83 (number)

83 is the natural number following 82 and preceding 84. 83 is: the sum of three consecutive primes. The sum of five consecutive primes; the 23rd prime number, following 79 and preceding 89. A Sophie Germain prime. A safe prime. A Chen prime. An Eisenstein prime with no imaginary part and real part of the form 3n − 1. A cototient number; the atomic number of bismuth Messier object M83, a magnitude 8.5 spiral galaxy in the constellation Hydra known as the Southern Pinwheel Galaxy The New General Catalogue object NGC 83, a magnitude 12.3 elliptical galaxy in the constellation Andromeda When someone reaches 83 they may celebrate a second bar mitzvah M83 is the debut album of the French electronic music group M83 83 is a song written by John Mayer in the Room for Squares album. 83 is a Quebec hip-hop group 83 is a song produced by Maximono Gypsy 83 is 2001 film directed by Todd Stephens Class of'83 is 2004 film directed by Kurt E. Soderling 83 Hours'Til Dawn is a 1990 film directed by Donald Wrye 83 is the highest UHF channel on older televisions made before the late 1970s.

As an example, the television station CIVIC-TV managed by the James Woods character Max Renn in the 1983 film Videodrome was on Channel 83. Eighty-three is also: The year AD 83, 83 BC, or 1983 The TI-83 series, graphing calculators from Texas Instruments Konsept83 is a Greek graphic design team; the model number of Bell XP-83 The number of the French department Var The ISBN Group Identifier for books published in Poland The eighth letter of the alphabet is H and the third letter is C, thus 83 stands for "Heil Christ," a greeting sometimes used by racist organizations that consider themselves to be Christian. This symbology is known to be used by many non-racist Christians and non-denominational Churches. An emoticon based on:3 with wide-open eyes

Prime number

A prime number is a natural number greater than 1 that cannot be formed by multiplying two smaller natural numbers. A natural number greater than 1, not prime is called a composite number. For example, 5 is prime because the only ways of writing it as a product, 1 × 5 or 5 × 1, involve 5 itself. However, 6 is composite because it is the product of two numbers that are both smaller than 6. Primes are central in number theory because of the fundamental theorem of arithmetic: every natural number greater than 1 is either a prime itself or can be factorized as a product of primes, unique up to their order; the property of being prime is called primality. A simple but slow method of checking the primality of a given number n, called trial division, tests whether n is a multiple of any integer between 2 and n. Faster algorithms include the Miller–Rabin primality test, fast but has a small chance of error, the AKS primality test, which always produces the correct answer in polynomial time but is too slow to be practical.

Fast methods are available for numbers of special forms, such as Mersenne numbers. As of December 2018 the largest known prime number has 24,862,048 decimal digits. There are infinitely many primes, as demonstrated by Euclid around 300 BC. No known simple formula separates prime numbers from composite numbers. However, the distribution of primes within the natural numbers in the large can be statistically modelled; the first result in that direction is the prime number theorem, proven at the end of the 19th century, which says that the probability of a randomly chosen number being prime is inversely proportional to its number of digits, that is, to its logarithm. Several historical questions regarding prime numbers are still unsolved; these include Goldbach's conjecture, that every integer greater than 2 can be expressed as the sum of two primes, the twin prime conjecture, that there are infinitely many pairs of primes having just one number between them. Such questions spurred the development of various branches of number theory, focusing on analytic or algebraic aspects of numbers.

Primes are used in several routines in information technology, such as public-key cryptography, which relies on the difficulty of factoring large numbers into their prime factors. In abstract algebra, objects that behave in a generalized way like prime numbers include prime elements and prime ideals. A natural number is called a prime number if it is greater than 1 and cannot be written as a product of two natural numbers that are both smaller than it; the numbers greater than 1 that are not prime are called composite numbers. In other words, n is prime if n items cannot be divided up into smaller equal-size groups of more than one item, or if it is not possible to arrange n dots into a rectangular grid, more than one dot wide and more than one dot high. For example, among the numbers 1 through 6, the numbers 2, 3, 5 are the prime numbers, as there are no other numbers that divide them evenly. 1 is not prime, as it is excluded in the definition. 4 = 2 × 2 and 6 = 2 × 3 are both composite. The divisors of a natural number n are the numbers.

