The Berber calendar is the agricultural calendar traditionally used by Berbers. It is known as the fellaḥi; the calendar is utilized to regulate the seasonal agricultural works. The Islamic calendar, a lunar calendar, is not suited for agriculture because it does not relate to seasonal cycles. In other parts of the Islamic world either Iranian solar calendars, the Coptic calendar, the Rumi calendar, or other calendars based on the Julian calendar, were used before the introduction of the Gregorian calendar; the current Berber calendar is a legacy of the Roman province of Mauretania Caesariensis and the Roman province of Africa, as it is a surviving form of the Julian calendar. The latter calendar was used in Europe before the adoption of the Gregorian calendar, with month names derived from Latin. Berber populations used various indigenous calendars, such as that of the Guanche autochthones of the Canary Islands; however little is known of these ancient calendrical systems. The agricultural Berber calendar still in use is certainly derived from the Julian calendar, introduced in the Roman province of Africa at the time of Roman domination.
The names of the months of this calendar are derived from the corresponding Latin names and races of the Roman calendar denominations of Kalends and Ides exist: El Qabisi, an Islamic jurisconsult by Kairawan who lived in the 11th century, condemned the custom of celebrating "pagans'" festivals and cited, among traditional habits of North Africa, that of observing January Qalandas. The length of the year and of the individual months is the same as in the Julian calendar: three years of 365 days followed by a leap year of 366, without exceptions, 30- and 31-day months, except for the second one that has 28 days; the only slight discrepancy lies in that the extra day in leap years is not added at the end of February, but at the end of the year. This means that the beginning of the year corresponds to the 14th day of January in the Gregorian calendar, which coincides with the offset accumulated during the centuries between astronomical dates and the Julian calendar. In addition to the subdivision by months, within the traditional agricultural calendar there are other partitions, by "seasons" or by "strong periods", characterized by particular festivals and celebrations.
Not all the four seasons have retained a Berber denomination: the words for spring and autumn are used everywhere, more sparingly the winter and, among northern Berbers, the Berber name for the autumn has been preserved only in Jebel Nafusa. Spring tafsut – Begins on 15 furar Summer anebdu – Begins on 17 mayu Autumn amwal / aməwan ( – Begins on 17 ghusht Winter tagrest - Begins on 16 numbír An interesting element is the existing opposition between two 40-day terms, one representing the coldest part of winter and one the hottest period of summer; the coldest period is made up by 20 "white nights", from 12 to 31 dujamber, 20 "black nights", beginning on the first day of yennayer, corresponding to the Gregorian 14 January. The first day of the year is celebrated in various ways in the different parts of North Africa. A widespread tradition is a meal with particular foods. In some regions, it is marked by the sacrifice of an animal. In Algeria, such a holiday is celebrated by many people who don't use the Berber calendar in daily life.
A characteristic trait of this festivity, which blurs with the Islamic Day of Ashura, is the presence, in many regions, of ritual invocations with formulas like bennayu, babiyyanu, bu-ini, etc. Such expressions, according to many scholars, may be derived from of the ancient bonus annus wishes. A curious aspect of the Yennayer celebrations concerns the date of New Year's Day. Though once this anniversary fell everywhere on 14 January, because of a mistake introduced by some Berber cultural associations active in recovering customs on the verge of extinction, at present in a wide part of Algeria it is common opinion that the date of "Berber New Year's Day" is 12 January and not the 14th; the celebration at the 12, two days before the traditional one, it had been explicitly signaled in the city of Oran. El Azara is the period of the year extending, according to the Berber calendar, from 3 to 13 February and known by a climate sometimes hot, sometimes cold. Before the cold ends and spring begins there is a period of the year, feared.
