Persepolis or Parsa, also known as Takht-e-Jamshid, was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire. Persepolis is situated 60 km northeast of the city of Shiraz in Fars Province, the earliest remains of Persepolis date back to 515 BC. It exemplifies the Achaemenid style of architecture, UNESCO declared the ruins of Persepolis a World Heritage Site in 1979. The English word Persepolis is derived from Ancient Greek Persépolis, a compound of Pérsēs and pólis, to the ancient Persians, the city was known as Pārsa. Persepolis is near the small river Pulvar, which flows into the Kur River, the site includes a 125,000 square meter terrace, partly artificially constructed and partly cut out of a mountain, with its east side leaning on Rahmet Mountain. The other three sides are formed by retaining walls, which vary in height with the slope of the ground, rising from 5–13 metres on the west side was a double stair. From there, it slopes to the top. To create the level terrace, depressions were filled with soil and heavy rocks, archaeological evidence shows that the earliest remains of Persepolis date back to 515 BC. As the residence of the rulers of the empire, however, the countrys true capitals were Susa, Babylon and Ecbatana. This accounts for the fact that the Greeks were not acquainted with the city until Alexander the Great took, Darius I ordered the construction of the Apadana and the Council Hall, as well as the main imperial Treasury and its surroundings. These were completed during the reign of his son, Xerxes I, further construction of the buildings on the terrace continued until the downfall of the Achaemenid Empire. Around 519 BC, construction of a stairway was begun. The stairway was initially planned to be the entrance to the terrace 20 metres above the ground. The dual stairway, known as the Persepolitan Stairway, was built symmetrically on the side of the Great Wall. The 111 steps measured 6.9 metres wide, with treads of 31 centimetres and rises of 10 centimetres, originally, the steps were believed to have been constructed to allow for nobles and royalty to ascend by horseback. New theories, however, suggest that the shallow risers allowed visiting dignitaries to maintain an appearance while ascending. The top of the led to a small yard in the north-eastern side of the terrace. Grey limestone was the building material used at Persepolis
Persian Gulf Pro League
The Persian Gulf Pro League formerly known as Iran Pro League, is a professional football league competition for clubs located at the highest level of the Iranian football league system. It was founded in 1970 as the Takht Jamshid Cup, contested by 16 teams, it is ranked by the Asian Football Confederation as the 2nd best league in Asia and the best league in Western Asia. The Persian Gulf Pro League is the top tier of an extensive structure, above the Azadegan League, the 2nd division, the 3rd Division. Since the leagues creation in 2001, seven different teams have become league champions, perspolis is the most successful club with five trophies. In 1970, the Local League was created, the league included teams from all Iran in different qualifying tournaments. In 1972, the Takht Jamshid Cup was created as the national league, Pas Tehran and Persepolis were the most successful clubs in the cups five-year existence, each club winning the cup twice. In 1978, the league was abandoned because of the Iranian Revolution, due to the revolution and the Iran–Iraq War, football was no longer a priority. In 1985, the Qods League was created and was played among provincial teams, Tehran A and Esfahan were the most successful teams, each winning the league twice. In spite of attempts to create a national league, the most important competition in Iran in the 1980s was the Tehran Clubs Cup in which Persepolis dominated. In 1991, the Qods League was renamed the Azadegan League in honor of the Iranian prisoners of war who were released, Pas Tehran won the inaugural season of the league and Iran had a national league for the first time since the revolution. Pas Tehran, Persepolis, and Esteghlal were the leagues most successful sides, with Pas and Esteghlal winning the Asian Club Championships, in 2001, the league was dissolved with the introduction of the new Iran Pro League. The 2001–02 season saw the introduction of a football league in Iran. The first winner of the Iran Pro League was Persepolis, who beat archrival Esteghlal by one point on the match day. In the 2002–03 season, Sepahan won the league comfortably with seven points separating them, in the 2003–04 season, Pas Tehran won their first title after coming in second place the previous year, defending champion Sepahan finished in the 6th place. The 2004–05 season was a one as Foolad shockingly won the title. In the 2005–06 season, Tehran club Esteghlal won their first league title, on August 12,2006, the Iranian Football Federation decided to change the name of the league once again, it was changed to the Persian Gulf Cup. This was done to promote the name of the Persian Gulf, the logo of the league was also changed, with the winner being selected from over 130 designs and unveiled on November 14,2006. Saipa was the 6th team to win the new edition of the league which meant six different teams won the title in a row