Every natural number has both itself as a divisor. If it has any other divisor, it cannot be prime; this idea leads to a different but equivalent definition of the primes: they are the numbers with two positive divisors, 1 and the number itself. Yet another way to express the same thing is that a number n is prime if it is greater than one and if none of the numbers 2, 3, …, n − 1 divides n evenly; the first 25 prime numbers are: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 59, 61, 67, 71, 73, 79, 83, 89, 97. No number n greater than 2 is prime because any such number can be expressed as the product 2 × n / 2. Therefore, every prime number other than 2 is an odd number, is called an odd prime; when written in the usual decimal system, all prime numbers larger than 5 end in 1, 3, 7, or 9. The numbers that end with other digits are all composite: decimal numbers that end in 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 are and decimal numbers that end in 0 or 5 are divisible by 5; the set of all primes is sometimes denoted by P or by P.

The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, from around 1550 BC, has Egyptian fraction expansions of different forms for prime and composite numbers. However, the earliest surviving records of the explicit study of prime numbers come from Ancient Greek mathematics. Euclid's Elements proves the infinitude of primes and the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, shows how to construct a perfect number from a Mersenne prime. Another Greek invention, the Sieve of Eratosthenes, is still used to construct lists of primes. Around 1000 AD, the Islamic mathematician Alhazen found Wilson's theorem, characterizing the prime numbers as the numbers n that evenly divide

100 (number)

100 or one hundred is the natural number following 99 and preceding 101. In medieval contexts, it may be described as the short hundred or five score in order to differentiate the English and Germanic use of "hundred" to describe the long hundred of six score or 120. 100 is the square of 10. The standard SI prefix for a hundred is "hecto-". 100 is the basis of percentages. 100 is the sum of the first nine prime numbers, as well as the sum of some pairs of prime numbers e.g. 3 + 97, 11 + 89, 17 + 83, 29 + 71, 41 + 59, 47 + 53. 100 is the sum of the cubes of the first four integers. This is related by Nicomachus's theorem to the fact that 100 equals the square of the sum of the first four integers: 100 = 102 = 2.26 + 62 = 100, thus 100 is a Leyland number.100 is an 18-gonal number. It is divisible by 25, the number of primes below it, it can not be expressed as the difference between any integer and the total of coprimes below it, making it a noncototient. It can be expressed as a sum of some of its divisors.

100 is a Harshad number in base 10, in base 4, in that base it is a self-descriptive number. There are 100 prime numbers whose digits are in ascending order. 100 is the smallest number. One hundred is the atomic number of fermium, an actinide and the first of the heavy metals that cannot be created through neutron bombardment. On the Celsius scale, 100 degrees is the boiling temperature of pure water at sea level; the Kármán line lies at an altitude of 100 kilometres above the Earth's sea level and is used to define the boundary between Earth's atmosphere and outer space. There are 100 blasts of the Shofar heard in the service of the Jewish New Year. A religious Jew is expected to utter at least 100 blessings daily. In the Hindu book of the Mahabharata, the king Dhritarashtra had 100 sons known as the Kauravas; the United States Senate has 100 Senators. Most of the world's currencies are divided into 100 subunits; the 100 Euro banknotes feature a picture of a Rococo gateway on the obverse and a Baroque bridge on the reverse.

The U. S. hundred-dollar bill has Benjamin Franklin's portrait. S. bill in print. American savings bonds of $100 have Thomas Jefferson's portrait, while American $100 treasury bonds have Andrew Jackson's portrait. One hundred is also: The number of years in a century; the number of pounds in an American short hundredweight. In Greece, India and Nepal, 100 is the police telephone number. In Belgium, 100 is the firefighter telephone number. In United Kingdom, 100 is the operator telephone number; the HTTP status code indicating that the client should continue with its request. The 100 The age at which a person becomes a centenarian; the number of yards in an American football field. The number of runs required for a cricket batsman to score a significant milestone; the number of points required for a snooker player to score a century break, a significant milestone. The record number of points scored in one NBA game by a single player, set by Wilt Chamberlain of the Philadelphia Warriors on March 2, 1962.