It consists of ten days straddling the months of furar and mars, it is characterised by strong winds. It is said that, during this term, one should suspend many activities, should not marry nor go out during the night, leaving instead full scope to mysterious powers, which in that period are active and celebrate their weddings. Due to a linguistic taboo, in Djerba these creatures are called imbarken, i.e. "the blessed ones", whence this period takes its name. Jamrat el Ma, "embers of the sea", 27 February, is marked by a rise in sea temperature. Jamrat el Trab, "land embers" in English, is the period from 6 to 10 March and known to be marked by a mixture of heavy rain and sunny weather. Jamrat or coal is a term used t
The 1790s decade ran from January 1, 1790, to December 31, 1799. January 8 – United States President George Washington gives the first State of the Union address, in New York City. January 11 – The 11 minor states of the Austrian Netherlands, which took part in the Brabant Revolution at the end of 1789, sign a Treaty of Union, creating the United States of Belgium. British Prime Minister William Pitt refuses to recognize the new confederation's independence. January 14 – U. S. Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton submits his proposed plan for payment of American debts, starting with $12,000,000 to pay the foreign debts of the confederation, followed by $40 million for domestic debts, $21.5 million for the war debts of the states. The plan was narrowly approved 34-28 in the House. January 26 – Mozart's opera Così fan tutte premieres in Vienna. January 30 – The first boat specialized as a rescue lifeboat is tested on the River Tyne in England. February 1 -- In the Supreme Court of the United States convenes for the first time.
February 4 – Louis XVI of France declares to the National Assembly that he will maintain the constitutional laws. February 11 – Two Quaker delegates petition the United States Congress for the abolition of slavery. February 25 – North Carolina cedes its western territories to the federal government. March 1 – The first United States Census is authorized. March 4 – France is divided into 83 départements, which cut across the former provinces, in an attempt to dislodge regional loyalties based on noble ownership of land. March 6 – The New York legislature consents to the admission to the Union of a new state, formed within the boundaries of New York, contingent upon the successful conclusion of negotiations concerning disputed real-estate claims, the boundary between the two states. March 21 – Thomas Jefferson reports to President George Washington in New York, as the new United States Secretary of State. April 10 – The United States patent system is established. May 13 – Battle of Reval: Gustav III of Sweden sends the battlefleet to eliminate the Russian squadron wintering at Reval, but is defeated.
May 17–18 – Battle of Andros: An Ottoman–Algerian fleet destroys the fleet of the Greek privateer Lambros Katsonis. May 26 – Congress passes an act to govern the creation of states from the "Southwest Territory", from which Tennessee and Mississippi will be formed. May 29 – Rhode Island ratifies the United States Constitution, becomes the last of the 13 original states to do so. June 9 – Royal assent is given to establishment of the port of Milford Haven in Wales. June 20 – Compromise of 1790: Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton come to an agreement: Madison agrees to not be "strenuous" in opposition for the assumption of state debts by the federal government. June 23 – The alleged London Monster is arrested in London. July – Louis XVI of France accepts a constitutional monarchy. July 9 – Russo-Swedish War – Second Battle of Svensksund: In a massive Baltic Sea battle of 300 ships, the Swedish Navy captures one third of the Russian galley fleet: 304 Swedes are killed, 3,500 Russians killed and 6,000 captured, 51 Russian galleys and other rowing craft are sunk and 22 are taken.
July 10 — The U. S. House of Representatives votes, 32-29 to approve creating the District of Columbia from portions of Maryland and Virginia for the eventual seat of government and national capital. July 12 – French Revolution: The Civil Constitution of the Clergy is passed; this completes the destruction of the monastic orders, legislating out of existence all regular and secular chapters for either sex and priorships. July 14 – French Revolution: Citizens of Paris celebrate the unity of the French people and the national reconciliation, in the Fête de la Fédération. July 16 – U. S. President George Washington signs the Residence Act into law, establishing a site along the Potomac River as the District of Columbia and the future site of the capital of the United States; the move comes after the bill is narrowly approved on July 1 by the Senate, 14 to 12, on July 9 by the House, 32 to 29. At the same time, plans are made to move the national capital from New York to Philadelphia until the Potomac River site can be completed.
