping. Between the end of 1776 and the beginning of 1777 Scheele established his own business there, after his return to Köping he devoted himself, outside of his business, to scientific researches which resulted in a long series of important papers
Gustaf Lundberg was a Swedish rococo pastelist and portrait painter, working in Paris and in Stockholm. Lundberg was born in Stockholm 17 August 1695, son of royal chef Gustaf Lundberg and his wife Sabina Richter, whose family included successful artists, orphaned at an early age, he was raised by his uncle, Fredrik Richter, who was himself a goldsmith. Lundberg was apprenticed to the painter David von Krafft in 1712, in 1717, Lundberg traveled to Paris, where he studied with Hyacinthe Rigaud, Nicolas de Largillière and Jean François de Troy. The determining influence was the Venetian painter Rosalba Carriera, who lived in Paris from 1720 to 1721, Lundberg established himself as one of the leading portrait painters in Paris. He painted Louis XV and his Queen Maria Leszczyńska, and the Queens parents, deposed King Stanisław Leszczyński and his spouse, in addition to his many portraits of French and Swedish aristocracy, he is known for his paintings of colleagues Charles-Joseph Natoire and François Boucher.
In 1741, Lundberg was elected a member of the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture or Royal Academy of Painting, but his popularity started to wane soon after, a result of new pastelists representing a more realistic style than his. During 1745 he traveled through Spain and Portugal, stopping in Madrid to paint Louis XVs daughter Louise-Élisabeth, who was married to Philip, traveling via Cadiz and Lisbon, he returned to Sweden by boat in the autumn. An already successful artist, he established himself as the leading rococo painter in Sweden. Thanks to his friendship with Tessin, he was introduced at the Royal Court. In Sweden, Lundbergs light and elegant style was a break from the Baroque style of portraiture that had previously predominated, in 1750, he was appointed court portrait painter or hovkonterfejare. He painted many portraits of the Crown Prince, King Gustav III, towards the end of his career, he painted a portrait of the young Crown Prince Gustav Adolf in 1779. References Sources Lundberg, Gunnar W.
Lundberg, Svenskt biografiskt lexikon,24, media related to Gustaf Lundberg at Wikimedia Commons
Riksdag of the Estates
Riksdag of the Estates was the name used for the Estates of Sweden when they were assembled. Until its dissolution in 1866, the institution was the highest authority in Sweden next to the king, the actual first meeting is likely the one that took place at Uppsala in 1436 after the death of rebel leader Engelbrekt. At the Riksdag in 1517, regent Sten Sture the Younger, at Västerås in 1527 Lutheranism was adopted as the new state religion instead of Roman Catholicism. At Arboga in 1561, the term Riksdag was used for the first time, at Söderköping in 1595, duke Charles was elected regent of Sweden instead of king Sigismund, who was a Catholic and the king of both Sweden and Poland. In 1612 the Riksdag gave the nobility the privilege and right to all higher offices of government. The first open conflict between the different estates happened in 1650, at the Riksdag in 1680 a large scale reduction was enacted, and Sweden became an absolute monarchy. In 1719, the Riksdag elected Ulrika Eleonora as heir in place of her sisters son.
In 1809, the Riksdag elected Charles XIII king after his nephew Gustav IV Adolf had been deposed, at the sessions in 1634,1719,1720,1772 and 1809 new constitutions were adopted. The constitution of 1809 divided the powers of government between the monarch and the Riksdag of the Estates, and after 1866 between the monarch and the new Riksdag. In 1866 all the Estates voted in favor of dissolution and at the time to constitute a new assembly. The four former estates were abolished, the House of Nobility, Riddarhuset, remains as a quasi-official representation of the Swedish nobility. The modern Centre Party which grew out of the Swedish farmers movement, following the Finnish War in 1809, Sweden ceded its eastmost provinces to the Russian Empire. Comprising much of present-day Finland, these became a Grand Duchy under the Emperor, the Finnish estates assembled in 1809 at Porvoo to confirm the change in their allegiance. This Diet of Finland followed the forms of the Swedish Riksdag, during the reigns of Alexander I and Nicholas I it was not assembled and no new legislation was enacted.
The diet was next assembled by tsar Alexander II in 1863, after this the Diet met regularly until 1905, when it passed an act forming a new unicameral parliament. That assembly has been Finlands legislative body since then, the Finnish House of Nobility — Finnish, Swedish, Riddarhuset — carries on the tradition of the Estate of Nobility, but no new families have been ennobled since 1906. History of Sweden History of Finland History of the Riksdag Riksdagsmusiken
The 17th century was the century that lasted from January 1,1601, to December 31,1700, in the Gregorian calendar. The greatest military conflicts were the Thirty Years War, the Great Turkish War, in the Islamic world, the Ottoman, Safavid Persian and Mughal empires grew in strength. In Japan, Tokugawa Ieyasu established the Edo period at the beginning of the century, European politics were dominated by the Kingdom of France of Louis XIV, where royal power was solidified domestically in the civil war of the Fronde. With domestic peace assured, Louis XIV caused the borders of France to be expanded and it was during this century that English monarch became a symbolic figurehead and Parliament was the dominant force in government – a contrast to most of Europe, in particular France. It was a period of development of culture in general,1600, On February 17 Giordano Bruno is burned at the stake by the Inquisition. 1600, Michael the Brave unifies the three Romanian countries, Wallachia and Transylvania after the Battle of Șelimbăr from 1599.