1 vs. 100 AFI's 100 Years... Hundred Hundred Hundred Days Hundred Years' War List of highways numbered 100 Top 100 Greatest 100 Wells, D; the Penguin Dictionary of Curious and Interesting Numbers London: Penguin Group.: 133 Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Hundred". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. On the Number 100

Hexadecimal

In mathematics and computing, hexadecimal is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16. It uses sixteen distinct symbols, most the symbols "0"–"9" to represent values zero to nine, "A"–"F" to represent values ten to fifteen. Hexadecimal numerals are used by computer system designers and programmers, as they provide a more human-friendly representation of binary-coded values; each hexadecimal digit represents four binary digits known as a nibble, half a byte. For example, a single byte can have values ranging from 0000 0000 to 1111 1111 in binary form, which can be more conveniently represented as 00 to FF in hexadecimal. In mathematics, a subscript is used to specify the radix. For example the decimal value 10,995 would be expressed in hexadecimal as 2AF316. In programming, a number of notations are used to support hexadecimal representation involving a prefix or suffix; the prefix 0x is used in C and related languages, which would denote this value by 0x2AF3. Hexadecimal is used in the transfer encoding Base16, in which each byte of the plaintext is broken into two 4-bit values and represented by two hexadecimal digits.

In contexts where the base is not clear, hexadecimal numbers can be ambiguous and confused with numbers expressed in other bases. There are several conventions for expressing values unambiguously. A numerical subscript can give the base explicitly: 15910 is decimal 159; some authors prefer a text subscript, such as 159decimal and 159hex, or 159h. In linear text systems, such as those used in most computer programming environments, a variety of methods have arisen: In URIs, character codes are written as hexadecimal pairs prefixed with %: http://www.example.com/name%20with%20spaces where %20 is the space character, ASCII code point 20 in hex, 32 in decimal. In XML and XHTML, characters can be expressed as hexadecimal numeric character references using the notation ode, thus ’. In the Unicode standard, a character value is represented with U+ followed by the hex value, e.g. U+20AC is the Euro sign. Color references in HTML, CSS and X Window can be expressed with six hexadecimal digits prefixed with #: white, for example, is represented #FFFFFF.

CSS allows 3-hexdigit abbreviations with one hexdigit per component: #FA3 abbreviates #FFAA33. Unix shells, AT&T assembly language and the C programming language use the prefix 0x for numeric constants represented in hex: 0x5A3. Character and string constants may express character codes in hexadecimal with the prefix \x followed by two hex digits:'\x1B' represents the Esc control character. To output an integer as hexadecimal with the printf function family, the format conversion code %X or %x is used. In MIME quoted-printable encoding, characters that cannot be represented as literal ASCII characters are represented by their codes as two hexadecimal digits prefixed by an equal to sign =, as in Espa=F1a to send "España". In Intel-derived assembly languages and Modula-2, hexadecimal is denoted with a suffixed H or h: FFh or 05A3H; some implementations require a leading zero when the first hexadecimal digit character is not a decimal digit, so one would write 0FFh instead of FFh Other assembly languages, Delphi, some versions of BASIC, GameMaker Language and Forth use $ as a prefix: $5A3.

Some assembly languages use the notation H'ABCD'. Fortran 95 uses Z'ABCD'. Ada and VHDL enclose hexadecimal numerals in based "numeric quotes": 16#5A3#. For bit vector constants VHDL uses the notation x"5A3". Verilog represents hexadecimal constants in the form 8'hFF, where 8 is the number of bits in the value and FF is the hexadecimal constant; the Smalltalk language uses the prefix 16r: 16r5A3 PostScript and the Bourne shell and its derivatives denote hex with prefix 16#: 16#5A3. For PostScript, binary data can be expressed as unprefixed consecutive hexadecimal pairs: AA213FD51B3801043FBC... Common Lisp uses the prefixes # 16r. Setting the variables *read-base* and *print-base* to 16 can be used to switch the reader and printer of a Common Lisp system to Hexadecimal number representation for reading and printing numbers, thus Hexadecimal numbers can be represented without the #x or #16r prefix code, when the input or output base has been changed to 16. MSX BASIC, QuickBASIC, FreeBASIC and Visual Basic prefix hexadecimal numbers with &H: &H5A3 BBC BASIC and Locomotive BASIC use & for hex.

