The 19th century was a century that began on January 1, 1801, ended on December 31, 1900. It is used interchangeably with the 1800s, though the start and end dates differ by a year; the 19th century saw large amounts of social change. European imperialism brought much of Asia and all of Africa under colonial rule, it was marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Zulu Kingdom, Holy Roman and Mughal empires. This paved the way for the growing influence of the British Empire, the Russian Empire, the United States, the German Empire, the French colonial empire and Meiji Japan, with the British boasting unchallenged dominance after 1815. After the defeat of the French Empire and its allies in the Napoleonic Wars, the British and Russian empires expanded becoming the world's leading powers; the Russian Empire expanded in central and far eastern Asia. The British Empire grew in the first half of the century with the expansion of vast territories in Canada, South Africa and populated India, in the last two decades of the century in Africa.
By the end of the century, the British Empire controlled a fifth of the world's land and one quarter of the world's population. During the post-Napoleonic era, it enforced what became known as the Pax Britannica, which had ushered in unprecedented globalization and economic integration on a massive scale; the first electronics appeared in the 19th century, with the introduction of the electric relay in 1835, the telegraph and its Morse code protocol in 1837, the first telephone call in 1876, the first functional light bulb in 1878. The 19th century was an era of accelerating scientific discovery and invention, with significant developments in the fields of mathematics, chemistry, biology and metallurgy that laid the groundwork for the technological advances of the 20th century; the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and spread to continental Europe, North America and Japan. The Victorian era was notorious for the employment of young children in factories and mines, as well as strict social norms regarding modesty and gender roles.
Japan embarked on a program of rapid modernization following the Meiji Restoration, before defeating China, under the Qing Dynasty, in the First Sino-Japanese War. Advances in medicine and the understanding of human anatomy and disease prevention took place in the 19th century, were responsible for accelerating population growth in the western world. Europe's population doubled during the 19th century, from 200 million to more than 400 million; the introduction of railroads provided the first major advancement in land transportation for centuries, changing the way people lived and obtained goods, fuelling major urbanization movements in countries across the globe. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more during this century. London became capital of the British Empire, its population increased from 1 million in 1800 to 6.7 million a century later. The last remaining undiscovered landmasses of Earth, including vast expanses of interior Africa and Asia, were explored during this century, with the exception of the extreme zones of the Arctic and Antarctic and detailed maps of the globe were available by the 1890s.
Liberalism became the pre-eminent reform movement in Europe. Slavery was reduced around the world. Following a successful slave revolt in Haiti and France stepped up the battle against the Barbary pirates and succeeded in stopping their enslavement of Europeans; the UK's Slavery Abolition Act charged the British Royal Navy with ending the global slave trade. The first colonial empire in the century to abolish slavery was the British, who did so in 1834. America's 13th Amendment following their Civil War abolished slavery there in 1865, in Brazil slavery was abolished in 1888. Serfdom was abolished in Russia; the 19th century was remarkable in the widespread formation of new settlement foundations which were prevalent across North America and Australia, with a significant proportion of the two continents' largest cities being founded at some point in the century. Chicago in the United States and Melbourne in Australia were non-existent in the earliest decades but grew to become the 2nd largest cities in the United States and British Empire by the end of the century.
In the 19th century 70 million people left Europe, with most migrating to the United States. The 19th century saw the rapid creation and codification of many sports in Britain and the United States. Association football, rugby union and many other sports were developed during the 19th century, while the British Empire facilitated the rapid spread of sports such as cricket to many different parts of the world. Ladywear was a sensitive topic during this time, where women showing their ankles was viewed to be scandalous, it marks the fall of the Ottoman rule of the Balkans which led to the creation of Serbia, Bulgaria and Romania as a result of the second Russo-Turkish War, which in itself followed the great Crimean War. Industrial revolution European Imperialism British Regency, Victorian era Bourbon Restoration, July Monarchy, French Second Republic, Second French Empire, French Third Republic Belle Époque Edo period, Meiji period Qing dynasty Joseon dynasty Zulu Kingdom Tanzimat, First C
1792 in Canada
Events from the year 1792 in Canada. Monarch: George III Parliament of Lower Canada — 1st Parliament of Upper Canada — 1st Governor of the Canadas: Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester Governor of New Brunswick: Thomas Carleton Governor of Nova Scotia: John Parr Commodore-Governor of Newfoundland: John Elliot Governor of St. John's Island: Edmund Fanning Governor of Upper Canada: John Graves Simcoe Catherine II grants a monopoly of furs in Alaska to Grigorii Shelikov. Captain George Vancouver begins his explorations of the British Columbia Coast. A large number of the Black Loyalists in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia migrate to Sierra Leone in West Africa because the promises of land in Canada were not kept by the British. May 7 – Lower Canada is divided into 21 counties. August – the 1st Parliament of Upper Canada is elected. October 15 – The law of England is introduced in Upper Canada. December 20 – A fortnightly mail is established between Canada and the United States. December – A bill to abolish slavery in Lower Canada does not pass.
