The 1810s decade ran from January 1,1810, to December 31,1819. In 1810, the French Empire reached its greatest extent, on the continent, the British and Portuguese remained restricted to the area around Lisbon and to besieged Cadiz. Napoleon married Marie-Louise, an Austrian Archduchess, with the aim of ensuring a stable alliance with Austria. As well as the French Empire, Napoleon controlled the Swiss Confederation, the Confederation of the Rhine, the Duchy of Warsaw, Denmark–Norway allied with France in opposition to Great Britain and Sweden in the Gunboat War. Two-and-a-half million troops fought in the conflict and the total amounted to as many as two million. This era included the battles of Smolensk, Borodino, Lützen, and it included the epic Battle of Leipzig in October,1813, which was the largest battle of the Napoleonic wars, which drove Napoleon out of Germany. The final stage of the War of the Sixth Coalition, the defense of France in 1814, the Allies occupied Paris, forcing Napoleon to abdicate and restoring the Bourbons.
Also in 1814, Denmark–Norway was defeated by Great Britain and Sweden and had to cede the territory of mainland Norway to the King of Sweden at the Treaty of Kiel. Napoleon shortly returned from exile, landing in France on March 1,1815, marking the War of the Seventh Coalition, Spain in the 1810s was a country in turmoil. Occupied by Napoleon from 1808 to 1814, a destructive war of independence ensued. Already in 1810, the Caracas and Buenos Aires juntas declared their independence from the Bonapartist government in Spain, the remaining Spanish colonies had operated with virtual independence from Madrid after their pronouncement against Joseph Bonaparte. The Spanish government in exile created the first modern Spanish constitution, even so, agreements made at the Congress of Vienna would cement international support for the old, absolutist regime in Spain. King Ferdinand VII, who assumed the throne after Napoleon was driven out of Spain, the Spanish Empire in the New World had largely supported the cause of Ferdinand VII over the Bonapartist pretender to the throne in the midst of the Napoleonic Wars.
The arrival of Spanish forces in the American colonies began in 1814, Simón Bolívar, the leader of revolutionary forces in New Granada, was briefly forced into exile in British-controlled Jamaica, and independent Haiti. Venezuela was liberated June 24,1821, when Bolivar destroyed the Spanish army on the fields of Carabobo on the Battle of Carabobo, Argentina declared its independence in 1816. Spain would lose Florida to the United States during this decade, First, in 1810, the Republic of West Florida declared its independence from Spain, and was quickly annexed by the United States. Later, in 1818, the United States invaded Florida, resulting in the Adams-Onís Treaty, in 1820, Peru and Central America still remained under Spanish control. Although Mexico had been in revolt in 1811 under Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, King Ferdinand was still dissatisfied with the loss of so much of the Empire and resolved to retake it
The 1820s decade ran from January 1,1820, to December 31,1829. 1820, Anchor coinage is issued for use in some British colonies,1824 – The Dutch sign the Masang Agreement, temporarily ending hostilities in the Padri War in West Sumatra. The Java War was fought in Java between 1825 and 1830 and it started as a rebellion led by Prince Diponegoro after the Dutch decided to build a road across a piece of his property that contained his parents tomb. The troops of Prince Diponegoro were very successful in the beginning, controlling the middle of Java, the Javanese population was supportive of Prince Diponegoros cause, whereas the Dutch colonial authorities were initially very indecisive. As the Java war prolonged, Prince Diponegoro had difficulties in maintaining the numbers of his troops, Prince Diponegoro started a fierce guerrilla war and it was not until 1827 that the Dutch army gained the upper hand. The Dutch colonial army was able to fill its ranks with troops from Sulawesi, the rebellion finally ended in 1830, after Prince Diponegoro was tricked into entering Dutch custody near Magelang, believing he was there for negotiations for a possible cease-fire.
