The Shield nickel was the first United States five-cent piece to be made out of copper-nickel, the same alloy of which American nickels are struck today. Designed by James B. Longacre, the coin was issued from 1866 until 1883; the coin takes its name from the motif on its obverse, was the first five-cent coin referred to as a "nickel"—silver pieces of that denomination had been known as half dimes. Silver half dimes had been struck from the early days of the United States Mint in the late 18th century; those disappeared from circulation, along with most other coins, in the economic turmoil of the Civil War. In 1864, the Mint introduced low-denomination coins, whose intrinsic worth did not approach their face value. Industrialist Joseph Wharton advocated coins containing nickel—a metal in which he had significant financial interests; when the Mint proposed a copper-nickel five-cent piece, Congress required that the coin be heavier than the Mint had suggested, allowing Wharton to sell more of the metal to the government.
Longacre's design was based on his two-cent pieces, symbolizes the strength of a unified America. The nickel proved difficult to strike and the reverse, or tails, design was modified in 1867. So, production difficulties continued, causing many minor varieties which are collected today. Minting of the Shield nickel for circulation was suspended in 1876 for a period of over two years due to a glut of low-denomination coinage and it was struck in only small quantities until 1882; the following year, the coin was replaced by Charles E. Barber's Liberty head design. Five-cent pieces had been struck by the United States Mint since 1792, they were the first coins struck by Mint authorities. These half dimes, were struck in silver; the alloy used was originally.892 silver with the remainder copper. The Civil War caused most American coins to vanish from circulation, with the gap filled by such means as merchant tokens, encased postage stamps, United States fractional currency, issued in denomination as low as three cents.
Although specie was hoarded or exported, the copper-nickel cent the only base metal denomination being struck vanished. In 1864, Congress began the process of restoring coins to circulation by abolishing the three-cent note and authorizing bronze cents and two-cent pieces, with low intrinsic values, to be struck; these new coins proved popular, though the two-cent piece soon faded from circulation. On March 3, 1865, Congress passed legislation authorizing the Mint to strike three-cent pieces of 75% copper and 25% nickel. In 1864, Congress had authorized a third series of fractional currency notes; the five-cent note was to bear a portrait of "Clark", but Congress was appalled when the issue came out not bearing a portrait of William Clark, the explorer, but Spencer M. Clark, head of the Currency Bureau. According to numismatic historian Walter Breen, Congress's "immediate infuriated response was to pass a law retiring the 5¢ denomination, another to forbid portrayal of any living person on federal coins or currency."
Clark only kept his job because of the personal intervention of Treasury Secretary Salmon P. Chase. Mint Director James Pollock had been opposed to striking coins containing nickel but in view of the initial success of the copper-nickel three-cent piece, he became an advocate of striking five-cent pieces in the same metal. In his 1865 report Pollock wrote, "From this nickel alloy, a coin for the denomination of five cents, which would be a popular substitute for the five cent note, could be made... only until the resumption of specie payments... in time of peace... coins of inferior alloy should not be permitted to take the place permanently of silver in the coinage of pieces above the denomination of three cents." Industrialist Joseph Wharton had a near-monopoly on the mining of nickel in the United States and sought to promote its use in coinage. He was highly influential in Congress, his friends there, though they had failed to obtain the metal's use for the two-cent piece, had been more successful with the three-cent coin.
Pollock prepared a bill authorizing a five-cent coin of the same alloy as the three-cent piece and a total weight not to exceed 60 grains. At the committee stage in the House of Representatives, the weight was amended to 77.19 grains, ostensibly to make the weight equal to five grams in the metric system but more so that Wharton could sell more nickel. This made the new coin heavy in comparison to the three-cent copper-nickel coin; the bill passed without debate on May 16, 1866. The new copper-nickel coin was legal tender for up to one dollar, would be paid out by the Treasury in exchange for coin of the United States, excluding the half cent and two-cent, it was redeemable in lots of $100 for banknotes. Fractional currency in denominations of less than ten cents was withdrawn. Since coinage was to begin it was necessary for the Mint's chief engraver, James B. Longacre to prepare a design as as possible. With the five cent authorization bill pending in Congress, Longacre had produced patterns as early as late 1865.