TI-89 and 92 series uses a 0h prefix: 0h5A3 ALGOL 68 uses the prefix 16r to denote hexadecimal numbers: 16r5a3. Binary and octal numbers can be specified similarly; the most common format for hexadecimal on IBM mainframes and midrange computers running the traditional OS's is X'5A3', is used in Assembler, PL/I, COBOL, JCL, scripts and other places. This format was common on

Divisor

In mathematics, a divisor of an integer n called a factor of n, is an integer m that may be multiplied by some integer to produce n. In this case, one says that n is a multiple of m. An integer n is divisible by another integer m. If m and n are nonzero integers, more nonzero elements of an integral domain, it is said that m divides n, m is a divisor of n, or n is a multiple of m, this is written as m ∣ n, if there exists an integer k, or an element k of the integral domain, such that m k = n; this definition is sometimes extended to include zero. This does not add much to the theory, as 0 does not divide any other number, every number divides 0. On the other hand, excluding zero from the definition simplifies many statements. In ring theory, an element a is called a "zero divisor" only if it is nonzero and ab = 0 for a nonzero element b. Thus, there are no zero divisors among the integers. Divisors can be negative as well as positive, although sometimes the term is restricted to positive divisors.

For example, there are six divisors of 4. 1 and −1 divide every integer. Every integer is a divisor of itself. Integers divisible by 2 are called and integers not divisible by 2 are called odd. 1, −1, n and −n are known as the trivial divisors of n. A divisor of n, not a trivial divisor is known as a non-trivial divisor. A non-zero integer with at least one non-trivial divisor is known as a composite number, while the units −1 and 1 and prime numbers have no non-trivial divisors. There are divisibility rules that allow one to recognize certain divisors of a number from the number's digits. 7 is a divisor of 42 because 7 × 6 = 42, so we can say 7 ∣ 42. It can be said that 42 is divisible by 7, 42 is a multiple of 7, 7 divides 42, or 7 is a factor of 42; the non-trivial divisors of 6 are 2, −2, 3, −3. The positive divisors of 42 are 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 14, 21, 42; the set of all positive divisors of 60, A = ordered by divisibility, has the Hasse diagram: There are some elementary rules: If a ∣ b and b ∣ c a ∣ c, i.e. divisibility is a transitive relation.

If a ∣ b and b ∣ a a = b or a = − b. If a ∣ b and a ∣ c a ∣ holds, as does a ∣. However, if a ∣ b and c ∣ b ∣ b does not always hold. If a ∣ b c, gcd = 1 a ∣ c; this is called Euclid's lemma. If p is a prime number and p ∣ a b p ∣ a or p ∣ b. A positive divisor of n, different from n is called a proper divisor or an aliquot part of n. A number that does not evenly leaves a remainder is called an aliquant part of n. An integer n > 1 {\displ

89 (number)

89 is the natural number following 88 and preceding 90. 89 is: the 24th prime number, following 83 and preceding 97. A Chen prime. A Pythagorean prime; the smallest Sophie Germain prime to start a Cunningham chain of the first kind of six terms. An Eisenstein prime with no imaginary part and real part of the form 3n − 1. A Fibonacci number and thus a Fibonacci prime as well; the first few digits of its reciprocal coincide with the Fibonacci sequence due to the identity 1 89 = ∑ n = 1 ∞ F × 10 − = 0.011235955 …. A Markov number, appearing in solutions to the Markov Diophantine equation with other odd-indexed Fibonacci numbers. M89 is the 10th Mersenne prime. Although 89 is not a Lychrel number in base 10, it is unusual that it takes 24 iterations of the reverse and add process to reach a palindrome. Among the known non-Lychrel numbers in the first 10000 integers, no other number requires that many or more iterations; the palindrome reached is unusually large. Eighty-nine is: The atomic number of actinium.

Messier object a magnitude 11.5 elliptical galaxy in the constellation Virgo. The New General Catalogue object NGC 89, a magnitude 13.5 peculiar spiral galaxy in the constellation Phoenix and a member of Robert's Quartet. The Oklahoma Redhawks, an American minor league baseball team, were known as the Oklahoma 89ers; the number alludes to the Land Run of 1889, when the Unassigned Lands of Oklahoma were opened to white settlement. The team's home of Oklahoma City was founded during this event. In Rugby, an "89" or eight-nine move is a phase following a scrum, in which the number 8 catches the ball and transfers it to number 9; the Elite 89 Award is presented by the U. S. NCAA to the participant in each of the NCAA's 89 championship finals with the highest grade point average. 89, a 2017 film about a football match, between Liverpool and Arsenal in 1989. Eighty-nine is also: The designation of Interstate 89, a freeway that runs from New Hampshire to Vermont The designation of U. S. Route 89, a north-south highway that runs from Montana to Arizona The ISBN Group Identifier for books published in Korea Pop Song 89 A model of the Texas Instruments calculator TI-89 California Proposition 89, a 2006 California ballot initiative on campaign finance reform The title of a currently-unreleased song by Bon Iver The greatest number of verses in a chapter of a book of the Bible other than the Book of Psalms—specifically Numbers chapter 7.

