Battle of the Pyramids
The Battle of the Pyramids, known as the Battle of Embabeh, was a major engagement fought on July 21,1798 during the French Invasion of Egypt. The French army under Napoleon Bonaparte scored a victory against the forces of the local Mamluk rulers. It was the battle where Napoleon employed one of his significant contributions to military tactics, actually a rectangle, the deployment of the French brigades into these massive formations repeatedly threw back multiple cavalry charges by the Egyptians. The victory effectively sealed the French conquest of Egypt as Murad Bey salvaged the remnants of his army, French casualties amounted to roughly 300, but Egyptian casualties soared into the thousands. Napoleon entered Cairo after the battle and created a new administration under his supervision. The battle exposed the fundamental military and political decline of the Ottoman Empire throughout the past century, Napoleon named the battle after the Egyptian pyramids because they were faintly visible on the horizon when the battle took place.
In July 1798, Napoleon was marching from Alexandria toward Cairo after invading and capturing the former and he met the forces of the ruling Mamluks nine miles from the Pyramids, and only four miles from Cairo. The Mamluk forces were commanded by two Georgian mamluks Murad Bey and Ibrahim Bey and had powerful and highly developed cavalry and this fight was known as The Battle of Chobrakit. Napoleon realized that the only Egyptian troops of any worth on the battlefield were the cavalry and he exhorted his troops, Forward. Remember that from those monuments yonder forty centuries look down upon you, Napoleon ordered an advance on Murads army with each of the five divisions of his army organized into hollow rectangles with cavalry and baggage at the center and cannon at the corners. The French divisions advanced south in echelon, with the right flank leading, from right to left, Napoleon posted the divisions of Louis Charles Antoine Desaix, Jean Reynier, Dugua and Louis André Bon. In addition, Desaix sent a detachment to occupy the nearby village of Biktil.
Murad anchored his right flank on the Nile at the village of Embabeh and his Mamluk cavalry deployed on the desert flank. Ibrahim, with a army, watched helplessly from the east bank of the Nile, unable to intervene. Chandler asserts that Napoleons 25, 000-strong army outnumbered Murads 6,000 Mamluks and 15,000 infantry, at about 3,30 pm, the Mamluk cavalry hurled itself at the French without warning. The divisional squares of Desaix and Dugua held firm and repelled the horsemen with point-blank musket, unable to make an impression on the French formations, some of the frustrated Mamluks rode off to attack Desaixs detached force. Meanwhile, nearer the river, Bons division deployed into attack columns, breaking into the village, the French routed the garrison. Trapped against the river, many of the Mamluks and infantry tried to swim to safety, Napoleon reported a loss of 29 killed and 260 wounded
Peasants' War (1798)
The Peasants War was a peasant revolt in 1798 against the French occupiers of the Southern Netherlands, a region which now includes Belgium and parts of Germany. The French had annexed the region in 1795 and control of the region was ceded to the French after the Treaty of Campo Formio in 1797. The revolt is considered part of the French Revolutionary Wars, after the Southern Netherlands was annexed by France, the French Revolutionaries began to implement their policies regarding the Catholic Church. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy required that priests take an oath of allegiance to the state, priests who refused such an oath were considered to be enemies—non-juring priests—of the state and could be removed from their positions and homes. Additionally, in early 1798 the French Council of Five Hundred passed a law requiring compulsory military service and this law ordered the conscription of men between the ages of 20 and 25 in all French territories. General conscription like this was a new product of the French Revolution.
The majority of the conflict during the Peasants War occurred in Flanders, referred to as the Boerenkrijg, it is referenced by some historians as a Belgian national revolt, and an indication of a desire for independence by Belgium. In Flanders the revolt was organized, with the people seeking aide from Foreign nations such as England. On October 12,1798, the revolution began with taking up arms against the French in Overmere. Initially the rebellion was successful, lacking proper arms. An estimated 5, 000-10,000 people were killed in during the uprising, there were 170 executions of the leaders of the rebellion. In Luxembourg, the revolt was called Klëppelkrich and this revolt quickly spread, consuming most of West Eifel. The primary combatants in Luxembourg were the peasantry, the middle and upper classes were not driven to revolt as the anti-clericalism and the modernisation brought by the French Revolution were somewhat beneficial to them. Lacking both financial support from the classes, and proper military training, the peasants were quickly put down by the French occupation force.