July 26 – Alexander Hamilton's Assumption Bill, giving effect to his First Report on the Public Credit, is passed in the United States Congress, allowing the federal government to assume the consolidated debts of the U. S. states. July 27 – The Convention of Reichenbach is signed between Prussia and Austria. July 31 – Inventor Samuel Hopkins becomes the first to be issued a U. S. patent. August 4 – A newly passed U. S. tariff act creates the system of cutters for revenue enforcement, the forerunner of the Coast Guard. August 14 – The Treaty of Värälä ends the Russo-Swedish War. September 25 – The Peking Opera is born, when the Four Great Anhui Troupes introduce Anhui opera to Beijing, in honor of the Qianlong Emperor's 80th birthday. September 30 – Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor starts to rule. October 7 – Commissioners appointed by the New York legislature announce the successful conclusion of negotiations between New York and Vermont, concerning disputed real-estate claims, the consent of New York's legislature to the admission to the Union of the state of Vermont as the 14th State.
October 20 – T
The 1780s decade ran from January 1, 1780, to December 31, 1789. January 16 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Cape St. Vincent: British Admiral Sir George Rodney defeats a Spanish fleet. February 19 – The legislature of New York votes to allow its delegates to cede a portion of its western territory to the Continental Congress for the common benefit of the war. March 1 – The legislature of Pennsylvania votes, 34 to 21, to approve the Act for the Gradual Emancipation of Slaves. March 11 The First League of Armed Neutrality is formed by Russia with Denmark and Sweden to try to prevent the British Royal Navy from searching neutral vessels for contraband. General Lafayette embarks on French frigate Hermione at Rochefort, arriving in Boston on April 28, carrying the news that he has secured French men and ships to reinforce the American side in the American Revolutionary War. March 17 – American Revolutionary War: The British San Juan Expedition sails from Jamaica under the command of Captains John Polson and Horatio Nelson to attack the Captaincy General of Guatemala in New Spain.
March 26 – The British Gazette and Sunday Monitor, the first Sunday newspaper in Britain, begins publication. April 16 – The University of Münster in Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany is founded. April 29 – American Revolutionary War: The Spanish commander of the Fortress of the Immaculate Conception on the San Juan River in modern-day Nicaragua surrenders it to the British San Juan Expedition. May 4 – The first Epsom Derby horse race is run on Epsom Downs, England; the victor is Diomed. May 12 – American Revolutionary War: Charleston, South Carolina is taken by British forces. May 13 – The Cumberland Compact is signed by American settlers, in the Cumberland Valley of Tennessee. May 19 – New England's Dark Day: An unaccountable darkness spreads over New England, regarded by some observers as a fulfillment of Bible prophecy. May 29 – American Revolutionary War – Waxhaw Massacre: Loyalist forces under Colonel Banastre Tarleton kill surrendering American soldiers. June 2 – An Anti-Catholic mob led by Lord George Gordon marches on the Parliament of Great Britain, leading to the outbreak of the Gordon Riots in London.
June 7 – The Gordon Riots in London are ended by the intervention of troops. About 285 people are shot dead, with around 450 arrested. June 23 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Springfield: The Continental Army defeats the British in New Jersey. July 11 – French soldiers arrive in Newport, Rhode Island to reinforce the colonists, in the American Revolutionary War. July 17 – The first bank created in the United States, the Bank of Pennsylvania, is chartered. August 16 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Camden: British troops inflict heavy losses on a Patriot army at Camden, South Carolina. August 9 – American Revolutionary War: Spanish admiral Luis de Córdova y Córdova captures a British convoy totalling 55 vessels amongst Indiamen and other cargo ships off Cape St. Vincent. August 24 – Louis XVI of France abolishes the use of torture in extracting confessions. September 21 – Benedict Arnold gives detailed plans of West Point to Major John André. Three days André is captured, with papers revealing that Arnold was planning to surrender West Point to the British.
