1800 in Chile
- "History of San Carlos". Municipality of San Carlos. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
1. Chile – Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres of Antarctica, the arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, and features a string of volcanoes and lakes, the southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, inlets, canals, twisting peninsulas, and islands. Spain conquered and colonized Chile in the century, replacing Inca rule in northern and central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a relatively stable authoritarian republic, in the 1960s and 1970s the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil. The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet, ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010. Chile is today one of South Americas most stable and prosperous nations and it leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, competitiveness, income per capita, globalization, state of peace, economic freedom, and low perception of corruption. It also ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile, another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili. Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a locally known as trile. The Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, ultimately, Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such. The older spelling Chili was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching over to Chile, stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18,500 years ago. About 10,000 years ago, migrating Native Americans settled in fertile valleys, settlement sites from very early human habitation include Monte Verde, Cueva del Milodon and the Pali Aike Craters lava tube. They fought against the Sapa Inca Tupac Yupanqui and his army, the result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river. The next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, the Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting. The conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarros lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on 12 February 1541. Although the Spanish did not find the gold and silver they sought, they recognized the agricultural potential of Chiles central valley
2. 1800 – As of the start of 1800, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. As of March 1, when the Julian calendar acknowledged a leap day and the Gregorian calendar did not, world population approaches the 1 billion milestone which it will attain in 1802. February 7 – A public plebiscite in France confirms Napoleon as First Consul by a substantial majority, February 13 – The Banque de France is founded. February 28 – United Irishman Roddy McCorley is executed in Toomebridge for his part in the Irish Rebellion of 1798, March 14 – Cardinal Barnaba Chiaramonti succeeds Pius VI as Pius VII, the 251st pope. He is crowned on March 21 in Venice, March 17 – The British Royal Navy ship of the line HMS Queen Charlotte catches fire off the coast of Capraia, with the loss of 673 lives. March 20 – Alessandro Volta describes his new invention, the voltaic pile, March 26 – British Royal Navy officer Henry Waterhouse first charts the Antipodes Islands. April – Voting begins in the United States presidential election,1800, the result is not announced until February 1801. April 2 Première of Ludwig van Beethovens Symphony No.1 at the Burgtheater in Vienna, library of Congress is founded in Washington, D. C. May 14 – Second Coalition, French forces under General Louis-Alexandre Berthier are halted by 400 Austro-Piedmont soldiers at Fort Bard in the Aosta Valley, may 15 – Napoleon and his French army —not including the field artillery and baggage trains— begins crossing the Alps. He selects the shortest route through the Great St. Benard Pass, june 2 – First smallpox vaccination is made in North America, at Trinity, Newfoundland. June 4 – Siege of Genoa, The French army is evacuated from Geona, masséna is allowed to march out with all the honours of war. A portion of his force joins General Louis-Gabriel Suchet and the rest is conveyed in British ships to Antibes, june 14 Battle of Marengo, Napoleon defeats the Austrian troops near Marengo, Italy. Assassination of French general Jean-Baptiste Kléber in Cairo by Syrian Kurdish Muslim student Suleiman al-Halabi, the British act is signed by King George III of the United Kingdom in August. July 10 – Fort William College is established by Lord Wellesley, British Governor-General of India, in Calcutta to promote Bengali, Hindi, september 4 – The French garrison in Valletta surrenders to British troops who had been called at the invitation of the Maltese. The islands of Malta and Gozo become the Malta Protectorate, October – Volcanic eruption of Mount Guntur in West Java. September 30 – The Convention of 1800, or Treaty of Mortefontaine, is signed between France and the United States of America, ending the Quasi-War, October 1 – Third Treaty of San Ildefonso, Spain returns Louisiana to France in return for the Tuscany area of Italy. October 7 – French privateer Robert Surcouf leads the 150-man crew of his corvette Confiance to capture the 40-gun, november 1 U. S. President John Adams becomes the first President of the United States to live in the Executive Mansion. Middlebury College is granted its charter by the Vermont General Assembly, november 17 – The United States Congress holds its first Washington, D. C. session
3. History of Chile – The territory of Chile has been populated since at least 3,000 B. C. The countrys economic development was marked by the export of first agricultural produce. The wealth of raw materials led to an upturn, but also led to dependency. Chile was governed during most of its first 150 years of independence by different forms of restricted government, in 1990, Chile made a peaceful transition to democracy. About 10,000 years ago, migrating Native Americans settled in the fertile valleys, pre-Hispanic Chile was home to over a dozen different Amerindian societies. These theories are backed by findings in the Monte Verde archaeological site, specific early human settlement sites from the very early human habitation in Chile include the Cueva del Milodon and the Pali Aike Craters lava tube. No elaborate, centralized, sedentary civilization reigned supreme, the Araucanians, a fragmented society of hunters, gatherers, and farmers, constituted the largest