1601, Battle of Kinsale, England defeats Irish and Spanish forces at the town of Kinsale, driving the Gaelic aristocracy out of Ireland and destroying the Gaelic clan system. 1601, Michael the Brave, voivode of Wallachia and Transylvania, is assassinated by the order of the Habsburg general Giorgio Basta at Câmpia Turzii, 1601–1603, The Russian famine of 1601–1603 kills perhaps one-third of Russia. 1601, Panembahan Senopati, first king of Mataram and passes rule to his son Panembahan Seda ing Krapyak 1601,1602, Matteo Ricci produces the Map of the Myriad Countries of the World, a world map that will be used throughout East Asia for centuries. 1602, The Portuguese send an expeditionary force from Malacca which succeeded in reimposing a degree of Portuguese control. 1602, The Dutch East India Company is established by merging competing Dutch trading companies and its success contributes to the Dutch Golden Age. 1602, Two emissaries from the Aceh Sultanate visit the Dutch Republic,1603, Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James VI of Scotland, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England.
1603, Tokugawa Ieyasu takes the title of Shogun, establishing the Tokugawa Shogunate and this begins the Edo period, which will last until 1869. 1603–1623, After modernizing his army, Abbas I expands the Persian Empire by capturing territory from the Ottomans,1603, First permanent Dutch trading post is established in Banten, West Java. First successful VOC privateering raid on a Portuguese ship,1604, A second English East India Company voyage commanded by Sir Henry Middleton reaches Ternate, Tidore and Banda. 1605, Gunpowder Plot failed in England,1605, The fortresses of Veszprém and Visegrad are retaken by the Ottomans. 1605, The VOC in alliance with Hitu prepare to attack a Portuguese fort in Ambon,1605, Panembahan Seda ing Krapyak of Mataram establishes control over Demak, former center of the Demak Sultanate. 1606, Treaty of Vienna ends anti-Habsburg uprising in Royal Hungary,1606, Assassination of Stephen Bocskay of Transylvania
The 19th century was the century marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Holy Roman and Mughal empires. After the defeat of the French Empire and its allies in the Napoleonic Wars, the Russian Empire expanded in central and far eastern Asia. By the end of the century, the British Empire controlled a fifth of the worlds land, the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and spread to continental Europe, North America and Japan. The Victorian era was notorious for the employment of children in factories and mines, as well as strict social norms regarding modesty. Japan embarked on a program of rapid modernization following the Meiji Restoration, before defeating China, under the Qing Dynasty, europes population doubled during the 19th century, from approximately 200 million to more than 400 million. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more during this century, London became the worlds largest city and capital of the British Empire. Its population increased from 1 million in 1800 to 6.7 million a century later, liberalism became the pre-eminent reform movement in Europe.
Slavery was greatly reduced around the world, following a successful slave revolt in Haiti and France stepped up the battle against the Barbary pirates and succeeded in stopping their enslavement of Europeans. The UKs Slavery Abolition Act charged the British Royal Navy with ending the slave trade. The first colonial empire in the century to abolish slavery was the British, americas 13th Amendment following their Civil War abolished slavery there in 1865, and in Brazil slavery was abolished in 1888. Similarly, serfdom was abolished in Russia, in the 19th century approximately 70 million people left Europe, with most migrating to the United States of America. The 19th century saw the creation and codification of many sports, particularly in Britain. Also, ladywear was a sensitive topic during this time. 1801, Ranjit Singh crowned as King of Punjab,1801, Napoleon signs the Concordat of 1801 with the Pope. 1801, Cairo falls to the British,1801, Assassination of Tsar Paul I of Russia. 1802, Ludwig van Beethoven performs his Moonlight Sonata for the first time,1803, William Symington demonstrates his Charlotte Dundas, the first practical steamboat.
1803, The United States more than doubles in size when it buys out Frances territorial claims in North America via the Louisiana Purchase. This begins the U. S. s westward expansion to the Pacific referred to as its Manifest Destiny which involves annexing and conquering land from Mexico, Britain,1803, The Wahhabis of the First Saudi State capture Mecca and Medina
1859 in Sweden
Events from the year 1859 in Sweden Monarch – Oscar I, Charles XV8 July – Charles XV succeeded his father Oscar I of Sweden The Swedish Art Music Society is founded. The beginning of the Tidskrift för hemmet, the first womens magazine in the Nordic countries, the post of college teacher and lower official at public institutions are open to women. The first institute for the disabled is founded by Sophia Wilkens. The first seminar for women, Lärokurs för fruntimmer is opened in the capital. 19 February – Svante Arrhenius, scientist 17 March – Axel Jungstedt,6 September – Carl Gustaf Kröningssvärd, lawyer and politician