September 25 – Benedict Arnold flees to British-held New York. September 29 The Danish ship-of-the-line Printz Friderich ran aground on the Kobbergrund shoal and was a total loss October 2 – American Revolutionary War – In Tappan, New York, British spy John André is hanged by American forces. October 7 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Kings Mountain: Patriot militia forces annihilate Loyalists under British Major Patrick Ferguson, at Kings Mountain, South Carolina. October 10–16 – The Great Hurricane flattens the islands of Barbados and Sint Eustatius. November 4 – Rebellion of Túpac Amaru II: In the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru, Túpac Amaru II leads an uprising of Aymara and Quechua peoples and mestizo peasants as a protest against the Bourbon Reforms. November 28 – A lightning strike in Saint Petersburg begins a fire that burns 11,000 homes. November 29 – Maria Theresa of Austria dies, her Habsburg dominions pass to her ambitious son, Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor since 1765. November 30 – American Revolutionary War: The British San Juan Expedition is forced to withdraw.
December 16 – Emperor Kōkaku accedes to the throne of Japan. December 20 – The Fourth Anglo-Dutch War begins. Jose Gabriel Kunturkanki and landowner, proclaims himself Inca Túpac Amaru II; the Duke of Richmond calls, in the House of Lords of Great Britain, for manhood suffrage and annual parliaments, which are rejected. Jeremy Bentham's Introduction to Principles of Morals and Legislation, presenting his formulation of utilitarian ethics, is printed in London. Nikephoros Theotokis starts introducing Edinoverie, an attempt to integrate the Old Believers into Russia's established church; the Woodford Reserve bourbon whiskey distillery begins operation in Kentucky. In Ireland, Lady Berry, sentenced to death for the murder of her son, is released when she agrees to become an executioner; the original Craven Cottage is built by William Craven, 6th Baron Craven, in London, on what will become the centre circle of Fulham F. C.'s pitch. The amateur dramatic group Det Dramatiske Selskab is founded in Norway.
Western countries pay 16,000,000 ounces of silver for Chinese goods. The Kingdom of Great Britain reaches c.9 million population. January – William Pitt the Younger Prime Minister of Great Britain, enters Parliament, aged 21. January 1 – Industrial Revolution: The Iron Bridge opens across the River Severn in England. January
The 1810s decade ran from January 1, 1810, to December 31, 1819. The decade was opened with a hostile political climate around the world. Napoleon was invading France's neighbours in efforts to build a French Empire, causing a chain of global-scaled conflicts known as the Napoleonic Wars. Here, France's Napoleonic empire saw its rise and fall through events such as Napoleon's attempts to conquer Russia, the War of 1812, the Battle of Waterloo. Imperialism began to encroach towards African and Asian territories through trade, as the U. S saw mass-scaled migration that headed westward towards the American frontier In 1810, the French Empire reached its greatest extent. On the continent, the British and Portuguese remained restricted to the area around Lisbon and to besieged Cadiz. Napoleon married Marie-Louise, an Austrian Archduchess, with the aim of ensuring a more stable alliance with Austria and of providing the Emperor with an heir; as well as the French Empire, Napoleon controlled the Swiss Confederation, the Confederation of the Rhine, the Duchy of Warsaw and the Kingdom of Italy.
Territories allied with the French included: the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Westphalia, the Kingdom of Naples, the Principality of Lucca and Piombino, Napoleon's former enemies and Austria. Denmark–Norway allied with France in opposition to Great Britain and Sweden in the Gunboat War; the French invasion of Russia of 1812 was a turning point, which reduced the French and allied invasion forces to a tiny fraction of their initial strength and triggered a major shift in European politics, as it weakened the dominant French position on the continent. After the disastrous invasion of Russia, a coalition of Austria, Russia, the United Kingdom, a number of German States, the rebels in Spain and Portugal united to battle France in the War of the Sixth Coalition. Two-and-a-half million troops fought in the conflict and the total dead amounted to as many as two million; this era included the battles of Smolensk, Borodino, Lützen and the Dresden. It included the epic Battle of Leipzig in October, 1813, the largest battle of the Napoleonic wars, which drove Napoleon out of Germany.