It is estimated that 200,000 died over the course of the conflict,8,000 being Dutch, the campaign initiated a period of two decades in which Kedah resisted Siamese control. The Sultan took refuge on Penang Island, under British control, by 1822 there was a rise in the population of the British territories caused by an influx of Malays displaced by the invasion. 1826 – The Burney Treaty allowed the Siamese view of their rights to prevail in Kelah,1826 – The British crown colony of the Straits Settlements is established in what is now Malaysia and Singapore. February 14,1820 – Minh Mang starts to rule in Vietnam,1825 – Minh Mang outlaws the teaching of Christianity in Vietnam. 1828 Siamese-Lao War, Siam invades and sacks Vientiane,1827 – Laos, King Anouvong of Vientiane declares war on Siam and successfully attacks Nakhon Ratchasima. November 12,1828 – Anouvong, ruler of the Kingdom of Vientiane, is deposed, during the war, the city of Vientiane is obliterated by Siamese forces. 1824-1826, The First Anglo-Burmese War ended in a British victory, and by the Treaty of Yandabo, Burma lost territory previously conquered in Assam and Arakan.
The British took possession of Tenasserim with the intention to use it as a chip in future negotiations with either Burma or Siam. 1824-1826 - Rattanakosin Kingdom, Rama II died in 1824 and was succeeded by his son Jessadabodindra. In 1825 the British sent another mission to Bangkok led by East India Company emissary Henry Burney and they had by now annexed southern Burma and were thus Siams neighbours to the west, and they were extending their control over Malaya. The King was reluctant to give in to British demands, in 1826, Siam concluded its first commercial treaty with a western power, the Burney Treaty. Under the treaty, Siam agreed to establish a uniform system, to reduce taxes on foreign trade
The 19th century was the century marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Holy Roman and Mughal empires. After the defeat of the French Empire and its allies in the Napoleonic Wars, the Russian Empire expanded in central and far eastern Asia. By the end of the century, the British Empire controlled a fifth of the worlds land, the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and spread to continental Europe, North America and Japan. The Victorian era was notorious for the employment of children in factories and mines, as well as strict social norms regarding modesty. Japan embarked on a program of rapid modernization following the Meiji Restoration, before defeating China, under the Qing Dynasty, europes population doubled during the 19th century, from approximately 200 million to more than 400 million. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more during this century, London became the worlds largest city and capital of the British Empire. Its population increased from 1 million in 1800 to 6.7 million a century later, liberalism became the pre-eminent reform movement in Europe.
Slavery was greatly reduced around the world, following a successful slave revolt in Haiti and France stepped up the battle against the Barbary pirates and succeeded in stopping their enslavement of Europeans. The UKs Slavery Abolition Act charged the British Royal Navy with ending the slave trade. The first colonial empire in the century to abolish slavery was the British, americas 13th Amendment following their Civil War abolished slavery there in 1865, and in Brazil slavery was abolished in 1888. Similarly, serfdom was abolished in Russia, in the 19th century approximately 70 million people left Europe, with most migrating to the United States of America. The 19th century saw the creation and codification of many sports, particularly in Britain. Also, ladywear was a sensitive topic during this time. 1801, Ranjit Singh crowned as King of Punjab,1801, Napoleon signs the Concordat of 1801 with the Pope. 1801, Cairo falls to the British,1801, Assassination of Tsar Paul I of Russia. 1802, Ludwig van Beethoven performs his Moonlight Sonata for the first time,1803, William Symington demonstrates his Charlotte Dundas, the first practical steamboat.