February 9 – Thomas Cooke and the first Bishop of Trois Rivières August 29 – James William Johnston, lawyer and judge November – Samuel Hearne, fur-trader and naturalist Marguerite-Thérèse Lemoine Despins was a mother superior of the Sisters of Charity of the Hôpital Général of Montreal. Thomas Peters, black soldier and leader
The 17th century was the century that lasted from January 1, 1601, to December 31, 1700, in the Gregorian calendar. It falls into the Early Modern period of Europe and in that continent was characterized by the Baroque cultural movement, the latter part of the Spanish Golden Age, the Dutch Golden Age, the French Grand Siècle dominated by Louis XIV, the Scientific Revolution, according to some historians, the General Crisis; the greatest military conflicts were the Thirty Years' War, the Great Turkish War, the Dutch-Portuguese War. It was during this period that European colonization of the Americas began in earnest, including the exploitation of the silver deposits, which resulted in bouts of inflation as wealth was drawn into Europe. In the Islamic world, the Ottoman and Mughal empires grew in strength. In the Indian subcontinent, Mughal architecture and art reached its zenith, while the empire itself is believed to have had the world's largest economy, bigger than the entirety of Western Europe and worth 25% of global GDP.
In Japan, Tokugawa Ieyasu established the Tokugawa shogunate at the beginning of the century, beginning the Edo period. In China, the collapsing Ming dynasty was challenged by a series of conquests led by the Manchu warlord Nurhaci, which were consolidated by his son Hong Taiji and consummated by his grandson, the Shunzi Emperor, founder of the Qing dynasty. From the middle decades of the 17th century, European politics were dominated by the Kingdom of France of Louis XIV, where royal power was solidified domestically in the civil war of the Fronde; the semi-feudal territorial French nobility was weakened and subjugated to the power of an absolute monarchy through the reinvention of the Palace of Versailles from a hunting lodge to a gilded prison, in which a expanded royal court could be more kept under surveillance. With domestic peace assured, Louis XIV caused the borders of France to be expanded, it was during this century that English monarch became a symbolic figurehead and Parliament was the dominant force in government – a contrast to most of Europe, in particular France.
By the end of the century and Indians were aware of logarithms, the telescope and microscope, universal gravitation, Newton's Laws of Motion, air pressure and calculating machines due to the work of the first scientists of the Scientific Revolution, including Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler, René Descartes, Pierre Fermat, Blaise Pascal, Robert Boyle, Christiaan Huygens, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Robert Hooke, Isaac Newton, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. It was a period of development of culture in general. 1600: Michael the Brave unifies the three Romanian countries: Wallachia and Transylvania after the Battle of Șelimbăr from 1599. 1601: Battle of Kinsale, England defeats Irish and Spanish forces at the town of Kinsale, driving the Gaelic aristocracy out of Ireland and destroying the Gaelic clan system. 1601–1603: The Russian famine of 1601–1603 kills one-third of Russia. 1602: Matteo Ricci produces the Map of the Myriad Countries of the World, a world map that will be used throughout East Asia for centuries.
