17th century BC

The 17th century BC was a century which lasted from 1700 BC to 1601 BC. c. 1700 BC: Indus Valley Civilization comes to an end but is continued by the Cemetery H culture. 1700 BC: Belu-bani became the King of Assyria. C. 1700 BC: Minoan Old Palace period ends and Minoan Second Palace period starts in Ancient Greece. C. 1700 BC: beginning of the Late Minoan period on Crete. C. 1700 BC: Aegean metalworkers are producing decorative objects rivaling those of Ancient Near East jewelers, whose techniques they seem to borrow. C. 1700 BC: Lila-Ir-Tash started to rule the Elamite Empire. C. 1700 BC: 1450 BC: Young girl gathering saffron crocus flowers, detail of wall painting, Room 3 of House Xeste 3, Thera, is made. Second Palace period, it is now kept in Petros M. Nomikos, Greece. C. 1700 BC: Bronze Age starts in China. C. 1698 BC: Lila-Ir-Tash the ruler of the Elamite Empire died. Temti-Agun I started to rule the Elamite Empire. 1691 BC: Belu-bani, the King of Assyria died. C. 1690 BC: Temti-Agun I, the ruler of the Elamite Empire, died.

Tan-Uli started to rule the Elamite Empire. 1690 BC: Libaia became the King of Assyria. C. 1680 BC: Egypt: Development of leavened bread. 1675 BC: Tang of Shang, first ruler of the Shang Dynasty becomes ruler in China. C. 1673 BC: Sharma-Adad I became the King of Assyria. C. 1661 BC: Iptar-Sin became the King of Assyria. C. 1655 BC: Tan-Uli, the ruler of the Elamite Empire, died. C. 1650 BC: Collapse of the 14th Dynasty of Egypt. C. 1650 BC: Conquest of Memphis by the Hyksos and collapse of the 13th Dynasty of Egypt. C. 1650 BC: Start of the 15th and 16th Dynasties of Egypt. C. 1650 BC: Possibly, start of the Abydos Dynasty in Upper Egypt. C. 1646 BC or earlier: Jie of Xia is overthrown by Tang of Shang in the Battle of Mingtiao. 1649 BC: Bazaia became the King of Assyria. 1633 BC – May 2 – Lunar Saros 34 begins. 1627 BC: Beginning of a cooling of world climate lasting several years recorded in tree-rings all over the world. It may have been caused by one, or more, volcanic eruptions e.g. the Minoan eruption of Thera, the Avellino eruption of Mount Vesuvius, and/or the eruption of Mount Aniakchak in Alaska.

1625 BC: Samsu-Ditana becomes King of Babylon. 1621 BC: Lullaia becomes the King of Assyria. 1620 BC: Mursili I becomes King of the Hittite Empire. 1615 BC: Shu-Ninua became the King of Assyria. Jie, The last ruler of Xia Dynasty, ruled China for 52 years until 1600 BC according to the Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project. 1686 BC – Hammurabi 1684 BC – Heremon, Irish legend The last known population of woolly mammoth, preserved on Wrangel Island, becomes extinct. See: List of sovereign states in the 17th century BC

List of destroyer classes of the United States Navy

The first automotive torpedo was developed in 1866, the torpedo boat was developed soon after. In 1898, while the Spanish–American War was being fought in the Caribbean and the Pacific, Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt wrote that the Spanish torpedo boat destroyers were the only threat to the American navy, pushed for the acquisition of similar vessels. On 4 May 1898, the US Congress authorized the first sixteen torpedo boat destroyers and twelve seagoing torpedo boats for the United States Navy. In World War I, the U. S. Navy began mass-producing destroyers, laying 273 keels of the Clemson and Wickes-class destroyers; the peacetime years between 1919 and 1941 resulted in many of these flush deck destroyers being laid up. Additionally, treaties regulated destroyer construction; the 1500-ton destroyers built in the 1930s under the treaties had stability problems that limited expansion of their armament in World War II. During World War II, the United States began building larger 2100-ton destroyers with five-gun main batteries, but without stability problems.

