1800 in science
- The central star of the Ring Nebula is discovered by Friedrich von Hahn: the central star is a white dwarf star with a temperature of between 100000 and 120000 K.
- Beryllium is discovered by Johann Bartholomäus Trommsdorff in beryl from Saxony, a new earth; he calls it Agusterde ("Agust Earth").
- Fulminates are discovered by Edward Howard.
- Antoine François, comte de Fourcroy, begins publication in Paris of the comprehensive chemistry textbook Système des connaissances chimiques et de leurs applications aux phénomènes de la nature et de l'art.
- The Antipodes Islands, formerly the home of large herds of fur seals, are discovered by the crew of the British ship HMS Reliance.
- Jacques Labillardière publishes Relation du Voyage à la Recherche de la Pérouse in Paris.
- March 22 – Company of Surgeons granted a royal charter to become the Royal College of Surgeons in London.
- September - Philippe Pinel publishes Traité médico-philosophique sur l'aliénation mentale ou la manie (Medical and philosophical Treatise on insanity or mania) which marked the beginning of an in-depth change in the approaches and methods of work with "lunatics".
- Xavier Bichat publishes Traité sur les membranes and Recherches physiologiques sur la vie et la mort, pioneering texts in histology and pathology.
- Andrea Vaccà Berlinghieri publishes Traité des maladies vénériennes (Treatise on venereal diseases).
- Georges Cuvier begins publishing its Leçons d'anatomie comparée (5 volumes, 1800-1805).
- Alessandro Volta devises the first chemical battery, thereby founding the discipline of electrochemistry.
- Infrared rays are discovered by William Herschel, an English astronomer of German origin.
- Yeast is discovered, as a new way to make beer ferment (beer made before 1800 was lambic).
- Robert Fulton builds a practical experimental manually-propelled naval submarine Nautilus in France (first test dive July 29 at Rouen).
- Henry Maudslay develops the first industrially practical screw-cutting lathe, allowing standardisation of screw thread sizes for the first time, in London.
- The first design for a cast iron twin leaf swing bridge is produced by Ralph Walker for London Docks.
- January 14 – Ludwig von Köchel, Austrian musicologist and botanist (died 1877)
- February 11 – H. Fox Talbot, English pioneer of photography (died 1877)
- February 12 – John Edward Gray, English taxonomist (died 1875)
- February 23 – William Jardine, Scottish naturalist (died 1874)
- February 27 – Robert Willis, English mechanical engineer, phonetician and architectural historian (died 1875)
- March 14 – James Bogardus, American inventor (died 1874)
- April 15 – James Clark Ross, English explorer of the Polar regions (died 1862)
- May 25 – Leonard Jenyns, English natural historian (died 1893)
- July 31 – Friedrich Woehler, German chemist (died 1882)
- August 26 – Félix Archimède Pouchet, French scientist (died 1872)
- December 29 – Charles Goodyear, American inventor of the vulcanization process (died 1860)
- Anna Volkova, Russian chemist (died 1876)
- January 1 – Louis-Jean-Marie Daubenton, French naturalist (born 1716)
- March 14 – Daines Barrington, English naturalist (born 1727)
- November 5 – Jesse Ramsden, English scientific instrument maker (born 1735)
- Everett, Jason M., ed. (2006). "1800". The People's Chronology. Thomson Gale. Retrieved 2007-06-01.
- Howard, Edward (1800). "On a New Fulminating Mercury". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 90 (1): 204–238. doi:10.1098/rstl.1800.0012.
- Kurzer, F. (1999). "The Life and Work of Edward Charles Howard". Annals of Science. 56: 113–141. doi:10.1080/000337999296445.
- "Edward Charles Howard (1774-1816), Scientist and sugar refiner". National Portrait Gallery, London. 2005-01-05. Retrieved 2006-08-30.
- Pinel, Philippe (1809). Traité médico-philosophique sur l'aliénation mentale. Chez J. Ant. Brosson.
- Elaut, L. (July 1969). "The theory of membranes of F. X. Bichat and his predecessors". Sudhoffs Archiv. West Germany. 53 (1): 68–76. ISSN 0039-4564. PMID 4241888.
- Andrea Vacca Berlinghieri; Pierre Philippe Alyon (1800). Traité des maladies vénériennes. Moutardier.
- Georges Cuvier, Leçons d'anatomie comparée
- "Inventor Alessandro Volta Biography". The Great Idea Finder. The Great Idea Finder. 2005. Retrieved 2007-02-23.
- Rolt, L. T. C. (1962). Great Engineers. London: Bell.
- Burke, James (1978). Connections. London: Macmillan. pp. 145–6. ISBN 0-333-24827-9.
- Clarke, Mike (2009-01-05). "A Brief History of Movable Bridges". Retrieved 2012-02-09.
- Davies, Thomas (1800-11-04). "Description of Menura superba, a Bird of New South Wales". Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. 6 (published 1802). pp. 207–10.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Lyre-Bird". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.