The number of units of each colour in the board game Blokus The number of the French department Yonne Information Is Beautiful cites eighty-nine as one of the words censored on the Chinese internet. Hellin's law

Binary number

In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the base-2 numeral system or binary numeral system, which uses only two symbols: "0" and "1". The base-2 numeral system is a positional notation with a radix of 2; each digit is referred to as a bit. Because of its straightforward implementation in digital electronic circuitry using logic gates, the binary system is used by all modern computers and computer-based devices; the modern binary number system was studied in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries by Thomas Harriot, Juan Caramuel y Lobkowitz, Gottfried Leibniz. However, systems related to binary numbers have appeared earlier in multiple cultures including ancient Egypt and India. Leibniz was inspired by the Chinese I Ching; the scribes of ancient Egypt used two different systems for their fractions, Egyptian fractions and Horus-Eye fractions. Horus-Eye fractions are a binary numbering system for fractional quantities of grain, liquids, or other measures, in which a fraction of a hekat is expressed as a sum of the binary fractions 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32, 1/64.

Early forms of this system can be found in documents from the Fifth Dynasty of Egypt 2400 BC, its developed hieroglyphic form dates to the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt 1200 BC. The method used for ancient Egyptian multiplication is closely related to binary numbers. In this method, multiplying one number by a second is performed by a sequence of steps in which a value is either doubled or has the first number added back into it; this method can be seen in use, for instance, in the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, which dates to around 1650 BC. The I Ching dates from the 9th century BC in China; the binary notation in the I Ching is used to interpret its quaternary divination technique. It is based on taoistic duality of yin and yang.eight trigrams and a set of 64 hexagrams, analogous to the three-bit and six-bit binary numerals, were in use at least as early as the Zhou Dynasty of ancient China. The Song Dynasty scholar Shao Yong rearranged the hexagrams in a format that resembles modern binary numbers, although he did not intend his arrangement to be used mathematically.

Viewing the least significant bit on top of single hexagrams in Shao Yong's square and reading along rows either from bottom right to top left with solid lines as 0 and broken lines as 1 or from top left to bottom right with solid lines as 1 and broken lines as 0 hexagrams can be interpreted as sequence from 0 to 63. The Indian scholar Pingala developed a binary system for describing prosody, he used binary numbers in the form of long syllables, making it similar to Morse code. Pingala's Hindu classic titled Chandaḥśāstra describes the formation of a matrix in order to give a unique value to each meter; the binary representations in Pingala's system increases towards the right, not to the left like in the binary numbers of the modern, Western positional notation. The residents of the island of Mangareva in French Polynesia were using a hybrid binary-decimal system before 1450. Slit drums with binary tones are used to encode messages across Asia. Sets of binary combinations similar to the I Ching have been used in traditional African divination systems such as Ifá as well as in medieval Western geomancy.

In the late 13th century Ramon Llull had the ambition to account for all wisdom in every branch of human knowledge of the time. For that purpose he developed a general method or ‘Ars generalis’ based on binary combinations of a number of simple basic principles or categories, for which he has been considered a predecessor of computing science and artificial intelligence. In 1605 Francis Bacon discussed a system whereby letters of the alphabet could be reduced to sequences of binary digits, which could be encoded as scarcely visible variations in the font in any random text. For the general theory of binary encoding, he added that this method could be used with any objects at all: "provided those objects be capable of a twofold difference only. John Napier in 1617 described a system he called location arithmetic for doing binary calculations using a non-positional representation by letters. Thomas Harriot investigated several positional numbering systems, including binary, but did not publish his results.

The first publication of the system in Europe was by Juan Caramuel y Lobkowitz, in 1700. Leibniz studied binary numbering in 1679. Leibniz's system uses 1, like the modern binary numeral system. An example of Leibniz's binary numeral system is as follows: 0 0 0 1 numerical value 20 0 0 1 0 numerical value 21 0 1 0 0 numerical value 22 1 0 0 0 numerical value 23Leibniz interpreted the hexagrams of the I Ching as evidence of binary calculus; as a Sinophile, Leibniz was aware of