The final stage of the War of the Sixth Coalition, the defense of France in 1814, saw the French Emperor temporarily repulse the vastly superior armies in the Six Days Campaign. The Allies occupied Paris, forcing Napoleon to abdicate and restoring the Bourbons. Napoleon was exiled to Elba. In 1814, Denmark–Norway was defeated by Great Britain and Sweden and had to cede the territory of mainland Norway to the King of Sweden at the Treaty of Kiel. Napoleon shortly returned from exile, landing in France on March 1, 1815, marking the War of the Seventh Coalition, heading toward Paris while the Congress of Vienna was sitting. On March 13, seven days before Napoleon reached Paris, the powers at the Congress of Vienna declared him an outlaw; this set the stage for the last conflict in the Napoleonic Wars, the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo, the restoration of the French monarchy for the second time and the permanent exile of Napoleon to the distant island of Saint Helena, where he died in May 1821.
Spain in the 1810s was a country in turmoil. Occupied by Napoleon from 1808 to 1814, a massively destructive "war of independence" ensued, driven by an emergent Spanish nationalism. In 1810, the Caracas and Buenos Aires juntas declared their independence from the Bonapartist government in Spain and sent ambassadors to the United Kingdom; the British blockade against Spain had moved most of the Latin American colonies out of the Spanish economic sphere and into the British sphere, with whom extensive trade relations were developed. The remaining Spanish colonies had operated with virtual independence from Madrid after their pronouncement against Joseph Bonaparte; the Spanish government in exile created the first modern Spanish constitution. So, agreements made at the Congress of Vienna would cement international support for the old, absolutist regime in Spain. King Ferdinand VII, who assumed the throne after Napoleon was driven out of Spain, refused to agree to the liberal Spanish Constitution of 1812 on his accession to the throne in 1814.
The Spanish Empire in the New World had supported the cause of Ferdinand VII over the Bonapartist pretender to the throne in the midst of the Napoleonic Wars. When Ferdinand's rule was restored, these juntas were cautious of abandoning their autonomy, an alliance between local elites, merchant interests and liberals opposed to the abrogation of the Constitution of 1812 rose up against the Spanish in the New World; the arrival of Spanish forces in the American colonies began in 1814, was successful in restoring central control over large parts of the Empire. Simón Bolívar, the leader of revolutionary forces in New Granada, was forced into exile in British-controlled Jamaica, independent Haiti. In 1816, Bolivar found enough popular support that he was able to return to South America, in a daring march from Venezuela to New Granada, he defeated Spanish forces at the Battle of Boyacá in 1819, ending Spanish rule in Colombia. Venezuela was liberated June 24, 1821, when Bolivar destroyed the Spanish army on the fields of Carabobo on the Battle of Carabobo.
The 20th century was a century that began on January 1, 1901 and ended on December 31, 2000. It was the final century of the 2nd millennium, it is distinct from the century known as the 1900s which began on January 1, 1900 and ended on December 31, 1999. The 20th century was dominated by a chain of events that heralded significant changes in world history as to redefine the era: flu pandemic, World War I and World War II, nuclear power and space exploration and decolonization, the Cold War and post-Cold War conflicts, it saw great advances in communication and medical technology that by the late 1980s allowed for near-instantaneous worldwide computer communication and genetic modification of life. Global total fertility rates, sea level rise and ecological collapses increased, it took over two-hundred thousand years of human history up to 1804 for the world's population to reach 1 billion. Global literacy averaged 80%; the century had the first global-scale total wars between world powers across continents and oceans in World War I and World War II.