Longacre produced pattern coins, one with a shield similar to the design he had prepared for the two-cent piece. Longacre altered the two-cent design by shifting the location of the two arrows in the design, removed the scroll on which "In God We Trust" had been inscribed, added a cross intending a pattee to the top of the shield. Another pattern depicted Washington, while another showed the assassinated
Indian Head cent
The Indian Head cent known as an Indian Head penny, was a one-cent coin produced by the United States Bureau of the Mint from 1859 to 1909. It was designed by the Chief Engraver at the Philadelphia Mint. From 1793 to 1857, the cent was a copper coin about the size of a half dollar; the discovery of gold in California caused a large inflation in prices. As gold became more abundant, the price of copper rose. Cent and half-cent manufacture was one of the only profit centers for the Mint and by 1850 the Mint began looking for alternatives. In 1857 the Mint reduced the size of the cent and changed the composition to 12% nickel and 88% copper, issuing a new design, the Flying Eagle cent; the new pieces were identical in diameter to modern cents, though thicker. This was the first use of copper-nickel by the United States; the copper-nickel made them look brighter and they began to be called "White cent" or "Nicks". In 1858 the Flying Eagle was replaced with the Indian head design; the Flying Eagle design caused production difficulties and the Mint soon looked to replace it.
Mint Director James Ross Snowden selected the Indian Head design and chose a laurel wreath for the reverse, replaced in 1860 by an oak wreath with a shield. Cents were hoarded during the economic chaos of the American Civil War when the metal nickel was in short supply; as Mint officials saw that issued bronze tokens were circulating, they induced Congress to pass the Coinage Act of 1864, authorizing a slimmer cent of bronze alloy. In the postwar period, the cent became popular and was struck in large numbers in most years. An exception was 1877 when a poor economy and little demand for cents created one of the rarest dates in the series. With the advent of coin-operated machines in the late 19th and early 20th centuries more cents were produced, reaching 100 million for the first time in 1907. In 1909, the Indian Head cent was replaced by the Lincoln cent, designed by Victor D. Brenner; the half-dollar-sized large cent was struck from 1793 to 1857. That coin was intended to contain close to a cent's worth of copper, as people expected coins to contain close to their face values in metal.
Because of the constitutional clause making only gold and silver legal tender, the government would not accept copper cents for taxes or other payments. By the early 1850s, fluctuations in the price of copper led the Mint of the United States to seek alternatives, including reducing the size of the cent and experimenting with compositions other than pure copper; the result was the Flying Eagle cent, the same diameter as the Lincoln cent but somewhat thicker and heavier, composed of 88% copper and 12% nickel. The Flying Eagle cent was struck in limited numbers as a pattern coin in 1856 for circulation in 1857 and 1858; the Flying Eagle cent was issued in exchange for worn Spanish colonial silver coins, which until had circulated in the United States. These "small cents" were issued in exchange for the copper coins they had replaced. By 1858, Mint authorities found the piece unsatisfactory in production; the high points on both sides of the coin opposed each other, it was difficult to get the design to be brought out in the tough copper-nickel alloy.
Mint Engraver James B. Longacre, designer of the Flying Eagle cent, was instructed to develop alternative designs, he produced one. Although this would have cured the production problem, the design was not liked. Mint Director James Ross Snowden suggested a head of Columbus as an obverse design, but Longacre felt the public would not approve of a historic figure on an American coin. In 1858, the Mint tested new designs for the cent. Between 60 and 100 sets of twelve pattern coins were struck, consisting of the standard Flying Eagle obverse, a "scrawny eagle" pattern, the Indian Head design, mated with four different wreaths for the reverse. Snowden would make his choice of; the Indian Head design was prepared by April, as on the twelfth of that month, a Mr. Howard wrote to Snowden that "I have learned that a new pattern piece for the cent has been struck off at the Mint a head resembling that of the five dollar piece and on the reverse a shield at the top of the olive and oak wreath", asking to purchase a specimen.
