1913 State of the Union Address
The 1913 State of the Union Address was given by Woodrow Wilson, the 28th President of the United States, on Tuesday, December 2, 1913. It was given directly to the 63rd United States Congress by the president. Wilson was the first to do so since John Adams in 1800. With a few exceptions all addresses since have been given directly following Wilson's lead, it was his first. He stated, "The country, I am thankful to say, is at peace with all the world, many happy manifestations multiply about us of a growing cordiality and sense of community of interest among the nations, foreshadowing an age of settled peace and good will." The speech took 28 minutes to read. In 2014 RealClearPolitics placed it 10th on their list of "Top 10 State of the Union Addresses" for its break with tradition
1988 State of the Union Address
The 1988 State of the Union address was given by President Ronald Reagan to a joint session of the 100th United States Congress on Monday, January 25, 1988. The speech was the last State of the Union address of President Reagan's second term. Donald Hodel, the Secretary of the Interior, served as the designated survivor. President Reagan began by announcing that his speech would not be a litany of achievements over the past seven years of his administration, but that he would continue to propose policy initiatives, he outlined the following objectives: Keep the economy strong and growing Review the state of social programs Continue spreading democracy around the world Maintain a strong defense Reagan discussed the federal deficit, the size of the federal budget, crime, the line-item veto, foreign relations and the Soviet–Afghan War. He famously summarized the effect of government intervention on the poor: Some years ago the federal government declared War on Poverty, poverty won. Today the federal government has 59 major welfare programs and spends more than $100 billion a year on them.
What has all this money done? Well, too it has made poverty harder to escape. Federal welfare programs have created a massive social problem. With the best of intentions, government created a poverty trap that wreaks havoc on the support system the poor need most to lift themselves out of poverty: the family. In closing he returned to his vision of America as a city on a hill: "We can be proud... that another generation of Americans has protected and passed on lovingly this place called America, this shining city on a hill, this government of, by, for the people." The speech lasted 44 minutes and consisted of 4,955 words. The address was broadcast live on television; the Democratic Party response was delivered by Senator Robert Byrd of West Virginia and Speaker of the House Jim Wright of Texas. Speeches and debates of Ronald Reagan United States presidential election, 1988, The American Presidency Project, UC Santa Barbara. 1988 State of the Union Address at C-SPAN 1988 State of the Union Response at C-SPAN Full video and audio, Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia
1995 State of the Union Address
The 1995 State of the Union address was given by President Bill Clinton to a joint session of the 104th United States Congress on Tuesday, January 24, 1995. This was the first speech delivered to a Republican-controlled Congress since 1954; this was the first time a Republican Speaker sat in the chair since 1954. The Speaker was Newt Gingrich of Georgia; the president discussed his proposals of a New Covenant vision for a smaller government and proposing tax reductions. The president discussed crime, the Brady Bill and the Assault Weapons Ban, illegal immigration, the minimum wage. Regarding foreign policy, he urged assistance in Mexico's economic crisis, additional disarmament in cooperation with Russia and other international treaties, stopping North Korea's nuclear weapons program, legislation to fight terrorists, peace between Israel and its neighbors. Discussion of the failed attempt to overhaul health care was refocused on more limited efforts to protect coverage for those who have health insurance and expand coverage for children.
The speech consisted of 9,190 words. In terms of word count it is the longest State of the Union speech in history; the president acknowledged many Americans of present in his speech. Among them were: Newt Gingrich, the new Speaker of the House Ronald Reagan, president while Congress was controlled by the opposing party; this was the first response given by a state governor and, delivered in Trenton, the first outside Washington, DC. Conservative William Kristol called the address the "most conservative State of the Union by a Democratic president in history."Federico Peña, the Secretary of Transportation, served as the designated survivor. Republican Revolution, The American Presidency Project, UC Santa Barbara. 1995 State of the Union Response 1995 State of the Union Response at C-SPAN 1995 State of the Union Address at C-SPAN State of the Union: 1993-2000, Washington Post Full video and audio, Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia
George Washington was an American political leader, military general and Founding Father who served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797. He led Patriot forces to victory in the nation's War of Independence, he presided at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 which established the new federal government, he has been called the "Father of His Country" for his manifold leadership in the formative days of the new nation. Washington received his initial military training and command with the Virginia Regiment during the French and Indian War, he was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses and was named a delegate to the Continental Congress, where he was appointed Commanding General of the nation's Continental Army. Washington allied with France, in the defeat of the British at Yorktown. Once victory for the United States was in hand in 1783, Washington resigned his commission. Washington played a key role in the adoption and ratification of the Constitution and was elected president by the Electoral College in the first two elections.
He implemented a strong, well-financed national government while remaining impartial in a fierce rivalry between cabinet members Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. During the French Revolution, he proclaimed a policy of neutrality while sanctioning the Jay Treaty, he set enduring precedents for the office of president, including the title "President of the United States", his Farewell Address is regarded as a pre-eminent statement on republicanism. Washington utilized slave labor and trading African American slaves, but he became troubled with the institution of slavery and freed them in his 1799 will, he was a member of the Anglican Church and the Freemasons, he urged tolerance for all religions in his roles as general and president. Upon his death, he was eulogized as "first in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen." He has been memorialized by monuments, geographical locations and currency, many scholars and polls rank him among the top American presidents. Washington's great-grandfather John Washington immigrated in 1656 from Sulgrave, England to the British Colony of Virginia where he accumulated 5,000 acres of land, including Little Hunting Creek on the Potomac River.