1602: The Dutch East India Company is established by merging competing Dutch trading companies. Its success contributes to the Dutch Golden Age. 1603: Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James VI of Scotland, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England. 1603: Tokugawa Ieyasu takes the title of shōgun, establishing the Tokugawa shogunate. This begins the Edo period, which will last until 1868. 1605: The King of Gowa, a Makassarese kingdom in South Sulawesi, converts to Islam 1606: The Long War between the Ottoman Empire and Austria is ended with the Peace of Zsitvatorok—Austria abandons Transylvania. 1606: Treaty of Vienna ends anti-Habsburg uprising in Royal Hungary. 1607: Flight of the Earls occurs from County Donegal in the west of Ulster in Ireland. 1607: Iskandar Muda becomes the Sultan of Aceh. He will launch a series of naval conquests that will transform Aceh into a great power in the western Malay Archipelago. 1610: The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth army defeats combined Russian- Swedish forces at the Battle of Klushino and conquers Moscow.
1610: King Henry IV of France is assassinated by François Ravaillac. 1611: The Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, the oldest existing university in Asia, established by the Dominican Order in Manila 1611: The first publication of the King James Bible. 1612: Costwold Olympic Games, Robert Dover 1613: The Time of Troubles in Russia ends with the establishment of the House of Romanov, which rules until 1917. 1613–1617: Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth is invaded by the Tatars dozens of times. 1613: The Dutch East India Company is forced to evacuate Gresik because of the Mataram siege of neighboring Surabaya. The VOC is allowed to set up a trading post in Jepara. 1615: The Battle of Osaka ends. 1616: The last remaining Moriscos in Spain are expelled. 1616: English poet and playwright William Shakespeare dies. 1618: The Defenestration of Prague. 1618: The Bohemian Revolt precipitates the Thirty Years' War, which devastates Europe in the years 1618–48. 1618: The Manchus start invading China.
Their conquest topples the Ming dynasty. 1619: Dutch East India Company, English East India Company, Sultanate of Banten all fighting over port city of Ja
The 1800s decade lasted from January 1, 1800, to December 31, 1809. The term "eighteen-hundreds" can mean the years between 1800 and 1899, is synonymous with the 19th century; this article refers to the decade comprising 1800–1809. The European political landscape was dominated by the Napoleonic Wars, a series of conflicts declared against Napoleon's First French Empire and changing sets of European allies by opposing coalitions that ran from 1803 to 1815; as a continuation of the wars sparked by the French Revolution of 1789, they revolutionized European armies and played out on an unprecedented scale due to the application of modern mass conscription. French power rose conquering most of Europe by the end of the decade; the decade brought hard times. On 9 November 1799, Napoleon overthrew the French government, replacing it with the Consulate, in which he was First Consul. On 2 December 1804, after a failed assassination plot, he crowned himself Emperor. In 1805, Napoleon planned to invade Britain, but a renewed British alliance with Russia and Austria, forced him to turn his attention towards the continent, while at the same time failure to lure the superior British fleet away from the English Channel, ending in a decisive French defeat at the Battle of Trafalgar on 21 October put an end to hopes of an invasion of Britain.
On 2 December 1805, Napoleon defeated a numerically superior Austro-Russian army at Austerlitz, forcing Austria's withdrawal from the coalition and dissolving the Holy Roman Empire. In 1806, a Fourth Coalition was set up, on 14 October Napoleon defeated the Prussians at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt, marched through Germany and defeated the Russians on 14 June 1807 at Friedland; the Treaties of Tilsit created the Duchy of Warsaw. The War of the Fifth Coalition, fought in the year 1809, pitted a coalition of the Austrian Empire and the United Kingdom against the French Empire and Bavaria. Major engagements between France and Austria, the main participants, unfolded over much of Central Europe from April to July, with high casualty rates. Britain involved on the European continent in the ongoing Peninsular War, sent another expedition, the Walcheren Campaign, to the Netherlands in order to relieve the Austrians, although this effort had little impact on the outcome of the conflict. After much campaigning in Bavaria and across the Danube valley, the war ended favorably for the French after the bloody struggle at Wagram in early July, resulting in the Treaty of Schönbrunn.