1803, The United States more than doubles in size when it buys out Frances territorial claims in North America via the Louisiana Purchase. This begins the U. S. s westward expansion to the Pacific referred to as its Manifest Destiny which involves annexing and conquering land from Mexico, Britain,1803, The Wahhabis of the First Saudi State capture Mecca and Medina
The 1800s decade lasted from January 1,1800, to December 31,1809. French power rose quickly, conquering most of Europe by the end of the decade, on 9 November 1799, Napoleon overthrew the French government, replacing it with the Consulate, in which he was First Consul. On 2 December 1804, after an assassination plot, he crowned himself Emperor. On 2 December 1805, Napoleon defeated a numerically superior Austro-Russian army at Austerlitz, forcing Austrias withdrawal from the coalition and dissolving the Holy Roman Empire. In 1806, a Fourth Coalition was set up, on 14 October Napoleon defeated the Prussians at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt, marched through Germany, the Treaties of Tilsit divided Europe between France and Russia and created the Duchy of Warsaw. The War of the Fifth Coalition, fought in the year 1809, pitted a coalition of the Austrian Empire, major engagements between France and Austria, the main participants, unfolded over much of Central Europe from April to July, with very high casualty rates.
After much campaigning in Bavaria and across the Danube valley, the war ended favorably for the French after the struggle at Wagram in early July. End of the White Lotus Rebellion, an uprising against the Qing Dynasty in China, beginning of the Russo-Turkish War between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. The First Barbary War is fought between the United States and the Barbary States of North Africa, the Fulani War is fought in present-day Nigeria and Cameroon. The First Serbian Uprising marks the first time in 300 years Serbia perceives itself an independent state, haiti gains independence from France on January 1,1804. This decade marked the height of the Atlantic slave trade to the United States, during the period of 1798 and 1808, approximately 200,000 slaves were imported from Africa to the United States. Still, the abolitionist movement began to ground in this period. Britain enacted the Slave Trade Act 1807, which barred the trade of slaves in Great Britain, the United States enacted a similar ban in 1808.
However, Napoleon revoked the French Empires ban on slavery with the Law of 20 May 1802. 1801 Under the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801, Washington, D. C. a new planned city, the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland merge into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801. 1803 United States doubles its size with territories gained from Napoleon Bonaparte in the Louisiana Purchase and this decade contained some of the earliest experiments in electrochemistry. In 1800 Alessandro Volta constructed a voltaic pile, the first device to produce an electric current. Napoleon, informed of his works, summoned him in 1801 for a performance of his experiments
The 17th century was the century that lasted from January 1,1601, to December 31,1700, in the Gregorian calendar. The greatest military conflicts were the Thirty Years War, the Great Turkish War, in the Islamic world, the Ottoman, Safavid Persian and Mughal empires grew in strength. In Japan, Tokugawa Ieyasu established the Edo period at the beginning of the century, European politics were dominated by the Kingdom of France of Louis XIV, where royal power was solidified domestically in the civil war of the Fronde. With domestic peace assured, Louis XIV caused the borders of France to be expanded and it was during this century that English monarch became a symbolic figurehead and Parliament was the dominant force in government – a contrast to most of Europe, in particular France. It was a period of development of culture in general,1600, On February 17 Giordano Bruno is burned at the stake by the Inquisition. 1600, Michael the Brave unifies the three Romanian countries, Wallachia and Transylvania after the Battle of Șelimbăr from 1599.
1601, Battle of Kinsale, England defeats Irish and Spanish forces at the town of Kinsale, driving the Gaelic aristocracy out of Ireland and destroying the Gaelic clan system. 1601, Michael the Brave, voivode of Wallachia and Transylvania, is assassinated by the order of the Habsburg general Giorgio Basta at Câmpia Turzii, 1601–1603, The Russian famine of 1601–1603 kills perhaps one-third of Russia. 1601, Panembahan Senopati, first king of Mataram and passes rule to his son Panembahan Seda ing Krapyak 1601,1602, Matteo Ricci produces the Map of the Myriad Countries of the World, a world map that will be used throughout East Asia for centuries. 1602, The Portuguese send an expeditionary force from Malacca which succeeded in reimposing a degree of Portuguese control. 1602, The Dutch East India Company is established by merging competing Dutch trading companies and its success contributes to the Dutch Golden Age. 1602, Two emissaries from the Aceh Sultanate visit the Dutch Republic,1603, Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James VI of Scotland, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England.