The first major warship produced by the U. S. Navy after World War II were "frigates"—the ships were designated destroyer leaders but reclassified in 1975 as guided missile cruisers; these grew out of the last all-gun destroyers of the 1950s. In the middle 1970s the Spruance-class destroyers entered service, optimized for anti-submarine warfare. A special class of guided missile destroyers was produced for the Shah of Iran, but due to the Iranian Revolution these ships could not be delivered and were added to the U. S. Navy; the Arleigh Burke class, introduced in 1991, has been the U. S. Navy's only destroyer class in commission since 2005. A further class, the Zumwalt, is entering service; the Zumwalt class will number three ships. In 1864, US Navy Lt. William B. Cushing sank the ironclad CSS Albemarle using a "spar torpedo"—an explosive device mounted on a long pole and detonated underwater. Two years in Austria, the British engineer Robert Whitehead developed a compressed air "automotive" torpedo.

The threat a small, torpedo–delivering ship could pose to the battle line became clear to navies around the world. During the Spanish–American War, Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt wrote Spanish torpedo boat destroyers were "the only real menace" to the fleet blockading Santiago, pushed for the acquisition of torpedo boats and torpedo boat destroyers; as President, Theodore Roosevelt continued to pay close attention to naval affairs, including the expansion of the Navy's fleet of destroyers. In 1898 Congress authorized 16 torpedo boat destroyers, which would join the fleet by 1903; the first torpedo boat destroyers, the Bainbridge class, featured two torpedo tubes and two 3-inch guns, displacing 400 short tons. The subsequent Smith and Paulding classes displaced 740 short tons, the reason these classes were nicknamed "flivvers". By the time the United States entered World War I, destroyers displaced 1,000 short tons and burned oil instead of coal; these "1000 tonners" were armed with eight to four 4-inch / 50 caliber guns.

The 1000 tonners were the Cassin through Sampson classes, were called "broken deckers", due to their high forecastles. Prior to entering World War I in 1917, the United States began producing destroyers to a new design with a continuous sheer strake, collectively referred to as "flush deckers". Six prototypes of the Caldwell class were dissimilar: three had three stacks; the others of this and the 267 ships of the mass-production Wickes and Clemson classes that followed all had two screws. As built, they had four stacks, which gave rise to the nicknames "four stackers" or "four pipers". Eleven shipyards participated in their construction, which peaked in 1917 and 1918. By the time of the Armistice of 11 November 1918, keels for 177 ships had been laid and 41 had joined the fleet. Though the remaining ships were not needed in peacetime, the building program continued and by the end of May 1921, all but four of the 273 flush-deckers had been placed in commission; the final two did not follow until August 1922.

While the flush-deckers' freeboard fore and aft were designed to match preceding classes, the new ships differed in other respects. The waist guns were moved to the galley beneath them; the standard displacement of the flush deck destroyers was 1,200 ± 90 long tons, the length 314 feet, the beam measured 31 feet, the draft 116 inches. A typical flush deck destroyer had a normal crew of 105 officers and men, was armed with four 4-inch deck guns, one 3-inch anti-aircraft gun, 12 21-inch torpedo tubes, two stern-mounted depth charge racks, along with.50-caliber machine guns and small arms. The mass-produced classes had four boilers providing steam to a pair of steam turbines, each of which drove a 9-foot-diameter screw at a combined 27,000 shaft horsepower for a top speed of about 33 knots. Destroyers acquired the anti-submarine warfare mission against U-boats in the Atlantic and Mediterranean, being equipped with depth charge racks, Y-gun depth c


Cosmopolitanism is the idea that all human beings are, or could or should be, members of a single community. Different views of what constitutes this community may include a focus on moral standards, economic practices, political structures, and/or cultural forms. A person who adheres to the idea of cosmopolitanism in any of its forms is called a cosmopolitan or cosmopolite. In a cosmopolitan community individuals from different places form relationships of mutual respect; as an example, Kwame Anthony Appiah suggests the possibility of a cosmopolitan community in which individuals from varying locations enter relationships of mutual respect despite their differing beliefs. Various cities and locales, past or present, have been or are identified as "cosmopolitan". Rather, locales may be called "cosmopolitan" because people of various ethnic, cultural and/or religious background live in proximity and interact with each other; the word derives from the Ancient Greek: κοσμοπολίτης, or kosmopolitês, formed from "κόσμος", kosmos, i.e. "world", "universe", or "cosmos", πολίτης, "politês", i.e. "citizen" or " of a city".