Although fighting in the Iberian Peninsula continued, the War of the Fifth Coalition was the last major conflict on the European continent until the French invasion of Russia in 1812 sparked the Sixth Coalition. End of the White Lotus Rebellion, an uprising against the Qing Dynasty in China. Beginning of the Russo-Turkish War between Russia and the Ottoman Empire; the First Barbary War is fought between the Barbary States of North Africa. End of the Quasi-War; the Second Anglo-Maratha War is fought between the Maratha Peshwa on one side and minor chieftains of the Maratha Confederacy Sindhia and Holkar on the other resulting in a crushing defeat of the rebel chieftains and the breakup of the Maratha confederacy. The Fulani War is fought in present-day Cameroon; the First Serbian Uprising marks the first time in 300 years Serbia perceives itself an independent state. Haiti gains independence from France on January 1, 1804; this decade marked the height of the Atlantic slave trade to the United States.
During the period of 1798 and 1808 200,000 slaves were imported from Africa to the United States. Still, the abolitionist movement began to gain ground in this period. Britain enacted the Slave Trade Act 1807; the United States enacted a similar ban in 1808. However, Napoleon revoked the French Empire's ban on slavery with the Law of 20 May 1802. 1801 Under the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801, Washington, D. C. a new planned city and capital of the United States, was placed under the jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress; the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland merge into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801. 1803 United States doubles its size with territories gained from Napoleon Bonaparte in the Louisiana Purchase. This decade contained some of the earliest experiments in electrochemistry. In 1800 Alessandro Volta constructed a voltaic pile, the first device to produce a large electric current known as the electric battery. Napoleon, informed of his works, summoned him in 1801 for a command performance of his experiments.
He received many decorations, including the Légion d'honneur. In 1800, William Nicholson and Johann Wilhelm Ritter succeeded in decomposing water into hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis. Soon thereafter Ritter discovered the process of electroplating, he observed that the amount of metal deposited and the amount of oxygen produced during an electrolytic process depended on the distance between the electrodes. By 1801 Ritter observed thermoelectric currents and anticipated the discovery of thermoelectricity by Thomas Johann Seebeck. In 1806, Humphry Davy decomposed potash and soda, employing a voltaic pile of 250 cells, showing that these substances were the oxides of potassium and sodium, which metals had been unknown. Employing a battery of 2,000 elements of a voltaic pile and charcoal enclosed in a vacuum, Davy gave the first public demonstration of the electric arc lam
The 1780s decade ran from January 1, 1780, to December 31, 1789. January 16 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Cape St. Vincent: British Admiral Sir George Rodney defeats a Spanish fleet. February 19 – The legislature of New York votes to allow its delegates to cede a portion of its western territory to the Continental Congress for the common benefit of the war. March 1 – The legislature of Pennsylvania votes, 34 to 21, to approve the Act for the Gradual Emancipation of Slaves. March 11 The First League of Armed Neutrality is formed by Russia with Denmark and Sweden to try to prevent the British Royal Navy from searching neutral vessels for contraband. General Lafayette embarks on French frigate Hermione at Rochefort, arriving in Boston on April 28, carrying the news that he has secured French men and ships to reinforce the American side in the American Revolutionary War. March 17 – American Revolutionary War: The British San Juan Expedition sails from Jamaica under the command of Captains John Polson and Horatio Nelson to attack the Captaincy General of Guatemala in New Spain.
March 26 – The British Gazette and Sunday Monitor, the first Sunday newspaper in Britain, begins publication. April 16 – The University of Münster in Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany is founded. April 29 – American Revolutionary War: The Spanish commander of the Fortress of the Immaculate Conception on the San Juan River in modern-day Nicaragua surrenders it to the British San Juan Expedition. May 4 – The first Epsom Derby horse race is run on Epsom Downs, England; the victor is Diomed. May 12 – American Revolutionary War: Charleston, South Carolina is taken by British forces. May 13 – The Cumberland Compact is signed by American settlers, in the Cumberland Valley of Tennessee. May 19 – New England's Dark Day: An unaccountable darkness spreads over New England, regarded by some observers as a fulfillment of Bible prophecy. May 29 – American Revolutionary War – Waxhaw Massacre: Loyalist forces under Colonel Banastre Tarleton kill surrendering American soldiers. June 2 – An Anti-Catholic mob led by Lord George Gordon marches on the Parliament of Great Britain, leading to the outbreak of the Gordon Riots in London.
