India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China and Bhutan to the northeast, in the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire.
The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, in 2015, the Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River.
The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B. C. E and it is traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. Gaṇarājya is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for republic dating back to the ancient times, hindustan is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century B. C. E. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety
Fourth Anglo-Mysore War
The Fourth Anglo–Mysore War was a conflict in South India between the Kingdom of Mysore and the British East India Company. This was the conflict of the four Anglo–Mysore Wars. The British captured the capital of Mysore, the ruler Tipu Sultan was killed in the battle. Britain took indirect control of Mysore, restoring the Wodeyar Dynasty to the Mysore throne, Tipu Sultans young heir, Fateh Ali, was sent into exile. The Kingdom of Mysore became a state in a subsidiary alliance with British occupied India and ceded Coimbatore, Dakshina Kannada. The war, specifically the Battle of Mallavelly and the Siege of Seringapatam, General Malarctic, French Governor of Mauritius, issued the Malarctic Proclamation seeking volunteers to assist Tipu. Horatio Nelson crushed any help from Napoleon after the Battle of the Nile, Lord Wellesley had already set in motion a response to prevent any alliance between Tipu Sultan and France. Three armies – one from Bombay and two British, marched into Mysore in 1799 and besieged the capital, after some engagements with Tipu, on 8 March, a forward force managed to hold off an advance by Tipu at the Battle of Seedaseer.
On 4 May, in the Battle of Seringapatam, broke through the defending walls, Tipu Sultan, rushing to the breach, was shot and killed. Today, the spot where Tipus body was discovered under the gate has been fenced off by the Archaeological Survey of India. The gate itself was demolished during the 19th century to lay a wide road. One notable military advance championed by Tipu Sultan was the use of attacks with iron-cased rocket brigades in the army. The effect of the Mysorean rockets on the British during the Third, during the war, rockets were again used on several occasions. One of these involved Colonel Arthur Wellesley, famous as the First Duke of Wellington, Wellesley was defeated by Tipus Diwan, Purnaiya, at the Battle of Sultanpet Tope. The commander chosen for this operation was Col, the following day, Wellesley launched a fresh attack with a larger force, and took the whole position without losing a single man. The rockets had a range of about 1,000 yards, some burst in the air like shells.
Others, called ground rockets, would again on striking the ground and bound along in a serpentine motion until their force was spent. According to one British observer, a young English officer named Bayly and he continued, The rockets and musketry from 20,000 of the enemy were incessant