Contemporary usage defines the term as "citizen of the world". Definitions of cosmopolitanism begin with the Greek etymology of "citizen of the world". However, as Appiah points out, "world" in the original sense meant "cosmos" or "universe", not earth or globe as current use assumes. One definition that handles this issue is given in a recent book on political globalization: Cosmopolitanism can be defined as a global politics that, projects a sociality of common political engagement among all human beings across the globe, secondly, suggests that this sociality should be either ethically or organizationally privileged over other forms of sociality; the Chinese term tianxia, a metonym for empire, has been re-interpreted in the modern age as a conception of cosmopolitanism, was used by 1930s modernists as the title of a Shanghai-based, English-language journal of world arts and letters, T'ien Hsia Monthly. Multilingual modern Chinese writers such as Lin Yutang, Wen Yuan-ning translated cosmopolitanism using the now more common term shijie zhuyi.

Cosmopolitanism can be traced back to Diogenes of Sinope, the founding father of the Cynic movement in Ancient Greece. Of Diogenes it is said: "Asked where he came from, he answered:'I am a citizen of the world'". In Ancient Greece, the broadest basis of social identity at that time was either the individual city-state or the Greeks as a group; the Stoics, who took Diogenes' idea and developed it stressed that each human being "dwells in two communities – the local community of our birth, the community of human argument and aspiration". A common way to understand Stoic cosmopolitanism is through Hierocles' circle model of identity that states that we should regard ourselves as concentric circles, the first one around the self, next immediate family, extended family, local group, countrymen, humanity. Within these circles human beings feel a sense of "affinity" or "endearment" towards others, which the Stoics termed Oikeiôsis; the task of world citizens becomes to "draw the circles somehow towards the centre, making all human beings more like our fellow city dwellers, so forth".

In his 1795 essay Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch, Immanuel Kant stages a ius cosmopoliticum as a guiding principle to help global society achieve permanent, enduring peace. Kant's cosmopolitan right stems from an understanding of all human beings as equal members of a universal community. Cosmopolitan right thus works in tandem with international political rights, the shared, universal right of humanity. Kant's cosmopolitan right is fundamentally bound to the conditions of universal hospitality and the right of resort. Universal hospitality is defined as the right to be welcomed upon arrival in foreign territory, but is contingent on a guest arriving in a peaceful manner. Kant makes the additional claim that all human beings have the basic right of resort: the right to present oneself in a foreign land; the right of resort is derived from Kant's understanding of the Earth's surface as communal, further emphasizing his claims on shared universal rights among all human beings. The philosophical concepts of Emmanuel Levinas, on ethics, Jacques Derrida, on hospitality, provide a theoretical framework for the relationships between people in their everyday lives and apart from any form of written laws or codes.

For Levinas, the foundation of ethics consists in the obligation to respond to the Other. In Being for the Other, he writes that there is no "universal moral law," only the sense of responsibility that the Other, in a state of vulnerability, calls forth; the proximity of the Other is an important part of Levinas's concept: the face of the Other is what compels the response. For Derrida, the foundation of ethics is hospitality, the readiness and the inclination to welcome the Other into one's home. Ethics, is hospitality. Pure, unconditional hospitality is a desire that underscores the conditional hospitality necessary in our relationships with others. Levinas's and Derrida's theories of ethics and hospitality hold out the possibility of an acceptance of the Other as different but of equal standing. Isolation is not a feasible alternative in the world, therefore, it is important to consider how best to approach these interactions, to determine what is at stake for ourselves and the others: wha