Other numismatists sought pieces: R. Coulton Davis, a Philadelphia druggist with ties to the Mint, wrote to Snowden in June informing him of a favorable story in a Boston newspaper, Augustus B. Sage wrote to the Mint Director the same month, asking for a specimen for himself, one for the newly founded American Numismatic Society. According to Walter Breen, Snowden most chose the combination of the Indian Head and the laurel wreath as it was the lowest relief of any of the options, could be expected to strike well. On November 4, 1858, Snowden wrote to Treasury Secretary Howell Cobb about the Indian Head design, two days wrote to Longacre, informing him that it was approved. Longacre was to prepare the necessary dies for production, to begin on January 1, 1859. Longacre advocated his Indian Head design in an August 21, 1858, letter to Snowden: From the copper shores of Lake Superior, to the silver mountains of Potosi from the Ojibwa to the Aramanian, the feathered tiara is as characteristic of the primitive races of our hemisphere, as the turban is of the Asiatic.
Nor is there anything in its decorative character, repulsive to the association of Liberty... It is more appropriate than the Phrygian cap, the emblem rather of the emancipated slave, than of the independent free
The Buffalo nickel or Indian Head nickel is a copper-nickel five-cent piece, struck by the United States Mint from 1913 to 1938. It was designed by sculptor James Earle Fraser; as part of a drive to beautify the coinage, five denominations of US coins had received new designs between 1907 and 1909. In 1911, Taft administration officials decided to replace Charles E. Barber's Liberty Head design for the nickel, commissioned Fraser to do the work, they were impressed by Fraser's designs showing an American bison. The designs were approved in 1912, but were delayed several months because of objections from the Hobbs Manufacturing Company, which made mechanisms to detect slugs in nickel-operated machines; the company was not satisfied by changes made in the coin by Fraser, in February 1913, Treasury Secretary Franklin MacVeagh decided to issue the coins despite the objections. Despite attempts by the Mint to adjust the design, the coins proved to strike indistinctly, to be subject to wear—the dates were worn away in circulation.
In 1938, after the expiration of the minimum 25-year period during which the design could not be replaced without congressional authorization, it was replaced by the Jefferson nickel, designed by Felix Schlag. Fraser's design is admired today, has been used on commemorative coins and the gold American Buffalo series. In 1883, the Liberty Head nickel was issued. After the coin was released, it was modified to add the word "CENTS" to the reverse because the similarity in size with the half eagle allowed criminals to gild the new nickels and pass them as five dollar coins. An Act of Congress, passed into law on September 26, 1890 required that coinage designs not be changed until they had been in use 25 years, unless Congress authorized the change; the act made silver dollar exceptions to the twenty-five year rule. However, the Mint continued to strike the Liberty Head nickel in large numbers through the first decade of the 20th century. President Theodore Roosevelt in 1904 expressed his dissatisfaction with the artistic state of the American coinage, hoped to hire sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens to redesign all the coins.
Constrained by the 1890 act, the Mint only hired Saint-Gaudens to redesign the cent and the four gold pieces. Saint-Gaudens, before his 1907 death, designed the eagle and double eagle, which entered circulation that year. By that time, the Liberty Head nickel had been in circulation for more than 25 years, was eligible for redesign regardless of the special provision. In 1909, Mint Director Frank Leach instructed Barber to make pattern coins for new nickels. Most of these coins featured George Washington; the press found out about the pieces, speculated they would be released into circulation by the end of the year. The Mint received orders from banks in anticipation of the "Washington nickel". However, the project was discontinued when Leach left office on November 1, 1909, to be replaced by Abram Andrew. Andrew was dissatisfied with the just-issued Lincoln cent, considered seeking congressional authorization to replace the cent with a design by sculptor James Earle Fraser. While the change in the cent did not occur, according to numismatic historian Roger Burdette, "Fraser's enthusiasm led to adoption of the Buffalo nickel in December 1912".