Native American group in Chile. A mobile people who engaged in trade and warfare with indigenous groups, they lived in scattered family clusters. Although the Araucanians had no language, they did use a common tongue. Those in what became central Chile were more settled and more likely to use irrigation and those in the south combined slash-and-burn agriculture with hunting. Of the three Araucanian groups, the one that mounted the fiercest resistance to the attempts at seizure of their territory were the Mapuche, as the Spaniards would after them, the Incas encountered fierce resistance and so were unable to exert control in the south. During their attempts at conquest in 1460 and again in 1491, the Incas established forts in the Central Valley of Chile, the Mapuche fought against the Sapa Tupac Inca Yupanqui and his army. During the conquest, the Araucanians quickly added horses and European weaponry to their arsenal of clubs and they became adept at raiding Spanish settlements and, albeit in declining numbers, managed to hold off the Spaniards and their descendants until the late 19th century. The Araucanians valor inspired the Chileans to mythologize them as the nations first national heroes, the Chilean Patagonia located south of the river calle calle in Valdivia was composed of many tribes, mainly Tehuelches that were considered giants by Spaniards during Magellans voyage of 1520. The name Patagonia comes from the word used by Magellan to describe the native people whom his expedition thought to be giants. It is now believed the Patagons were actually Tehuelches with an height of 1.80 m compared to the 1.55 m average for Spaniards of the time. The Argentine portion of Patagonia includes the provinces of Neuquén, Río Negro, Chubut and Santa Cruz, the Argentine politico-economic Patagonic Region includes the Province of La Pampa. The first European to sight Chilean territory was Ferdinand Magellan, who crossed the Strait of Magellan on November 1,1520, however, the title of discoverer of Chile is usually assigned to Diego de Almagro
4. San Carlos, Chile – San Carlos is the name of a city and commune of Ñuble Province in the Biobío Region of Chile. It sits on a plain between nearby Chillán and the Perquilauquén river. The commune covers an area of 874 km2 and its territory lies almost entirely within the fertile, central plain or depresión intermedia. Its countryside is reputed for its production of various crops as well as orchards. San Carlos is bordered on the west by the commune of Ninhue, on the north by Ñiquén and Cauquenes, on the east by San Fabián, altitude,151 m Latitude, 36°25 60S Longitude, 72°2 60W San Carlos has a mild Mediterranean climate. The summers are hot and mainly dry with temperatures reaching up to 34 °C on the months of December, today, San Carlos is the second most populous city of Ñuble Province. According to the 2002 census the population of the city was 29,359 while that of the commune of San Carlos was 50,088, roughly, 62% of the population is urban and 38% is rural. According to recent estimations by SUBDERE, the commune has a population of 51,119 in 2006, between the 1992 census and that of 2002, the population of San Carlos grew at a 4. 1% rate. The commune encompasses a number of villages, hamlets and other rural entities. Its second most populous locality, after San Carlos, is Cachapoal and this village has been considered as urban in the 2002 census by the National Statistics Institute. The city was founded by a Spaniard, don José Joaquín del Pino de Rozas y Negrete on July 3,1800, the outcome of the battle set the ground for the patriot uprising in the whole region. The city of San Carlos is also the city of various artists and famous people including painters, authors. The painter Hernán Gazmuri was born here, the famous group of singers called Los Angeles Negros was also formed here. The house in which the famous artist was born is located on the street El Roble # 535-531. This place was declared a National Monument in accordance with the Decree Law Number 668 on September 29,1992, currently the city is working on a new initiative to create the “Casa Museo de Violeta Parra”. Among the city’s attractions lies the Medialuna of San Carlos which is an arena where the Chilean rodeo is practiced. The arena has a capacity of 8,000 people, second in only to the Medialuna of Rancagua. It is fitting to also note that the Chilean rodeo is a popular sport in this zone
5. 1814 in Chile – Events from the year 1814 in Chile January 1, Brigadier Gabino Gaínza and his military expedition sail from Callao. January 31, The Royal Expedition arrives to Chile, february 1, José Miguel Carrera recognizes Bernardo OHiggins as the Commander-in-chief of the Chilean Army. February 17, Proclamation of the Constitutional Rules, february 23, Battle of Cucha-Cucha March 3, First Battle of Talca. Patriot Colonel Carlos Spano dies in the defense of Talca from the Royalist forces under the command of Ildefonso Elorreaga, March 6, José Miguel Carrera and his brother Luis Carrera are captured by a Royalist squadron under Clemente de Lantaño. March 7, Francisco de la Lastra is elected as the first Supreme Director of Chile, March 19, Battle of El Quilo. March 20, Battle of El Membrillar, March 28, In the Battle of Valparaiso, the British frigate HMS Phoebe and sloop HMS Cherub capture the American frigate USS Essex and sloop USS Essex Junior. March 29, First Battle of Cancha Rayada, the patriot troops under Manuel Blanco Encalada are completely routed. May 3, Both sides in conflict agree to a truce, may 12, José Miguel Carrera and his brother Luis Carrera escape from prison. July 19, Viceroy of Peru José Fernando de Abascal rejects the Treaty of Lircay, august 12, Brigadier Mariano Osorio and his expedition arrive to Talcahuano. August 18, Brigadier Mariano Osorio arrives to Chillan and takes command of the Royal Army, Brigadier Gabino Gaínza is sent back to Lima to be court martialled. OHiggins is defeated and agrees to himself to Carrera. September 9, José Miguel Carrera is named Commander-in-chief of the Chilean Army October 2, Royalist forces defeat the patriot troops under Colonel Bernardo OHiggins. October 5, The Royalist forces enter Santiago, begins the mass exodus of patriots towards Mendoza. November 1, The first group of prisoners are sent to the Juan Fernández Islands. March 3, Colonel Carlos Spano, during the First Battle of Talca, november 21, Juan MacKenna, after a duel with Luis Carrera