Persepolis Football Club, commonly known as Perspolis, is a Persian Gulf Pro League professional football club based in Tehran, Iran. Persepolis F. C. was founded in 1963 by Ali Abdo and has been in the first division of Iranian football since 1968, Persepolis had also three teams in Bowling, Basketball and Volleyball in its first years of establishment. Persepolis F. C. is the club of the multisport Persepolis Athletic. The club is owned by the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, there have been many attempts to privatize the club with no success due to the large debt the club has accumulated. The club has played at its ground, Azadi Stadium. They contest the Tehran derby, which is regarded as one of the biggest in Asia, with archrivals Esteghlal, according to the Asian Football Confederation, Persepolis is the most popular football club in Asia. Only Dalian Shide and Al-Hilal come anywhere near to having such an amount of support in Asia. Persepolis F. C. AFC. </ref> Persepolis has won a record nine Iranian league titles, as well as five Hazfi Cups, many notable players have played for the club, including former Bayern Munich players Ali Karimi, Ali Daei, Vahid Hashemian and former Hamburger SV player Mehdi Mahdavikia. However, Ali Parvin is widely regarded as the clubs greatest ever player, Parvin played 18 years with the club from 1970 to 1988, and had his number 7 retired by Persepolis for seasons. Shahin was established in 1942 by Dr. Abbas Ekrami, a teacher and these talents made Shahin popular in the 1960s but its very popularity was viewed as a threat by the Iran Football Federation and the Keihan Varzeshi newspaper. The conflict between them became worse and on 9 July 1967, two days after Shahins 3–0 win against Tehranjavan F. C. the Iran Sports Organization declared Shahin F. C. as dissolved. League attendance dropped and other clubs including Pas, Rah Ahan, Persepolis Athletic and Cultural Club was established in 1963 by Ali Abdo. Abdo had returned to Iran from the United States and was a championship boxer, Persepolis F. C. started the 1968 season with Parviz Dehdari as manager. The team was quite weak, and participated in the 2nd division of the country. The best player on the team then was Mahmoud Khordbin, the club, using four Shahin players, had a friendly match with Jam Abadan, a respected team at the time. After the match the remainder of the Shahin players joined Persepolis and that year no league competition was held, as many teams had been dissolved, so a 44-team tournament was held, and Persepolis, along with Pas, Taj, and Oghab finished top of the group. The next year they represented as the first Iranian club in the Asian Champion Club Tournament held in Thailand, in 1962, the Iran Universal automobile factory was opened. In 1969, The boss of the factory, Mahmoud Khayami, paykan won the championship that year, but the new players moved back to Persepolis at the end of the season
Daraei F. C. is an Iranian football club based in Tehran, Iran. They currently compete in the Tehran Province league, the club has a long and rich history. It used to be one of Irans most dominant and powerful football clubs competing with fierce rivals Shahin F. C. the club is now known as Daraei Novin F. C. The table below chronicles the achievements of Daraei in various competitions since 1974, the table below chronicles the achievements of Daraei Novin in various competitions since 2012. Ahmad Tousi Mehdi Monajati Jala Talebi Attila Hejazi
Steel Azin F.C.
Steel Azin Football Club is an Iranian football club based in Tehran, Iran. The club is owned by Hossein Hedayati, owner of Steel Azin Iranian Holding Co, Steel Azin club also had a volleyball team, sponsored by the same Company, which competed in the Iranian Volleyball Super League. Ekbatan football club had been re-established by two of its players, Rabti & Ghani, in the late 90s. Moving up the Iranian Soccer ladder year after year, the reached the Azadegan League 1 in 2003. The team was able to avoid relegation for two years, but lack of financial resources made the club hot favorites for relegation. Following two dismal years, in the summer of 2005, the club was sold by Rabti & Ghani to an Iranian construction tycoon living abroad, following their takeover, the new ownership group of the club announced a new era, vowing to invest in youth. The first move was a shuffle on the bench, Rabti was replaced by his assistant coach, and was made Technical Director. Ghani remained Club manager in the new Club structure modeled after German teams- it included the owner as club chairman, the clubs pre- season included a month-long stay in Dubai and matches against Sharjah Wanderers Club, Fabexi FC and Al Nasr SC. With the new investments, a trip to Dubai and a place to call home, once the season started though, it took only three weeks for the coach to be replaced and Rabti was re- installed as head coach. The club continued a run and Rabti was sacked with 5 games left. Team scout and Ekbatan legend Hadi Ahangaran was given the task of fighting relegation and this proved a successful appointment, and the club narrowly beat the drop after beating Nozhan in the relegation play off match, played in Esfehan. In preparation for the season, Ekbatan made some high profile changes to the backroom staff including Farhad Kazemi as special advisor to the Board. Former Paykan FC assistant coach under Farhad Kazemi, Mohsen Garousi was named coach and Ebrahim Vatanikia, one of the countries most renowned youth coaches. Major changes in the team followed, with only 6 players remaining from the season, and this time. The clubs start to the season though was anything but, as Garousi was fired after losing all of the first seven games and his replacement Asghar Sharafi signed on a two-year deal and promised to keep the club in the Second division. Despite a five match winning streak, the team was not able to make up for their start to the season. Shortly after, speculation began on the clubs future, while the senior team had not enjoyed much success during the past two seasons, the club had proven successful with its ambitious plans for the youth academy. Vatanikia also affirmed the support of the board by praising them in an interview after winning titles with Ekbatans academy
Esteghlal Tehran Football Club until 1979 known as Taj Tehran Football Club is an Iranian professional football club based in Tehran that plays in the Persian Gulf Pro League. Esteghlal F. C. is the club of the multisport Esteghlal Athletic. Founded in 1945 initially as Docharkhe Savaran meaning The Cyclists in Persian and later in 1949, the name of the club was finally modified into Esteghlal that is the current name of the club, meaning Independence, subsequent to the Islamic Revolution in 1979. In 1970, under the management of Zdravko Rajkov, Esteghlal Tehran became the first Iranian football club to win the Asian Club Championship and they have won several official titles on the national and international stage since 1970, including eight Iranian League titles and a record 6 Hazfi Cups. There are two stars above the teams official badge to represent winning two titles in Asian Club Championship. On September 20,1945 three Iranian military officers—Mirzani, Jananpour and Navab—started a sports club on Ferdowsi Street, Tehran, since the founders of the club were mostly interested in cycling, the clubs original name was Docharkhe Savaran, meaning The Cyclists in Persian. Esteghlal football club played its first official match in 1946, from the beginning Taj or Docharkeh Savaran competed in the Tehran Local League, which at the time was the highest ranked league in Iran. On March 6,1950, Taj played its first official game in front of over 20,000 spectators in Amjadieh Stadium against Shahin, later in that year, the clubs name was officially changed to Taj which means crown in Persian. In 1970, Taj defeated Hapoel Tel Aviv of Israel 2–1 in the final to win its first ever Asian Club Championship, after the revolution, any sign of the previous monarchist regime was not tolerated. During the 1980s, Esteghlal won the Tehran Football League twice, the 1989–90 season was a memorable one for Esteghlal. The club finished 1st in Group B of the Qods League, Esteghlal defeated Malavan 4–0 on aggregate to advance to the final against the hated rival, Persepolis. Esteghlal defeated Persepolis 2–1 through a 74th-minute goal by Samad Marfavi to win the Qods League, in the following season, Esteghlal made it to the final of the Hazfi Cup only to lose to Malavan on penalties. 1991 proved to be one of Esteghlals most memorable years as they won the Asian Club Championship for the 2nd time defeating Chinese club Liaoning 2–1, Esteghlal once again reached the final of the Asian Club Championship in 1999, this time losing to Japanese club Júbilo Iwata 1–2. 2001 marked the first year of the newly founded Iran Pro League, going into the final day, Esteghlal was on top of the leagues table, however, with an Esteghlal loss and a Persepolis win, Persepolis was crowned as the leagues inaugural champion. However, the 2001–02 Hazfi Cup provided some consolation for Esteghlal as they beat Fajr Sepasi 4–3 on aggregate to win the cup. The 2002–03 season was one of the worst years in club history, in July 2003, Amir Ghalenoi was appointed manager of Esteghlal. In his first year, Esteghlal finished runner-up in the league, Ghalenoi also made it to the final of the Hazfi Cup losing 2–5 on aggregate to Sepahan. His second season proved to be successful as Esteghlal finished 3rd
Rah Ahan Tehran F.C.
Rah Ahan Yazdan Sports Club is an Iranian football club based in Tehran. They currently play in the Azadegan League, Rah Ahan is one of the oldest Iranian football clubs. Rah ahan was formed in 1937 in Tehran by Iran Railways but were bought by Qeshm Air and they are one of the oldest Iranian football clubs still in existence. In 1939 Rah ahan participated in the Tehran Local League for the first time and their first official match was on 4 January 1940 against Bazargani F. C. they won the game 11–0. Nowadays Rah ahan is owned by the businessman Peyman Kianian, during the World War in the 1940s Rah Ahan dissolved its football operations, it was not until the 1950s when Rah Ahan restarted its football team. After its re-establishment the club under the name of Pirouz played on the dirt pitches near the railway station, the players of the team composed of the Railway workers. In 1955 with the arrival of Rasoul Madadnavi from Tabriz, the club was renamed to Rah Ahan and began to attract players from outside the railway company. In 1963 Rah Ahan was again re-established and were placed in the 2nd Division Tehran Local League, in 1973 the Takht Jamshid Cup, Irans first national league, was founded. In their first two years in the Cup, Rah Ahan finished a respectable 7th and 9th, in 1976 they were relegated to the 2nd Division. In their only season in the 2nd Division, Rah Ahan finished 1st in the league and were promoted to the Takht Jamshid Cup. In 1978 they were relegated to the 2nd Division. After the establishment of the Iran Pro League in 2001, Rah Ahan was placed in the second tier Azadegan League, in 2005 Rah Ahan was promoted to the Iran Pro League after a second-place finish in the Azadegan League. Since then they have mostly been a team where they have finish in the mid table. They finished 11th in the 2008–09 season and avoided the relegation in the season after on the last week, in the same year they went on tour in Turkey, beating Galatasaray A2 4–1, and losing to Super Lig side Istanbul BB 3–2. At the end of the 2012–13 season Ali Daei left Rah Ahan to sign with Persepolis, mansour Ebrahimzadeh was announced as Rah Ahans new manager for the 2013–14 season, with him at charge Rah Ahan finished an average 11th place. At the end of the season, Ebrahimzadeh announced that he is stepping down as Rah Ahans manager, former Persepolis manager Hamid Estili was named as his replacement. Rah Ahan encountered severe financial problems and under Estili the club performed poorly, shortly after Estili was fired and replaced with former Rah Ahan player Farhad Kazemi. In the 2015–16 season, Rah Ahan ran into financial troubles and this was the first time Rah Ahan will play in the Azadegan League in 12 years
Niroye Zamini F.C.
Niroye Zamini Football Club is an Iranian football club based in Tehran, Iran. It is the team of Irans ground forces. The club was founded after the Iranian Revolution of 1979 and became the team of the Army and they have competed in the Azadegan League for a long time. Many younger players who must serve the mandatory military service end up playing for the team because the team belongs to the Iranian army. In July 2009, Niroye Zamini terminated their sports activities due to financial problems, gostaresh Foolad owned by Jamshid Khatibi took over their license. The club re-established later that summer and was placed in the 2nd Division The re-established club currently competes in the Azadegan League, in 2015 the club was relegated to the 2nd Division after finishing 10th in the Azadegan League. 17th of Shahrivar league 8th The table below chronicles the achievements of Niroye Zamini in various competitions since 1999, sold its place in Azadegan League to another team
Shahin Tehran F.C.
Shahin Tehran Football Club is an Iranian football club based in Tehran, Iran. Shahin A. C. is located at East of Tehran in the Narmak neighborhood, Shahin was the most popular clubs in Iran before the 1960s and it had a rivalry with Taj Tehran. Their match was the most important derby of Iran at the time, Shahin F. C. was dissolved in 1966 for political reasons. Shahin was revived again after the Iranian Revolution in 1979, due to the Iran-Iraq War, The national league was not held during the 1980s, however, Shahin was one of the strongest teams in the provincial league of Tehran. They currently compete in the Tehran provincial league, the club also produced many famous Iranian players such as Masoud Boroumand, Homayoun Behzadi and Mehrab Shahrokhi. Shahin FC, without any doubt was the most popular club in the history of Iranian football. Shahin produced many talented players like Parviz Dehdari, Masoud Boroumand, Homayoun Behzadi, Jafar Kashani, Hossein Kalani, Hamid Shirzadegan and these talents made Shahin popular in the 1960s but its very popularity was viewed as a threat by the Iran Football Federation and the Keihan Varzeshi newspaper. The conflict between them became worse and on July 9,1967, two days after Shahins 3–0 win against Tehranjavan F. C. the Iran Sports Organization declared Shahin F. C. as dissolved. League attendance dropped and other clubs including Pas Tehran, Rah Ahan, in 1973 Shahin F. C. decided to come back but returned with the name of its former third team Shahbaz F. C. and participated in Takht Jamshid Cup professional soccer League. Shahbaz F. C. was leading the league in the 1978–1979 season which was unfinished due to Iranian Revolution in 1979. After the revolution, the club reverted to its name, Shahin. In 2009/10 Shahin was competing in the third ranked 2nd Division successfully until the last stage, in 2010/11 Shahin kept its place in the 3rd Division. In 2011/12 Shahin finished last in its group and therefore is relegated to the league for 2012/13. Shahin F. C. had several attached teams and branches under the name and license of Shahin F. C. in different cities of Iran, including Shahin Bushehr F. C. Shahin Ahvaz F. C. and Shahin Isfahan F. C. In 1967 due to the problems that arose in the Shahin F. C. organization. Some had to deactivate for a period of time, while other teams renamed and continued under different names, Persepolis F. C. started the 1968 season with Parviz Dehdari as manager. Persepolis F. C. using four Shahin players, had a match with Jam Abadan. After the match the remainder of the Shahin players joined Persepolis, although Shahin Tehran established in a new team under the name of Shahbaz, it was failed to get back its popularity again