1603, Tokugawa Ieyasu takes the title of Shogun, establishing the Tokugawa Shogunate and this begins the Edo period, which will last until 1869. 1603–1623, After modernizing his army, Abbas I expands the Persian Empire by capturing territory from the Ottomans,1603, First permanent Dutch trading post is established in Banten, West Java. First successful VOC privateering raid on a Portuguese ship,1604, A second English East India Company voyage commanded by Sir Henry Middleton reaches Ternate, Tidore and Banda. 1605, Gunpowder Plot failed in England,1605, The fortresses of Veszprém and Visegrad are retaken by the Ottomans. 1605, The VOC in alliance with Hitu prepare to attack a Portuguese fort in Ambon,1605, Panembahan Seda ing Krapyak of Mataram establishes control over Demak, former center of the Demak Sultanate. 1606, Treaty of Vienna ends anti-Habsburg uprising in Royal Hungary,1606, Assassination of Stephen Bocskay of Transylvania
The Oaks Stakes is a Group 1 flat horse race in Great Britain open to three-year-old fillies. It is run at Epsom Downs over a distance of 1 mile,4 furlongs and 10 yards and it is the third of Britains five Classic races to be held during the season, and the second of two restricted to fillies. It can serve as the leg of the Fillies Triple Crown, preceded by the 1,000 Guineas and followed by the St Leger. The event is named after The Oaks, an estate located to the east of Epsom which was leased to the 12th Earl of Derby in the 18th century and he and his guests devised the race during a party at the estate in 1778. It was first run in 1779, one year before the introduction of the Derby Stakes, the inaugural winner, was owned by Lord Derby himself. The Oaks subsequently became one of Britains leading events for three-year-olds, by the mid-1860s, the five leading events for this age group were referred to as Classics. The concept was adopted in many other countries. European variations of the Oaks include the Irish Oaks, the Preis der Diana, the Prix de Diane, other national equivalents include the AJC Oaks, the New Zealand Oaks and the Yushun Himba.
Since 1892, horses have each carried 9 stone in the race, prior to this, there were several fluctuations, from an original 8 stone 4 pounds, down to 8 stone, progressively upwards. During both World wars the race was run at Newmarket under the title the New Oaks Stakes, the 2014 running incorporated the name of Sir Henry Cecil in its title. Horseracing in Great Britain List of British flat horse races Trial races for the Epsom Oaks Paris-Turf,1978, horseracinghistory. co. uk – Oaks. horseracingintfed. com – International Federation of Horseracing Authorities – Oaks Stakes. Pedigreequery. com – Oaks Stakes – Epsom Downs, the Breedon Book of Horse Racing Records
1726 to 1730 in sports
1726 to 1775 in sports describes the periods events in world sport. The earliest known codification of rules occurs in each of these, events A game similar to bandy is known in Wales as bando, a term used in a dictionary by John Walters published in 1770–94. Bando is particularly popular in the Cynffig-Margam district of the Vale of Glamorgan where wide stretches of sandy beaches afford ample room for play, events Tom Pipes claims the vacant Championship of England title until beaten by George The Barber Taylor in 1735. Broughton is beaten after Slack punches him right between the eyes and creates so much swelling that Broughton is unable to see and is forced to concede the bout and they include George Meggs, George Millsom, Tom Juchau, William Darts, Tom Lyons and Peter Corcoran. Events 1749 — François-André Danican Philidor publishes Analyse du jeu des Échecs, one of the most famous books on chess theory, Philidor himself is regarded as the strongest European player by 1775. Ground enclosure is first reported in 1731 when the area on Kennington Common is staked out.