On May 4, 1911, Eames MacVeagh, son of Treasury Secretary Franklin MacVeagh wrote to his father: A little matter that seems to have been overlooked by all of you is the opportunity to beautify the design of the nickel or five cent piece during your administration, it seems to me that it would be a permanent souvenir of a most attractive sort. As you are aware, it is the only coin the design of which you can change during your administration, as I believe there is a law to the effect that the designs must not be changed oftener than every twenty-five years. I should think it might be the coin of which the greatest numbers are in circulation. Soon after the MacVeagh letter, Andrew announced that the Mint would be soliciting new designs for the nickel. Fraser, an assistant to Saint-Gaudens, approached the Mint, produced concepts and designs; the new Mint director, George Roberts, who had replaced Andrew favored a design featuring assassinated President Abraham Lincoln, but Fraser soon developed a design featuring a Native American on one side and a bison on the other.
Andrew and Roberts recommended Fraser to MacVeagh, in July 1911, the Secretary approved hiring Fraser to design a new nickel. Official approval was slow in coming. MacVeagh wrote, "Tell him that of the three sketches which he submitted we would like to use the sketch of the head of the Indian and the sketch of the buffalo." Roberts transmitted the news followed up with a long list of instructions to the sculptor, in which he noted, "The motto,'In God We Trust', is not required upon this coin and I presume we are agreed that nothing should be upon it, not required." Fraser completed the models by June 1912, prepared coin-size electrotypes. He brought the models and electrotypes to Washington on July 10, where they met with the enthusiastic agreement of Secretary MacVeagh. In July 1912, word of the new design became publicly known, coin-operated machine manufacturers sought information. Replying to the inquiries, MacVeagh wrote that there would be no change in the diameter, thickness, or weight of the nickel.
This satisfied mos
The Classic Head was a design issued by the mint in the early 19th century. It was introduced for copper coinage in 1808 by engraver John Reich and redesigned and improved by Chief Engraver William Kneass. Half cents: 1809 to 1836 Large cents: 1808 until 1814 Quarter Eagle: 1834 to 1839 Half Eagle: 1834 to 1837 The short-lived Classic Head interpretation of Liberty was designed by John Reich for use on the Half cent and the Large cent, however the design used on the silver and gold coins was developed by William Kneass; the Classic Head depicted Liberty with curly hair. The reverse designed by John Reich depicted the coin's value inside a wreath. Kneass's design, scaled down the design so it would fit on smaller coins and added a heraldic eagle on the reverse, substituting the simple design by John Reich. A similar design on gold coinage only retained the curly hair; the head was redesigned by William Kneass, featured a traditional maiden with a ribbon binding her long, curly hair. This variety omitted "E pluribus unum" from the reverse of the coin.
In 1840, a smaller head was designed to conform with the appearance of the larger gold coins, therefore making the Classic Head design obsolete. The new Classic Head design was produced from 1834 to 1839; the Classic Head variety was preceded by the Draped Bust design and followed by the Matron Head liberty on copper coinage. Half cent Large cent Quarter Eagle Half Eagle Classic Head Quarter Eagle R. S. Yeoman, A Guide Book Of United States Coins 2009 Edition
United States Secretary of State
The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America, as head of the United States Department of State, is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U. S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs. The Secretary of State is nominated by the President of the United States and, following a confirmation hearing before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, is confirmed by the United States Senate; the Secretary of State, along with the Secretary of the Treasury, Secretary of Defense, Attorney General, are regarded as the four most important Cabinet members because of the importance of their respective departments. Secretary of State is a Level I position in the Executive Schedule and thus earns the salary prescribed for that level; the current Secretary of State is Mike Pompeo, who served as Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. Pompeo replaced Rex Tillerson whom President Trump dismissed on March 13, 2018.