Ninety-four insurgents were tried and, of those 42, were executed, de Boerenkrijg, an 1853 novel by Hendrik Conscience Episodes of the war were depicted by the 19th century Belgian artist and sculptor Constantin Meunier. The war has been romanticized in some cases as a proper Belgian revolution, as it was a major uprising fighting for independence from external rule
The River Shannon is the longest river in Ireland at 360.5 km. It drains the Shannon River Basin which has an area of 16,865 km2, the Shannon divides the west of Ireland from the east and south. County Clare, being west of the Shannon but part of the province of Munster, is the major exception. The river represents a physical barrier between east and west, with fewer than thirty crossing-points between Limerick city in the south and the village of Dowra in the north. The river is named after Sionna, a Celtic goddess, the Shannon has been an important waterway since antiquity, having first been mapped by the Graeco-Egyptian geographer Ptolemy. The river flows southwards from the Shannon Pot in County Cavan before turning west. Limerick city stands at the point where the water meets the sea water of the estuary. The Shannon is tidal east of Limerick as far as the base of the Ardnacrusha dam. By tradition the Shannon is said to rise in the Shannon Pot, surveys have defined a 12.8 km2 immediate pot catchment area covering the slopes of Cuilcagh.
This area includes Garvah Lough, Cavan,2.2 km to the northeast, further sinks that source the pot include Pollboy and, through Shannon Cave, Pollahune in Cavan and Polltullyard and Tullynakeeragh in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. The highest point in the catchment is a spring at Tiltinbane on the end of the Cuilcagh mountain ridge. From the Shannon Pot, the river subsumes a number of tributaries before replenishing Lough Allen at its head. The river runs through or between 11 of Irelands counties, subsuming the tributary rivers Boyle, Suck and Brosna, among others, many different values have been given for the length of the Shannon. A traditional value is 390 km, an official Irish source gives a total length of 360.5 km. Most Irish guides now give 344 km, some academic sources give 280 km, although most will refuse to give a number. The reason is there is no particular end to a river that empties into an estuary. The 344 km length relates to the distance between Shannon Pot and a line between Kerry Head and Loop Head, the furthest reaches of the land, the 280 km distance finishes where the Shannon estuary joins the estuary of the River Fergus, close to Shannon Airport.
Longer distances emerged before the use of surveying instruments
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta, is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies 80 km south of Italy,284 km east of Tunisia, the country covers just over 316 km2, with a population of just under 450,000, making it one of the worlds smallest and most densely populated countries. The capital of Malta is Valletta, which at 0.8 km2, is the smallest national capital in the European Union, Malta has one national language, which is Maltese, and English as an official language. John and British, have ruled the islands, King George VI of the United Kingdom awarded the George Cross to Malta in 1942 for the countrys bravery in the Second World War. The George Cross continues to appear on Maltas national flag, the country became a republic in 1974, and although no longer a Commonwealth realm, remains a member state of the Commonwealth of Nations. Malta was admitted to the United Nations in 1964 and to the European Union in 2004, in 2008, Catholicism is the official religion in Malta.
The origin of the term Malta is uncertain, and the modern-day variation derives from the Maltese language, the most common etymology is that the word Malta derives from the Greek word μέλι, honey. The ancient Greeks called the island Μελίτη meaning honey-sweet, possibly due to Maltas unique production of honey, an endemic species of bee lives on the island. The Romans went on to call the island Melita, which can be considered either as a latinisation of the Greek Μελίτη or the adaptation of the Doric Greek pronunciation of the same word Μελίτα. Another conjecture suggests that the word Malta comes from the Phoenician word Maleth a haven or port in reference to Maltas many bays, few other etymological mentions appear in classical literature, with the term Malta appearing in its present form in the Antonine Itinerary. The extinction of the hippos and dwarf elephants has been linked to the earliest arrival of humans on Malta. Prehistoric farming settlements dating to the Early Neolithic period were discovered in areas and in caves.
The Sicani were the tribe known to have inhabited the island at this time and are generally regarded as being closely related to the Iberians. Pottery from the Għar Dalam phase is similar to found in Agrigento. A culture of megalithis temple builders either supplanted or arose from this early period, the temples have distinctive architecture, typically a complex trefoil design, and were used from 4000 to 2500 BCE. Animal bones and a knife found behind an altar stone suggest that temple rituals included animal sacrifice. Tentative information suggests that the sacrifices were made to the goddess of fertility, the culture apparently disappeared from the Maltese Islands around 2500 BC. Archaeologists speculate that the builders fell victim to famine or disease
The Quasi-War was an undeclared war fought almost entirely at sea between the United States of America and the French Republic from 1798 to 1800. Louis XVI of France fell from power in 1792 during the French Revolution, the United States had already declared neutrality in the conflict between Great Britain and revolutionary France, and American legislation was being passed for a trade deal with Britain. When the U. S. refused to continue repaying its debt using the argument that the debt was owed to the government, not to the French First Republic. First, French privateers began seizing American ships trading with Britain, the French government refused to receive Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, the new U. S. Minister, when he arrived in Paris in December 1796. In April 1798, President Adams informed Congress of the XYZ Affair, French privateers inflicted substantial losses on American shipping. On 21 February 1797, Secretary of State Timothy Pickering told Congress that during the eleven months.