Nationalism became a major political issue in the world in the 20th century, acknowledged in international law along with the right of nations to self-determination, official decolonization in the mid-century, related regional conflicts. The century saw a major shift in the way that many people lived, with changes in politics, economics, culture, science and medicine; the 20th century may have seen more technological and scientific progress than all the other centuries combined since the dawn of civilization. Terms like ideology, world war and nuclear war entered common usage. Scientific discoveries, such as the theory of relativity and quantum physics, profoundly changed the foundational models of physical science, forcing scientists to realize that the universe was more complex than believed, dashing the hopes at the end of the 19th century that the last few details of scientific knowledge were about to be filled in, it was a century that started with horses, simple automobiles, freighters but ended with high-speed rail, cruise ships, global commercial air travel and the Space Shuttle.
Horses, Western society's basic form of personal transportation for thousands of years, were replaced by automobiles and buses within a few decades. These developments were made possible by the exploitation of fossil fuel resources, which offered energy in an portable form, but caused concern about pollution and long-term impact on the environment. Humans explored space for the first time. Mass media, telecommunications, information technology made the world's knowledge more available. Advancements in medical technology improved the health of many people: the global life expectancy increased from 35 years to 65 years. Rapid technological advancements, however allowed warfare to reach unprecedented levels of destruction. World War II alone killed over 60 million people, while nuclear weapons gave humankind the means to annihilate itself in a short time. However, these same wars resulted in the destruction of the imperial system. For the first time in human history and their wars of expansion and colonization ceased to be a factor in international affairs, resulting in a far more globalized and cooperative world.
The last time major powers clashed was in 1945, since violence has seen an unprecedented decline. The world became more culturally homogenized than with developments in transportation and communications technology, popular music and other influences of Western culture, international corporations, what was arguably a global economy by the end of the 20th century. Technological advancements during World War I changed the way war was fought, as new inventions such as tanks, chemical weapons, aircraft modified tactics and strategy. After more than four years of trench warfare in Western Europe, 20 million dead, the powers that had formed the Triple Entente emerged victorious over the Central Powers. In addition to annexing many of the colonial possessions of the vanquished states, the Triple Entente exacted punitive restitution payments from them, plunging Germany in particular into economic depression; the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires were dismantled at the war's conclusion. The Russian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of the Tsarist regime of Nicholas II and the onset of the Russian Civil War.
The victorious Bolsheviks established the Soviet Union, the world's first communist state. At the beginning of the period, the British Empire was the world's most powerful nation, having acted as the world's policeman for the past century. Fascism, a movement which grew out of post-war ang
The Buddhist calendar is a set of lunisolar calendars used in mainland Southeast Asian countries of Cambodia, Laos and Thailand as well as in Sri Lanka and Chinese populations of Malaysia and Singapore for religious or official occasions. While the calendars share a common lineage, they have minor but important variations such as intercalation schedules, month names and numbering, use of cycles, etc. In Thailand, the name Buddhist Era is a year numbering system shared by the traditional Thai lunisolar calendar and by the Thai solar calendar; the Southeast Asian lunisolar calendars are based on an older version of the Hindu calendar, which uses the sidereal year as the solar year. One major difference is that the Southeast Asian systems, unlike their Indian cousins, do not use apparent reckoning to stay in sync with the sidereal year. Instead, they employ their versions of the Metonic cycle. However, since the Metonic cycle is not accurate for sidereal years, the Southeast Asian calendar is drifting out of sync with the sidereal one day every 100 years.
Yet no coordinated structural reforms of the lunisolar calendar have been undertaken. Today, the traditional Buddhist lunisolar calendar is used for Theravada Buddhist festivals, no longer has the official calendar status anywhere; the Thai Buddhist Era, a renumbered Gregorian calendar, is the official calendar in Thailand. The calculation methodology of the current versions of Southeast Asian Buddhist calendars is based on that of the Burmese calendar, in use in various Southeast Asian kingdoms down to the 19th century under the names of Chula Sakarat and Jolak Sakaraj; the Burmese calendar in turn was based on the "original" Surya Siddhanta system of ancient India. One key difference with Indian systems is that the Burmese system has followed a variation of the Metonic cycle, it is unclear from where, how the Metonic system was introduced. The Burmese system, indeed the Southeast Asian systems, thus use a "strange" combination of sidereal years from Indian calendar in combination with the Metonic cycle better for tropical years.