Tillerson's last day at the State Department was March 31, 2018. Pompeo was confirmed by the Senate on April 26, 2018 and was sworn in that day; the stated duties of the Secretary of State are as follows: "Supervises the United States Foreign Service" and "administers the Department of State" Advises the President on matters relating to U. S. foreign policy including the appointment of diplomatic representatives to other nations and on the acceptance, recall, or dismissal of representatives from other nations "Negotiates, interprets, or terminates treaties and agreements" and "conducts negotiations relating to U. S. foreign affairs" "Personally participates in or directs U. S. representatives to international conferences and agencies" Provides information and services to U. S. citizens living or traveling abroad such as providing credentials in the form of passports Ensure the protection of the U. S. government to U. S. citizens and interests in foreign countries "Supervises the administration of the U.
S. immigration policy abroad" Communicates issues relating the U. S. foreign policy to Congress and to U. S. citizens "Promotes beneficial economic intercourse between the U. S. and other countries"The original duties of the Secretary of State include some domestic duties such as: Receipt, publication and preservation of the laws of the United States Preparation and recording of the commissions of Presidential appointees Preparation and authentication of copies of records and authentication of copies under the Department's seal Custody of the Great Seal of the United States Custody of the records of former Secretary of the Continental Congress except for those of the Treasury and War departmentsMost of the domestic functions of the Department of State have been transferred to other agencies. Those that remain include storage and use of the Great Seal of the United States, performance of protocol functions for the White House, the drafting of certain proclamations; the Secretary negotiates with the individual States over the extradition of fugitives to foreign countries.
Under Federal Law, the resignation of a president or of a vice president is only valid if declared in writing, in an instrument delivered to the office of the secretary of state. Accordingly, the resignations in disgrace of President Nixon and of Vice-President Spiro Agnew, domestic issues, were formalized in instruments delivered to the Secretary of State; as the highest-ranking member of the cabinet, the secretary of state is the third-highest official of the executive branch of the Federal Government of the United States, after the president and vice president, is fourth in line to succeed the presidency, coming after the vice president, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the President pro tempore of the Senate. Six secretaries of state have gone on to be elected president. Others, including Henry Clay, William Seward, James Blaine, William Jennings Bryan, John Kerry, Hillary Clinton have been unsuccessful presidential candidates, either before or after their term of office as Secretary of State.
The nature of the position means. The record for most countries visited in a secretary's tenure is 112 by Hillary Clinton. Second is Madeleine Albright with 96; the record for most air miles traveled in a secretary's tenure is 1,417,576 miles by John Kerry. Second is Condoleezza Rice's 1,059,247 miles, third is Clinton's 956,733 miles. Official website
The United States large cent was a coin with a face value of 1/100 of a United States dollar. Its nominal diameter was 11⁄8 inch; the first official mintage of the large cent was in 1793, its production continued until 1857, when it was replaced by the modern-size one-cent coin. Large cents were made of nearly pure copper, or copper as pure as it emerged from smelting, without any deliberate addition of other metals. First struck in 1793, the large cent was coined every year from 1793 to 1857 except 1815; the wartime embargo against shipments made it so the mint could not get any new copper planchets, which were imported from Great Britain, to strike coins. The mint made do with what supply it had and struck coins into 1815. After the war ended in 1815, the mint wasted no time in ordering new planchets. For an unknown reason no coins were dated 1815 from the supply. In addition to the copper shortage, people hoarded precious metals during the war; the Philadelphia Mint produced all large cents.
This made the coins bulky and heavy, bigger than modern-day U. S. Quarters; the obverse featured a bust of Liberty with a reverse of a ring of chains. Henry Voigt's design was universally criticized in its time for its unattractiveness and perceived allusion to slavery, it bears the distinction, however, of being the first official coinage minted by the United States federal government on its own equipment and premises. 36,103 were minted. Its low survival rate, in addition to its small mintage, coupled with being the first regular federal issue and a one-year design and type, has created an strong demand from generations of numismatists; as a result, all surviving specimens command high prices ranging from $2,000-$3,000 in the absolute lowest state of preservation to over $500,000 in the highest. The Mint caved in to the intense ridicule in 1793, Mint Director David Rittenhouse ordered Adam Eckfeldt to revise the obverse and reverse designs. Liberty's bust was redesigned with longer, wilder hair, the chain was removed from the reverse in favor of a wreath.