The same practice is in use at the Artillery Ground in 1732, spectators at the Artillery Ground are being charged admission of two pence by the early 1740s but it remains unclear when charges are first introduced. The Hambledon players object and a formal protest is written by Thomas Brett and signed by himself, Richard Nyren and John Small. It brings about a change in the Laws of Cricket, as confirmed in 1774, whereby the maximum width of the bat is set at four,1772 — detailed scorecards become commonplace and this marks the beginning of first-class cricket as a statistical concept. 1774 — the Laws of Cricket are revised by a meeting at the Star. This version of the Laws includes lbw and the width of the bat,1758 — the Society of Sportsmen of the Curragh, a precursor of the Irish Turf Club is formed
The Derby Stakes, popularly known as The Derby, is a Group 1 flat horse race in England open to three-year-old thoroughbred colts and fillies. It is run at Epsom Downs Racecourse in Surrey over a distance of one mile, four furlongs and 10 yards and it is Britains richest horse race, and the most prestigious of the five Classics. It is sometimes referred to as the Blue Riband of the turf, the race serves as the middle leg of the Triple Crown, preceded by the 2000 Guineas and followed by the St Leger, although the feat of winning all three is now rarely attempted. The name Derby has become synonymous with great races all over the world, the Epsom Derby is the original. It is one of Britains great national sporting events and has a large worldwide TV audience, in Great Britain the name Derby is pronounced /ˈdɑːrbi/, while in the United States it is /ˈdɜːrbi/, a case of spelling pronunciation. The Derby originated at a following the first running of the Oaks Stakes in 1779. A new race was planned, and it was decided that it should be named either the host of the party.
According to legend the decision was made by the toss of a coin, but it is probable that Bunbury, the inaugural running of the Derby was held on Thursday 4 May 1780. It was won by Diomed, a colt owned by Sir Charles Bunbury, the first four runnings were contested over 1 mile, but this was amended to the current distance of 1½ miles in 1784. Lord Derby achieved his first success in the event in 1787, the starting point of the race was moved twice during the 19th century. The first move, suggested by Lord George Bentinck, was in 1848, and it was discovered in 1991 that the exact length of the race was one mile, four furlongs and 10 yards. Initially, the Derby was run on a Thursday in late May or early June depending on when Easter occurred, in 1838 the race was moved to a Wednesday to fit in with the railways timetables but was still run on different dates depending on Easter. In 1995 the day was changed from the first Wednesday in June to the first Saturday, the Derby has been run at Epsom in all years except during the world wars.
From 1915 to 1918 and from 1940 to 1945 the Derby was run at Newmarket and these races are known as the New Derby. The Derby has inspired similar events around the world. European variations include the Derby Italiano, the Deutsches Derby, the Irish Derby, other national equivalents include the Australian Derby, the New Zealand Derby and the Tokyo Yūshun. Several races in the United States include the Derby name, including the Kentucky Derby, investec became the sponsor of the Derby in 2009, and the current sponsorship deal runs until 2022. The race was backed by Ever Ready and Vodafone
Thomas Lord was an English professional cricketer who played first-class cricket from 1787 to 1802. He made a comeback, playing in one further match in 1815. Overall, Lord made 90 known appearances in first-class cricket and he was mostly associated with Middlesex and with Marylebone Cricket Club as a ground staff bowler. Lord is best remembered as the founder of Lords Cricket Ground, Lord was born in Thirsk, Yorkshire, in what is now the town museum. His father was a Roman Catholic yeoman, who had his lands sequestered for supporting the Jacobite rising in 1745, the Lord family moved to Diss, where Thomas Lord was brought up. Once he was out of childhood, Lord moved to London and got a job as a bowler and general attendant at the White Conduit Club in Islington. In 1786 Lord was approached by George Finch, 9th Earl of Winchilsea, and Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond and they wanted Lord to find a more private venue for their club and offered him a guarantee against any losses he might suffer.