French marauders cruised the length of the Atlantic seaboard virtually unopposed, the United States government had nothing to combat them, as the navy had been abolished at the end of the Revolutionary War and its last warship sold in 1785. The United States had only a flotilla of small revenue cutters, increased depredations by French privateers led to the rebirth of the United States Navy and the creation of the United States Marine Corps to defend the expanding American merchant fleet. Congress authorized the president to acquire and man not more than twelve ships of up to twenty two guns each, several merchantmen were immediately purchased and refitted as ships of war, and construction of the frigate Congress resumed. Congress rescinded the treaties with France on 7 July 1798 and that date is now considered the beginning of the Quasi-War. This was followed two days with the passage of the Congressional authorization of attacks on French warships in American waters. The U. S. Navy operated with a fleet of about twenty five vessels.
French privateers generally resisted, as did La Croyable, which was captured on 7 July 1798, by Delaware outside of Egg Harbor, enterprise captured eight privateers and freed eleven American merchant ships from captivity. Experiment captured the French privateers Deux Amis and Diane, numerous American merchantmen were recaptured by Experiment. Boston forced Le Berceau into submission, silas Talbot engineered an expedition to Puerto Plata harbor in the Colony of Santo Domingo, a possession of Frances ally Spain, on 11 May 1800. Sailors and Marines from Constitution under Lieutenant Isaac Hull captured the French privateer Sandwich in the harbor, the U. S. Navy lost only one ship to the French, which was recaptured. She was the captured privateer La Croyable, recently purchased by the U. S. Navy, Retaliation departed Norfolk on 28 October 1798, with Montezuma and Norfolk, and cruised in the West Indies protecting American commerce. Montezuma and Norfolk escaped after Bainbridge convinced the senior French commander that those American warships were too powerful for his frigates, renamed Magicienne by the French, the schooner again came into American hands on 28 June, when a broadside from Merrimack forced her to haul down her colors
Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 until 1814, Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, one of the greatest commanders in history, his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleons political and cultural legacy has ensured his status as one of the most celebrated and he was born Napoleone di Buonaparte in Corsica to a relatively modest family from the minor nobility. When the Revolution broke out in 1789, Napoleon was serving as an officer in the French army. Seizing the new opportunities presented by the Revolution, he rose through the ranks of the military. The Directory eventually gave him command of the Army of Italy after he suppressed a revolt against the government from royalist insurgents, in 1798, he led a military expedition to Egypt that served as a springboard to political power.
He engineered a coup in November 1799 and became First Consul of the Republic and his ambition and public approval inspired him to go further, and in 1804 he became the first Emperor of the French. Intractable differences with the British meant that the French were facing a Third Coalition by 1805, in 1806, the Fourth Coalition took up arms against him because Prussia became worried about growing French influence on the continent. Napoleon quickly defeated Prussia at the battles of Jena and Auerstedt, marched the Grand Army deep into Eastern Europe, France forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit in July 1807, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. Tilsit signified the high watermark of the French Empire, hoping to extend the Continental System and choke off British trade with the European mainland, Napoleon invaded Iberia and declared his brother Joseph the King of Spain in 1808. The Spanish and the Portuguese revolted with British support, the Peninsular War lasted six years, featured extensive guerrilla warfare, and ended in victory for the Allies.