Scholars are undecided as to what plant or plants are depicted in the wreath, with several varieties extant. Total mintage of the wreath reverse numbered about 63,000 pieces. Rittenhouse was dissatisfied with Eckfeldt's designs, with the criticism of the Chain cents fresh in his mind, he hired Joseph Wright to do yet another redesign in the denomination's troubled first year. Wright's design "tamed" her wild hair; the Phrygian cap was added as an ancient symbol of freedom. The reverse design was revised to a recognizable laurel wreath, future Chief Engraver Robert Scot had a hand in several minor revisions to the design over the next three years; this design was more successful and it was continued into 1796. In 1795, planchets became too thin for the edge lettering because of a weight reduction, so the mint stopped edge lettering on the cent, the rest of these coins were made with a plain edge. Four coins from 1795 are known to have a reeded edge. Robert Scot redesigned the whole of United States coinage for 1796, applying a new design featuring a bust of Liberty wearing a drapery at the neckline and a ribbon in her flowing hair.
The reverse design now featured an olive wreath. As with earlier types, several minor revisions to the design were made in the first few years, with the final 1797 design lasting through the end of the type in 1807. John Reich, assistant to Chief Engraver Scot, was appointed by new Mint Director Robert Patterson to redesign Scot's Draped Bust cent; the so-called "Classic Head" derives its name from the fillet worn by Liberty on the obverse, though the fillet was worn only by male athletes in ancient Greece. The copper used during the years in which Classic Head cents were minted was of a higher quality, containing less metallic impurity, they were softer and more prone to wear and corrode more than issues before or after. As a result, high-grade specimens are difficult to obtain and fetch strong premiums when they appear on market with original red or red-brown mint luster; as a response to public criticism of the Classic Head, the Mint assigned Chief Engraver Scot to redesign the cent in 1816.
This newest design enlarged the obverse portrait, giving Liberty a much more mature look, surrounded the portrait with stars along the outer edge of the coin. The "Matron head" design was modified in 1835 to give Liberty a younger look and matron head cents continued to be made until 1839. Facing more negative public reaction, the Coronet cents were redesigned in 1835 by new Chief Engraver Christian Gobrecht; this last major change to the coin updated the obverse by giving Liberty a slimmer, more youthful appearance. Minor tweaks continued through 1843, the 1843 design prevailed through the end of mintage in 1857; some 11 years after the large cent was discontinued, a mint employee coined several large cents dated 1868 certainly for sale as instant rarities to numismatists. Fewer than a dozen of these unofficial issues, struck in both bronze and copper-nickel, are known to survive. United States dollar Mill Complete US Large Cent information by type. Histories, mintages, diameters, metal contents, edge designs and more.
Large Cent Pictures Images of Large Cents at the American Numismatic Society
United States Seated Liberty coinage
The Seated Liberty portrait designs appeared on most regular-issue silver United States coinage during the mid- and late nineteenth century, from 1836 through 1891. The denominations which featured the Goddess of Liberty in a Seated Liberty design included the half dime, the dime, the quarter, the half dollar, until 1873 the silver dollar. Another coin that appeared in the Seated Liberty design was the twenty cent piece; this coin was produced from 1875 to 1878, was discontinued because it looked similar to the quarter. Seated Liberty coinage was minted at the main United States Mint in Philadelphia, as well as the branch mints in New Orleans, San Francisco, Carson City; the basic obverse design of the Seated Liberty coinage was designed by Mint engraver Christian Gobrecht, which consisted of the figure of Liberty clad in a flowing dress and seated upon a rock. In her left hand, she holds a Liberty pole surmounted by a Phyrgian cap, a pre-eminent symbol of freedom during the movement of Neoclassicism.