June 7 – The Gordon Riots in London are ended by the intervention of troops. About 285 people are shot dead, with around 450 arrested. June 23 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Springfield: The Continental Army defeats the British in New Jersey. July 11 – French soldiers arrive in Newport, Rhode Island to reinforce the colonists, in the American Revolutionary War. July 17 – The first bank created in the United States, the Bank of Pennsylvania, is chartered. August 16 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Camden: British troops inflict heavy losses on a Patriot army at Camden, South Carolina. August 9 – American Revolutionary War: Spanish admiral Luis de Córdova y Córdova captures a British convoy totalling 55 vessels amongst Indiamen and other cargo ships off Cape St. Vincent. August 24 – Louis XVI of France abolishes the use of torture in extracting confessions. September 21 – Benedict Arnold gives detailed plans of West Point to Major John André. Three days André is captured, with papers revealing that Arnold was planning to surrender West Point to the British.
September 25 – Benedict Arnold flees to British-held New York. September 29 The Danish ship-of-the-line Printz Friderich ran aground on the Kobbergrund shoal and was a total loss October 2 – American Revolutionary War – In Tappan, New York, British spy John André is hanged by American forces. October 7 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Kings Mountain: Patriot militia forces annihilate Loyalists under British Major Patrick Ferguson, at Kings Mountain, South Carolina. October 10–16 – The Great Hurricane flattens the islands of Barbados and Sint Eustatius. November 4 – Rebellion of Túpac Amaru II: In the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru, Túpac Amaru II leads an uprising of Aymara and Quechua peoples and mestizo peasants as a protest against the Bourbon Reforms. November 28 – A lightning strike in Saint Petersburg begins a fire that burns 11,000 homes. November 29 – Maria Theresa of Austria dies, her Habsburg dominions pass to her ambitious son, Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor since 1765. November 30 – American Revolutionary War: The British San Juan Expedition is forced to withdraw.
December 16 – Emperor Kōkaku accedes to the throne of Japan. December 20 – The Fourth Anglo-Dutch War begins. Jose Gabriel Kunturkanki and landowner, proclaims himself Inca Túpac Amaru II; the Duke of Richmond calls, in the House of Lords of Great Britain, for manhood suffrage and annual parliaments, which are rejected. Jeremy Bentham's Introduction to Principles of Morals and Legislation, presenting his formulation of utilitarian ethics, is printed in London. Nikephoros Theotokis starts introducing Edinoverie, an attempt to integrate the Old Believers into Russia's established church; the Woodford Reserve bourbon whiskey distillery begins operation in Kentucky. In Ireland, Lady Berry, sentenced to death for the murder of her son, is released when she agrees to become an executioner; the original Craven Cottage is built by William Craven, 6th Baron Craven, in London, on what will become the centre circle of Fulham F. C.'s pitch. The amateur dramatic group Det Dramatiske Selskab is founded in Norway.
Western countries pay 16,000,000 ounces of silver for Chinese goods. The Kingdom of Great Britain reaches c.9 million population. January – William Pitt the Younger Prime Minister of Great Britain, enters Parliament, aged 21. January 1 – Industrial Revolution: The Iron Bridge opens across the River Severn in England. January
The 1810s decade ran from January 1, 1810, to December 31, 1819. The decade was opened with a hostile political climate around the world. Napoleon was invading France's neighbours in efforts to build a French Empire, causing a chain of global-scaled conflicts known as the Napoleonic Wars. Here, France's Napoleonic empire saw its rise and fall through events such as Napoleon's attempts to conquer Russia, the War of 1812, the Battle of Waterloo. Imperialism began to encroach towards African and Asian territories through trade, as the U. S saw mass-scaled migration that headed westward towards the American frontier In 1810, the French Empire reached its greatest extent. On the continent, the British and Portuguese remained restricted to the area around Lisbon and to besieged Cadiz. Napoleon married Marie-Louise, an Austrian Archduchess, with the aim of ensuring a more stable alliance with Austria and of providing the Emperor with an heir; as well as the French Empire, Napoleon controlled the Swiss Confederation, the Confederation of the Rhine, the Duchy of Warsaw and the Kingdom of Italy.