In May 1787, Lord acquired seven acres off Dorset Square, White Conduit relocated there and soon afterwards formed, or merged into, the new Marylebone Cricket Club. The lease on the first ground ended in 1810 and Lord obtained a lease on two fields, the Brick and Great Fields at North Bank, St Johns Wood. The second venue, now referred to as Lords Middle Ground, was built by 1809 when the first games were played there by St Johns Wood Cricket Club and this was merged into MCC who relocated to the Middle Ground in 1811. In 1813 Parliament requisitioned the land for the Regents Canal, which was cut through the site, Lord moved his ground to the present site in St Johns Wood, literally taking his turf with him. Lord was not, making money and therefore obtained permission to develop part of the ground for housing. To counter his plan, Lord was bought out for £5,000 by prominent MCC member William Ward, despite the change of ownership, the ground has continued to bear Lords name. Lord remained in St Johns Wood till 1830 when he retired to West Meon in Hampshire and his son, Thomas Lord, and born in Marylebone on 27 December 1794, was a first-class cricketer.
Thomas Lord is buried in the churchyard of St Johns Church at West Meon, the village has a public house named after him and is just a few miles from Hambledon, home of the famous Hambledon Cricket Club. From Lads to Lords – profile at the Wayback Machine Cricinfo page on Thomas Lord CricketArchive MCC site Harry Altham, A History of Cricket, Volume 1, derek Birley, A Social History of English Cricket, Aurum,1999. Rowland Bowen, Cricket, A History of its Growth and Development, samuel Britcher, A list of all the principal Matches of Cricket that have been played. Buckley, Fresh Light on 18th Century Cricket, Cotterell,1935, H. T. Waghorn, The Dawn of Cricket, Electric Press,1906
The 18th century lasted from January 1,1701 to December 31,1800 in the Gregorian calendar. During the 18th century, the Enlightenment culminated in the French and science increased in prominence. Philosophers dreamed of a brighter age and this dream turned into a reality with the French Revolution of 1789-, though compromised by the excesses of the Reign of Terror under Maximilien Robespierre. At first, many monarchies of Europe embraced Enlightenment ideals, but with the French Revolution they feared losing their power, the Ottoman Empire experienced an unprecedented period of peace and economic expansion, taking part in no European wars from 1740 to 1768. The 18th century marked the end of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as an independent state, the once-powerful and vast kingdom, which had once conquered Moscow and defeated great Ottoman armies, collapsed under numerous invasions. European colonization of the Americas and other parts of the world intensified and associated mass migrations of people grew in size as the Age of Sail continued.
Great Britain became a major power worldwide with the defeat of France in North America in the 1760s, Britain lost many of its North American colonies after the American Revolution, which resulted in the formation of the newly independent United States of America. The Industrial Revolution started in Britain in the 1770s with the production of the steam engine. Despite its modest beginnings in the 18th century, steam-powered machinery would radically change human society, western historians have occasionally defined the 18th century otherwise for the purposes of their work. To historians who expand the century to include larger historical movements, 1700-1721, Great Northern War between Tsarist Russia and the Swedish Empire. 1701, Kingdom of Prussia declared under King Frederick I,1701, Ashanti Empire is formed under Osei Kofi Tutu I. 1701–1714, The War of the Spanish Succession is fought, involving most of continental Europe, 1701–1702, The Daily Courant and The Norwich Post become the first daily newspapers in England.
1702, Forty-seven Ronin attack Kira Yoshinaka and commit seppuku in Japan,1703, Saint Petersburg is founded by Peter the Great, it is the Russian capital until 1918. 1703–1711, The Rákóczi Uprising against the Habsburg Monarchy,1704, End of Japans Genroku period. 1704, First Javanese War of Succession,1705, George Frideric Handels first opera, premieres. 1706, War of the Spanish Succession, French troops defeated at the Battles of Ramilies,1706, The first English-language edition of the Arabian Nights is published. 1707, The Act of Union is passed, merging the Scottish and English Parliaments,1707, After Aurangzebs death, the Mughal Empire enters a long decline and the Maratha Empire slowly replaces it. 1707, Mount Fuji erupts in Japan for the first time since 1700,1707, War of 27 Years between the Marathas and Mughals ends in India