Although it had fallen out of favor in Europe by 1830, Neoclassicism remained in vogue in the United States until after the American Civil War. Liberty's right hand rested on the top corner of a striped shield with a diagonal banner inscribed with the word "Liberty"; the shield represented preparedness in the defense of freedom. The date of the coin appeared on the bottom below Liberty; the basic reverse design of Seated Liberty coins depended on the denomination. The size of half dimes and dimes necessitated a smaller array of elements. On these coins, the reverse featured a wreath around the words "half dime" or "one dime". Before 1860, this wreath consisted of laurel leaves, a traditional Neoclassical image, but beginning that year, the wreath was enlarged and was filled not only with leaves, but traditional American agricultural products, such as corn and wheat. On quarter, half dollars, silver dollar coins, the reverse featured a central eagle about to take flight, with a striped shield upon its breast.
The eagle clutched an olive branch of peace in its right talons and a group of arrows in its left talons. Above the eagle around the rim were the words "United States of America" and below the eagle around the rim lay the coin denomination. Beginning in 1866, the coins featured a ribbon with the motto "In God We Trust" above the eagle; when the first Seated Liberty half dimes and dimes appeared in 1837, the obverse contained no stars. There are two varieties. For the dime, these two types can be distinguished by noting the "7" in the date. In the large date variety, the "3" has a pointy serif at top, the horizontal element of the "7" is straight. In the small date variety, the "3" has a rounded serif, there is small a knob, or bulge, in the "7" horizontal element. Only the Philadelphia Mint made both varieties; the small date is rarer. The New Orleans Mint made only one variety. For the half dime, the small date can be distinguished by the fact that it is bent in a "smile" orientation, similar to the Bust type of half dime.
The large date can be distinguished by the fact that the date is more in a straight line, similar to dates of years for the Seated Liberty. Only the Philadelphia Mint made half dimes in this year; the Liberty Seated dime of 1838 minted in New Orleans, was the first U. S. coin struck anywhere outside of Philadelphia. In other words, this is the first branch mint coin; the next year, the coins featured thirteen six-pointed stars around the rim, commemorating the original thirteen colonies. The Seated Liberty coins featured a few minor design changes over the years. Around 1840, extra drapery was added to Liberty's left elbow. In 1853 and 1873, the U. S. Mint changed the weight of each denomination of silver coins. Both times, arrows were added to the coins on each side of the date; these were removed from coins in 1875, respectively. In 1853, the mint placed rays around the eagle on the reverse of half dollars and quarters, a feature which endured for that one year only. In 1860 the U. S. Mint eliminated the stars on the obverse of Seated Liberty half dimes and dimes, replacing them with the legend "United States of America", which had appeared around the wreath on the reverse of the coins.
Before this time, half dimes and dimes minted in New Orleans and San Francisco had featured their mintmarks inside the wreaths. Afterwards, the "O" and "S" mintmarks were located below the wreath next to the rim. On quarters, half dollars, silver dollars, the mintmarks were always placed below the eagle but above the coin currency on the reverse. Many people collect; this can range from a repunched mintmark to the position of a date on the coin to a die crack at various stages. This type of collecting has been popular with Bust half dollars for well over 100 years. Seated coin collecting by variety has grown over the last 30 years with the formation of the Liberty Seated Collectors Club; the Seated Liberty design remained standard on all American coins ranging from dimes to half dollars for decades, but by the 1880s, as it was approaching the half century mark, there was increased criticism and calls for its replacement due to changing artistic tastes and perceived "blandness". This led to the new "Barber Head" design, approved by President Harrison in 1891 and which began minting a year although it too would soon be criticized for blandness.
Liberty Seated Half Dime Large Date and Small Date Varieties: A Guide Book of United States Coins, by Richard Yeoman, 2007, ISBN 0-7948-2039-5 Liberty Seated Dime Large