In all Theravada traditions, the calendar's epochal year 0 date was the day in which the Buddha attained parinibbāna. However, not all traditions agree on when it took place. In Burmese Buddhist tradition, it was 13 May 544 BCE, but in Thailand, it was 11 March 545 BCE, the date which the current Thai lunisolar and solar calendars use as the epochal date. Yet, the Thai calendars for some reason have fixed the difference between their Buddhist Era numbering and the Christian/Common Era numbering at 543, which points to an epochal year of 544 BCE, not 545 BCE. In Myanmar, the difference between BE and CE can be 543 or 544 for CE dates, 544 or 543 for BCE dates, depending on the month of the Buddhist Era. In Sri Lanka, the difference between BE and CE is 544; the calendar recognizes two types of months: sidereal month. The Synodic months are used to compose the years while the 27 lunar sidereal days, alongside the 12 signs of the zodiac, are used for astrological calculations; the days of the month are counted in two halves and waning.
The 15th of the waxing is the civil full moon day. The civil new moon day is the last day of the month; because of the inaccuracy of the calendrical calculation systems, the mean and real New Moons coincide. The mean New Moon precedes the real New Moon; as the Synodic lunar month is 29.5 days, the calendar uses alternating months of 29 and 30 days. Various regional versions of Chula Sakarat/Burmese calendar existed across various regions of mainland Southeast Asia. Unlike Burmese systems, Lan Na, Lan Xang and Sukhothai systems refer to the months by numbers, not by names; this means reading ancient texts and inscriptions in Thailand requires constant vigilance, not just in making sure one is operating for the correct region, but for variations within regions itself when incursions cause a variation in practice. However, Cambodian month system, which begins with Margasirsa as the first month, demonstrated by the names and numbers; the Buddhist calendar is a lunisolar calendar in which the months are based on lunar months and years are based on solar years.
One of its primary objectives is to synchronize the lunar part with the solar part. The lunar months twelve of them, consist alternately of 29 days and 30 days, such that a normal lunar year will contain 354 days, as opposed to the solar year of ~365.25 days. Therefore, some form of addition to the lunar year is necessary; the overall basis for it is provided by cycles of 57 years. Eleven extra days are inserted in every 57 years, seven extra months of 30 days are inserted in every 19 years; this provides 20819 complete days to both calendars. This 57-year cycle would provide a mean year of about 365.2456 days and a mean month of about 29.530496 days, if not corrected. As such, the calendar adds an intercalary month in leap years and sometimes an intercalary day in great leap years; the intercalary month not only corrects the length of the year but corrects the accumulating error of the month to extent of half a day. The average length of the month is further corrected by adding a day to Nayon
The 1820s decade ran from January 1, 1820, to December 31, 1829. During this decade, the prevailing global superpowers were the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire. Geographically situated in the convergence of Eurasia, an upheaval of wars and conflicts rocked parts of Eastern Europe and Middle East throughout the decade, some of which including the Greek War of Independence and the Russo-Turkish War. Meanwhile, colonialism in Africa had just begun, global trade began to initiate between Asian powers with the West. Over at South America, nations such as Bolivia and Brazil rose to power and gained independence, as Spanish imperialism lose popularity and was brought down through public revolt. Apart from politics, the 1820s saw the advent of inventions and innovation, as technologies such as photography and rail transport was birthed and first patented during this era. 1820: Anchor coinage is issued for use in some British colonies. 1824 – The Dutch sign the Masang Agreement, temporarily ending hostilities in the Padri War in West Sumatra.