The Continental System caused recurring diplomatic conflicts between France and its client states, especially Russia, unwilling to bear the economic consequences of reduced trade, the Russians routinely violated the Continental System and enticed Napoleon into another war. The French launched an invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The resulting campaign witnessed the collapse of the Grand Army, the destruction of Russian cities, in 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in a Sixth Coalition against France. A lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, the Allies invaded France and captured Paris in the spring of 1814, forcing Napoleon to abdicate in April. He was exiled to the island of Elba near Rome and the Bourbons were restored to power, Napoleon escaped from Elba in February 1815 and took control of France once again. The Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition, which defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in June, the British exiled him to the remote island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic, where he died six years at the age of 51
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Battle of Ballinamuck
The Battle of Ballinamuck marked the defeat of the main force of the French incursion during the 1798 Rebellion in Ireland. A massive British army of some 26,000 men was assembled under the new Viceroy Lord Cornwallis and was moving west. Humbert crossed the Shannon at Ballintra on 7 September and stopping at Cloone that evening, was halfway between his landing-point and Dublin. News reached him of the defeat of the Westmeath and Longford rebels at Wilsons Hospital School and Granard from the trickle of rebels who had survived the slaughter and reached his camp. General Lake was close behind with 14,000 men, the new Viceroy, Lord Cornwallis, the battle began with a short artillery duel followed by a dragoon charge on exposed Irish rebels. There was a struggle when French lines were reached which only ceased when Humbert signalled his intention to surrender. This conventional battle lasted more than half an hour. An attack by infantry followed by a dragoon charge broke and scattered the Irish who were pursued with much slaughter.
96 French officers and 748 men were taken prisoner, British losses were initially reported as 3 killed and 16 wounded or missing, but the number of killed alone was reported as 12. Approximately 500 Irish lay dead on the field,200 prisoners were taken in the mopping up operations, almost all of whom were hanged, including Matthew Tone. The prisoners were moved to Carrick-on-Shannon, St Johnstown, todays Ballinalee and his men were taken by canal to Dublin and repatriated. The catastrophe at Ballinamuck left an imprint on social memory. Numerous oral traditions were collected about this episode, principally in the 1930s by the historian Richard Hayes
Brest is a city in the Finistère département in Brittany in northwestern France. The city is located on the edge of continental Europe. Although Brest is by far the largest city in Finistère, the préfecture of the department is the much smaller Quimper, during the Middle Ages, the history of Brest was the history of its castle. Then Richelieu made it a military harbour, Brest grew around its arsenal, until the second part of the 20th century. Heavily damaged by the Allies bombing raids during World War II, at the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century, the deindustrialization of the city was followed by the development of the service sector. Nowadays, Brest is an important university town with 23,000 students, Brest is an important research centre, mainly focused on the sea, with among others the largest Ifremer centre, le Cedre and the French Polar Institute. Brest’s history has always been linked to the sea, the Académie de Marine was founded in 1752 in this city, the aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle was built there.
Every four years, Brest hosts the festival of the sea and sailors. Nothing definite is known of Brest before about 1240, when a count of Léon ceded it to John I, in 1342, John IV, Duke of Brittany, surrendered Brest to the English, in whose possession it was to remain until 1397. The importance of Brest in medieval times was great enough to rise to the saying. With the marriage of Francis I of France to Claude, the daughter of Anne of Brittany, the advantages of Brests situation as a seaport town were first recognized by Cardinal Richelieu, who in 1631 constructed a harbor with wooden wharves. This soon became a base for the French Navy, jean-Baptiste Colbert, finance minister under Louis XIV, rebuilt the wharves in masonry and otherwise improved the harbour. Fortifications by Vauban followed in 1680–1688 and these fortifications, and with them the naval importance of the town, were to continue to develop throughout the 18th century. In 1694, an English squadron under Lord Berkeley, was defeated in its attack on Brest.
In 1917, during the First World War, Brest was used as the port for many of the troops coming from the United States. Thousands of such men came through the port on their way to the front lines, the United States Navy established a naval air station on 13 February 1918 to operate seaplanes. The base closed shortly after the Armistice of 11 November 1918, in the Second World War, the Germans maintained a large U-boat submarine base at Brest. In 1944, after the Allied invasion of Normandy, the city was almost totally destroyed during the Battle for Brest, with only a tiny number of buildings left standing
Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba to the east, the Red Sea to the east and south, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, and across from the Sinai Peninsula lies Saudi Arabia, although Jordan and it is the worlds only contiguous Afrasian nation. Egypt has among the longest histories of any country, emerging as one of the worlds first nation states in the tenth millennium BC. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt experienced some of the earliest developments of writing, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. One of the earliest centres of Christianity, Egypt was Islamised in the century and remains a predominantly Muslim country. With over 92 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa and the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa, and the fifteenth-most populous in the world.
The great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres, the large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypts territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypts residents live in areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria. Modern Egypt is considered to be a regional and middle power, with significant cultural and military influence in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world. Egypts economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, Egypt is a member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, African Union, and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. Miṣr is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern name of Egypt. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew מִצְרַיִם, the oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian