SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Territorial state

The term territorial state is used to refer to a state, typical of the High Middle Ages, since around 1000 AD, "other large-scale complex organizations that attained size, capacity and territorial reach not seen since antiquity." The term territorial state is understood as “coercion-wielding organizations that are distinct from households and kinship groups and exercise clear priority in some respects over all other organizations within substantial territories.” Organizations such as city-states and theocracies along with many a number of other governmental organizations are considered territorial states, yet does not include tribes, firms, or churches alike. Unlike the old lordships organised as a personal union, the sovereignty of a territorial state was based on its land or territory and not on membership of a dynastic family or other personally-related rights. Juridical sovereignty is not required as the main characteristic of statehood. Our contemporary understanding of sovereignty, introduced in the 16th century, did not exist until the 19th century and doesn't apply to this time period.

Rather a territorial state reflects the exclusive use of physical force within some type of geographic territory. The territorial state shares many characteristics with the institutional, geographically-defined state typical of the modern era; the first sign of state existence dates back to 6000 BC. Written and pictorial records from a settlement called Jericho maintain the existence of heavy urbanization for over two thousand years but throughout their history, states have only encompassed a small portion of the earth. Cities emerged around the same time period between 8000 and 7600 BC and merged with states to create city-states that ruled for a few thousand years. City-states were centered with a capitol controlled by a priest that collected offerings from the surrounding lands. By 2500 BC, some cities began developing into empires that ruled by force and tribute and from on, the existence of states and cities were central to the great civilizations; the formation of towns and cities allowed for the creation of small independent states, which led to the emergence of large territorial states.

Ancient Egypt was ruled through a strong central government in which Egyptian kings, or Pharaohs had complete say over political, economical or military matters. The transition to the adaption of territorial states can be seen during the reigns of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom, the Egyptian New Kingdom. Due to natural causes, the Old Kingdom fell and gave way to the Middle Kingdom where several merchants began to gain power and deviate from the pharaoh's power; this deviation introduced a form of territorial state due to the introduction of independent rules and power from that of their nation. During the reign of the New Kingdom, diplomatic relations were established with the Hyksos and Hitites, where they each had sovereign communities within their nations that acted as territorial states. After the collapse of the Harappan Civilization in 1700 BC, India underwent a transition from complete territorial rule to sovereign territorial states. During this time, Indo-Aryans and the Vedic peoples made way into the territory of India and made a set of religious texts known as the Vedas, hence the time period known as the Vedic Age.

With Hinduism on the rise, it gave way to independent states where each had to maintain peace and order with other neighbouring independent states. Unlike most independent states, there were differences in power among those residing in India; this however did not last due to the Mauryan Empire preventing sovereign states from acquiring power. The Mauryan Empire lasted from 272 BC to 231 BC in which the death of the last ruler Asoka allowed the next empire to reestablish new sovereign states; the Inca Empire had developed to become a territorial state. It is estimated that the rule was imposed through an administrative system of 8 to 12 million people. Territories were divided into 80 provinces that were ruled by the Inca government and, divided by rulers; the formation of the provinces under the rule of small political groups. Borders were watch to oversee who would leave. Inca rulers would have people live in open settled areas for the land to be used and watched. Much of the agriculture formation of land was terracing.

Many laborers would work on new agricultural land. Rulers were in control of all agricultural work as well as other man labor work such as llama herding, pottery. There are a few accepted theories on the emergence of territorial states and they both concern money and war with each stressing one over the other; the mainstream view of territorial state formation emerged around the 12th century as a consequence of the transfer of royal sovereign rights for a particular region to a feudal lord. This meant that within territories unrestrained feudal jurisdiction gave way to a larger central authority that maintained a more stable territory through bureaucracy, a skilled and qualified army, taxation; this is unlike the medieval hierarchical structure of control and jurisdiction, in a state of perpetual uncertainty threatened by a shift in the balance of power. The idea of sovereignty emerged from a struggle of power between authoritative institutions like "emperors and popes and kings, kings and emperors."

The idea of a "collective" of nations that maintained a "rule of law" that offered a more stable security from the abuses typical of the medieval hierarchical authority and power structure. Within ancient rulers it was important that their state/empire foundation was constant with ethnic diversity, growth of populat

Pontiff Playground

Wally Pontiff Jr. Playground Metairie Playground, is a Jefferson Parish public playground located at 1521 Palm Street in Metairie, Louisiana, it is Jefferson Parish's oldest public playground. The playground offers multiple baseball fields for recreational use; the gymnasium is used for volleyball games and other recreational uses. The Pontiff Playground cross country course is a 3-mile/4.83km cross country course in and around Pontiff Playground. The playground has two football/soccer fields for team and recreational use; the playground was the home football venue for the Metairie High School Yellowjackets from 1952 to 1954. The largest crowds were standing room only against Kenner High School in 1952 and against Behrman High School in 1954; the playground offers multiple softball fields for recreational use. Tennis is played at the Pontiff Playground tennis courts. A running track used for track and field meets; the playground contains six baseball diamonds, two football fields, one track, two tennis courts, a gymnasium.

In addition to these sports facilities a spray fountain, meditation labyrinth, meeting center, picnic shelters, playground equipment, dog park and bird sanctuary are located in the facility. Development of Metairie Playground began in 1945, following the end of World War II and during a time of civic progress in Jefferson Parish; the playground was dedicated in 1952. The playground was renamed on June 28, 2003, in memory of Wally Pontiff, Jr. who played college baseball for Louisiana State University. Pontiff played baseball in his youth at Metairie playground. Before an unexpected death at the age of 21, Pontiff was deciding whether to continue his career at LSU or to play for the Oakland Athletics after being drafted in the 21st round. Pontiff Playground was flooded in August 2005 during Hurricane Katrina. After the storm, Jefferson Parish built an earthen berm around it to hold water in future emergencies. Metairie Jefferson Parish Official website