Territories allied with the French included: the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Westphalia, the Kingdom of Naples, the Principality of Lucca and Piombino, Napoleon's former enemies and Austria. Denmark–Norway allied with France in opposition to Great Britain and Sweden in the Gunboat War; the French invasion of Russia of 1812 was a turning point, which reduced the French and allied invasion forces to a tiny fraction of their initial strength and triggered a major shift in European politics, as it weakened the dominant French position on the continent. After the disastrous invasion of Russia, a coalition of Austria, Russia, the United Kingdom, a number of German States, the rebels in Spain and Portugal united to battle France in the War of the Sixth Coalition. Two-and-a-half million troops fought in the conflict and the total dead amounted to as many as two million; this era included the battles of Smolensk, Borodino, Lützen and the Dresden. It included the epic Battle of Leipzig in October, 1813, the largest battle of the Napoleonic wars, which drove Napoleon out of Germany.
The final stage of the War of the Sixth Coalition, the defense of France in 1814, saw the French Emperor temporarily repulse the vastly superior armies in the Six Days Campaign. The Allies occupied Paris, forcing Napoleon to abdicate and restoring the Bourbons. Napoleon was exiled to Elba. In 1814, Denmark–Norway was defeated by Great Britain and Sweden and had to cede the territory of mainland Norway to the King of Sweden at the Treaty of Kiel. Napoleon shortly returned from exile, landing in France on March 1, 1815, marking the War of the Seventh Coalition, heading toward Paris while the Congress of Vienna was sitting. On March 13, seven days before Napoleon reached Paris, the powers at the Congress of Vienna declared him an outlaw; this set the stage for the last conflict in the Napoleonic Wars, the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo, the restoration of the French monarchy for the second time and the permanent exile of Napoleon to the distant island of Saint Helena, where he died in May 1821.
Spain in the 1810s was a country in turmoil. Occupied by Napoleon from 1808 to 1814, a massively destructive "war of independence" ensued, driven by an emergent Spanish nationalism. In 1810, the Caracas and Buenos Aires juntas declared their independence from the Bonapartist government in Spain and sent ambassadors to the United Kingdom; the British blockade against Spain had moved most of the Latin American colonies out of the Spanish economic sphere and into the British sphere, with whom extensive trade relations were developed. The remaining Spanish colonies had operated with virtual independence from Madrid after their pronouncement against Joseph Bonaparte; the Spanish government in exile created the first modern Spanish constitution. So, agreements made at the Congress of Vienna would cement international support for the old, absolutist regime in Spain. King Ferdinand VII, who assumed the throne after Napoleon was driven out of Spain, refused to agree to the liberal Spanish Constitution of 1812 on his accession to the throne in 1814.
The Spanish Empire in the New World had supported the cause of Ferdinand VII over the Bonapartist pretender to the throne in the midst of the Napoleonic Wars. When Ferdinand's rule was restored, these juntas were cautious of abandoning their autonomy, an alliance between local elites, merchant interests and liberals opposed to the abrogation of the Constitution of 1812 rose up against the Spanish in the New World; the arrival of Spanish forces in the American colonies began in 1814, was successful in restoring central control over large parts of the Empire. Simón Bolívar, the leader of revolutionary forces in New Granada, was forced into exile in British-controlled Jamaica, independent Haiti. In 1816, Bolivar found enough popular support that he was able to return to South America, in a daring march from Venezuela to New Granada, he defeated Spanish forces at the Battle of Boyacá in 1819, ending Spanish rule in Colombia. Venezuela was liberated June 24, 1821, when Bolivar destroyed the Spanish army on the fields of Carabobo on the Battle of Carabobo.
1792 in France
Events from the year 1792 in France. Monarch: Louis XVI 20 April - The National Assembly declares war against Austria, starting the French Revolutionary Wars. 20 June - Demonstration of 20 June 1792 10 August - 10 August 20 August - Battle of Verdun 2-6 September - French National Convention election, 1792 9 September - 9 September massacres 20 September - Battle of Valmy 6 November - Battle of Jemappes 25 August - Jean-Baptiste Duvergier 23 August - Arnaud II de La Porte