The Java War was fought in Java between 1825 and 1830. It started as a rebellion led by Prince Diponegoro after the Dutch decided to build a road across a piece of his property that contained his parents' tomb; the troops of Prince Diponegoro were successful in the beginning, controlling the middle of Java and besieging Yogyakarta. Furthermore, the Javanese population was supportive of Prince Diponegoro's cause, whereas the Dutch colonial authorities were very indecisive; as the Java war prolonged, Prince Diponegoro had difficulties in maintaining the numbers of his troops. Prince Diponegoro started a fierce guerrilla war and it was not until 1827 that the Dutch army gained the upper hand; the Dutch colonial army was able to fill its ranks with troops from Sulawesi, on from the Netherlands. The rebellion ended in 1830, after Prince Diponegoro was tricked into entering Dutch custody near Magelang, believing he was there for negotiations for a possible cease-fire, it is estimated that 200,000 died over the course of 8,000 being Dutch.
November 1821 - Siamese invasion of Kedah – The Siamese forces of King Rama II achieved a rapid victory against those of Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin Halim Shah II of Kedah, in what is now northern Malaysia. The campaign initiated a period of two decades; the Sultan took refuge on Penang Island under British control. By 1822 there was a rise in the population of the British territories caused by an influx of Malays displaced by the invasion. 1826 – The Burney Treaty allowed the Siamese view of their rights to prevail in Kelah. 1826 – The British crown colony of the Straits Settlements is established in what is now Malaysia and Singapore. February 14, 1820 – Minh Mang starts to rule in Vietnam. 1825 – Minh Mang outlaws the teaching of Christianity in Vietnam. 1827 - A Lao rebellion led by Anouvong was defeated in 1827, following which Siam destroyed Vientiane, carried out massive forced population transfers from Laos to the more securely held area of Isan, divided the Lao mueang British Malayainto smaller units to prevent another uprising.
1828 Siamese-Lao War: Siam invades and sacks Vientiane. 1827 – Laos: King Anouvong of Vientiane declares war on Siam and attacks Nakhon Ratchasima. November 12, 1828 – Anouvong, ruler of the Kingdom of Vientiane, is deposed and the kingdom is annexed by Siam. During the war, the city of Vientiane is obliterated by Siamese forces. 1824–1826: The First Anglo-Burmese War ended in a British victory, by the Treaty of Yandabo, Burma lost territory conquered in Assam and Arakan. The British took possession of Tenasserim with the intention to use it as a bargaining chip in future negotiations with either Burma or Siam. 1824-1826 - Rattanakosin Kingdom: Rama II died in 1824 and was peacefully succeeded by his son Jessadabodindra. In 1825 the British sent another mission to Bangkok led by East India Company emissary Henry Burney, they had by now annexed southern Burma and were thus Siam's neighbours to the west, they were extending their control over Malaya. The King was reluctant to give in to British demands, but his advisors warned him that Siam would meet the same fate as Burma unless the British were accommodated.
In 1826, Siam concluded its first commercial treaty with a western power, the Burney Treaty. Under the treaty, Siam agreed to establish a uniform taxation system, to reduce taxes on foreign trade and to abolish some of the royal monopolies; as a result, Siam's trade increased many more foreigners settled in Bangkok, western cultural influences began to spread. The kingdom became its army better armed. 1824 – The name Australia, recommended by Matthew Flinders in 1804, is adopted as the official name of the country once known as New Holland. September 13, 1824 – With his crew and 29 convicts aboard the Amity, John Oxley arrives at and founds the Moreton Bay Penal Settlement at what is now Redcliffe in Queensland, after leaving Sydney. December 25, 1826 – Major Edmund Lockyer arrives at King George Sound to take possession of the western part of Australia, establishing a settlement near Albany. June 3, 1829 – The Swan River Colony is founded in Western Australia; this secures the western'third' of the Australian landmass for the British.
August 12, 1829 – Mrs. Helen Dance, wife of the captain of the ship Sulphur, cuts down a tree to mark the day of the founding of the town of Perth, Western Australia. Caucasian War 1826 – Brit