George Washington was born February 22, 1732 at Popes Creek in Westmoreland County and was the first of six children of Augustine and Mary Ball Washington. His father was a justice of the peace and a prominent public figure who had three additional children from his first marriage to Jane Butler; the family moved to Little Hunting Creek to Ferry Farm near Fredericksburg, Virginia. When Augustine died in 1743, Washington inherited ten slaves. Washington did not have the formal education that his older brothers received at Appleby Grammar School in England, but he did learn mathematics and surveying, he was talented in draftsmanship and map-making. By early adulthood, he was writing with "considerable force" and "precision."Washington visited Mount Vernon and Belvoir, the plantation that belonged to Lawrence's father-in-law William Fairfax, which fueled ambition for the lifestyle of the planter aristocracy. Fairfax became Washington's patron and surrogate father, Washington spent a month in 1748 with a team surveying Fairfax's Shenandoah Valley property.
He received a surveyor's license the following year from the College of Mary. He resigned from the job in 1750 and had bought 1,500 acres in the Valley, he owned 2,315 acres by 1752. In 1751, Washington made his only trip abroad when he accompanied Lawrence to Barbados, hoping that the climate would cure his brother's tuberculosis. Washington contracted smallpox during that trip, which immunized him but left his face scarred. Lawrence died in 1752, Washington leased Mount Vernon from his widow. Lawrence's service as adjutant general of the Virginia militia inspired Washington to seek a commission, Virginia's Lieutenant Governor Robert Dinwiddie appointed him as a major in December 1752 and as commander of one of the four militia districts; the British and French were competing for control of the Ohio Valley at the time, the British building forts along the Ohio River and the French doing between Lake Erie and the Ohio River. In October 1753, Dinwiddie appointed Washington as a special envoy to demand that the French vacate territory which the British had claimed.
Dinwiddie appointed him to make peace with the Iroquois Confederacy and to gather intelligence about the French forces. Washington met with Half-King Tanacharison and other Iroquois chiefs at Logstown to secure their promise of support against the French, his party reached the Ohio River in November, they were intercepted by a French patrol and escorted to Fort Le Boeuf where Washington was received in a friendly manner. He delivered the British demand to vacate to French commander Saint-Pierre, but the French refused to leave. Saint-Pierre gave Washington his official answer in a sealed envelope after a few days' delay, he gave Washington's party food and extra winter clothing for the trip back to Virginia. Washington completed the precarious mission in 77 days in difficult winter conditions and achieved a measure of distinction when his report was published in Virginia and London. In February 1754, Dinwiddie promoted Washington to lieutenant colonel and second-in-command of the 300-strong Virginia R
2007 State of the Union Address
The 2007 State of the Union address was a speech given by United States President George W. Bush on Tuesday, January 23, 2007, at 9:13 P. M. EST; the speech was given in front of a joint session of Congress, presided over by Speaker of the House of Representatives Nancy Pelosi and Vice President Dick Cheney in his capacity as President of the Senate. It was the first address to a Democratic-controlled Congress since 1994. Furthermore, the speech marked the second time that a Democrat sat behind President Bush during a joint session of Congress and the first time at a State of the Union address. Traditionally, the Speaker of the House and the Vice President are the only individuals on the rostrum with the President. However, in a joint session of Congress on September 20, 2001, following the September 11 attacks nine days earlier, president pro tempore Robert Byrd, a Democrat, took the place of Vice President Cheney, at an undisclosed location; as the first female Speaker of the House, Nancy Pelosi is the first woman in American history to stand on the podium during a State of the Union address.
President Bush began his address by recognizing new House Speaker Nancy Pelosi: And tonight I have a high privilege and distinct honor of my own as the first president to begin the State of the Union message with these words: Madam Speaker. Twelve years President Donald Trump made a reference to Bush's words in the beginning of the 2019 State of the Union address. Since, Nancy Pelosi's first State of the Union serving again as Speaker of the House. Attorney General Alberto Gonzales was not present because traditionally a member of the President's cabinet, a designated survivor, does not attend in order to ensure presidential succession in the event of an emergency. Only four Supreme Court Justices attended the speech: Chief Justice John Roberts and Associate Justices Stephen Breyer, Samuel Alito, Anthony Kennedy. Senator Tim Johnson and Congressman Charlie Norwood were not present because of serious health problems, but were acknowledged with applause. Johnson recovered and returned to work by September, while Norwood died on February 13, 2007.
The President's speech focused on domestic policy and foreign policy. Bush placed emphasis on balancing the federal budget, eliminating excessive earmarks, changing the tax code to replace the existing business tax exemption to workers health insurance premiums with a new personal health insurance deduction, providing health care for needy individuals, expanding health savings accounts. Bush supported "laws that are fair and borders that are secure" in regards to immigration, suggesting a temporary worker program, stating that, "s a result, they won't have to try to sneak in", he suggested resolving the status of current illegal residents "without animosity and without amnesty". Bush said the United States has been dependent on foreign oil for too long, that this chances placing it in hostile situations. Bush asked Congress to work to reduce gasoline usage in the United States by 20 percent over the next ten years, recommended research into alternative fuels, he asked Congress to "double the current capacity" of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve.
In what appears to be a change of stance, Bush made a connection between energy policy and climate change: "America is on the verge of technological breakthroughs that will enable us to live our lives less dependent on oil. And these technologies will help us be better stewards of the environment, they will help us to confront the serious challenge of global climate change." Bush named plug-in hybrid vehicles as part of his "advanced energy initiative" to help end the United States "addiction to oil." Bush asked Congress to give future federal court nominees a "fair hearing", a "prompt up-or-down vote on the Senate floor." In the realm of education, he asked Congress to renew the No Child Left Behind Act and consider school vouchers, although he never mentioned vouchers by name. A large part of Bush's speech centered on the Iraq War. Bush emphasized that he still stood behind it, stating that, "to win the War on Terror, we must take the fight to the enemy." He stated that the dangers of terrorism have not ended, that it is the government's duty to locate terrorists and protect the American people.
He stated that it was not responsible to leave Iraq yet, as it would put "ourselves in danger and our friends at risk." He emphasized that stability in Iraq is essential, that chaos is the enemy's greatest ally. Bush asked Americans to give the Iraq War a chance, support the troops on the field and "those on their way," a reference to the "surge" strategy involving 20,000 soldiers and Marines sent to Baghdad and al-Anbar, most of which would go to Baghdad. Bush advocated adding to the ranks of the military, he asked Congress to authorize an increase in the Army and Marine active duty forces by 92,000 in the next five years. He spoke of developing a volunteer Civilian Reserve Corps which could help ease the burden on military personnel: "It would give people across America who do not wear the uniform a chance to serve in the defining struggle of our time." The phrase terror appeared 22 times in his speech, highlighting its continuing significance in his administration's foreign policy and political position.
Bush advocated saving the people affected by the conflict in Sudan. He advocated continuing to fight HIV/AIDS in Africa. Bush asked for $1.2 billion over the next five years to combat malaria in 15 African countries. Toward the end of his speech, President Bush recognized four distinguished Americans. First, he pointed out a player in the National Basketball Association, he is native to the Democratic Republic of the Congo a
2008 State of the Union Address
The 2008 State of the Union address was a speech given by United States President George W. Bush on Monday, January 28, 2008, at 9:00 p.m. EST to a joint session of Congress, it was the last State of the Union Address of Bush's presidency. The speech was delivered in the United States House of Representatives in the United States Capitol. Sitting behind the president were the presiding officers of the United States Senate, Vice President Dick Cheney, the United States House of Representatives, House Speaker Nancy Pelosi; the White House indicated beforehand that President Bush's speech would mention the following policies: Economy: Keeping the economy healthy Budget: Staying on track to a balanced budget by 2012 Housing: Modernize Federal Housing Administration to avoid foreclosures National Security: Giving our national security professionals tools they need to protect America Iraq War: Continued progress in Iraq allows "Return on Success" Global War on Terror: Keeping America safe by fostering the freedom agenda Veterans: Supporting the nation's troops and their families No Child Left Behind: Plan to undergo a $300 million expansion opportunity Education: Empowering parents with more choices for their children's education Free Trade: Opening new markets and expanding opportunities through free trade Energy: Increasing the energy security and confronting climate change Healthcare: Empowering Americans with affordable options for health care Stem cell research: Increasing federal support for ethical stem cell research Faith-based initiatives: Helping those in need through the faith-based and community initiatives Immigration: Improving border security and immigration Compassion: Advancing an agenda of compassion worldwide Disease: Protecting others from diseases such as AIDS Science: Requesting that Congress double federal spending on basic physical research In keeping with tradition of Democrats from red states giving the response, Governor of Kansas Kathleen Sebelius delivered the Democratic response from the Governor's Mansion in Topeka.
It has been noted that she focused not on the usual Democratic rebuttal, but more so on the need to get past partisan politics to get the important legislation passed in a timely manner. She was picked by Democratic congressional leaders to make the response because of her ability to reach across partisan lines. Texas state Senator Leticia Van de Putte gave the Democratic response in Spanish. Libertarian Party Chair William Redpath issued a written response to the State of the Union on behalf of the national Libertarian Party. Steve Kubby, a candidate for the Libertarian Party's 2008 presidential nomination, delivered his own "State of the Union address" via Internet video on January 25, 2008, three days before President Bush's speech. Framed as a preemption rather than a response, Kubby's speech attempted to predict the themes President Bush would strike and offered Kubby's own proposals in their stead. United States presidential election, 2008 2008 State of the Union Address, The American Presidency Project, UC Santa Barbara 2008 State of the Union Address at C-SPAN 2008 State of the Union Response at C-SPAN 2008 State of the Union Response State of the Union Address