Non-international England cricket teams
The key factor is that they were non-international and there is a significant difference between them and the official England cricket team which takes part in international fixtures. Conceptually, there is evidence of this sort of team being formed, or at least mooted and they have always been occasional elevens but, have invariably been strong sides. A typical example would be a selection consisting of leading players drawn from several county teams, the challenge excluded members of Croydon Cricket Club, with whom London were in dispute. It is possible that challenges of this sort had been issued previously, in the 1730s, any eleven men in England would in practice have come from the southeastern counties only, e. g. Berkshire, Hampshire, Middlesex, Sussex. The majority of teams were simply labelled England and sometimes the term all-England was used loosely in a generic sense but, strictly speaking. The all England term per se was first used in reports of two Kent v England matches in 1739.
The first was at Bromley Common on Monday,9 July, described as the unconquerable county, won by a very few notches. The second match was at the Artillery Ground in Bunhill Fields and this game was drawn and a report includes the phrase eleven picked out of all England. Top-level cricket at that time, was limited to the southeastern counties, before these matches, there were instances of teams representing a number of counties. On Thursday,28 August 1729, a match between Edwin Steads XI and Sir William Gages XI was held at Penshurst Park, near Tunbridge Wells in Kent, the match had the alternative title of Kent v Surrey, Sussex & Hampshire. It was 11-a-side and played for 100 guineas with some thousands watching and it seems to have been the first known innings victory as Gage got in one hand, as the former did in two hands, so the Kentish men threw it up. A contemporary report states that turned the scale of victory, which for years past has been generally on the Kentish side. Given a 1728 reference to the superiority of Kent in the 1720s, after 1739, England became a generic term used to denote numerous teams over the next two hundred years.
They invariably have important match status, depending on the quality and/or status of their opponents, the all-England teams were given names like The Rest, which more accurately describes them vis-à-vis their opponents. CricketArchive lists 29 matches involving teams called England or The Rest between 1739 and 1778 and these are all important matches but only one, England v Kent in 1744, has a scorecard. The earliest important match that has been designated first-class by CA was between a Hampshire county team and one called England on Broadhalfpenny Down at Hambledon in Hampshire on 24 June 1772. CAs list of England XI matches begins five years before Test cricket started and he kept the surplus for himself. The AEE continued for years to showcase the best players of the day
Marylebone Cricket Club
Marylebone Cricket Club is a cricket club in London, founded in 1787. It owns, and is based at, Lords in St Johns Wood, MCC was formerly the governing body of cricket both in England and Wales as well as worldwide. In 1993 many of its functions were transferred to the International Cricket Council and its English governance passed to the Test. MCC revised the Laws of Cricket in 1788 and continues to reissue them, since its foundation, the club has raised its own teams which are essentially occasional and have never taken part in any formal competition. Depending on the quality of the opposition in any match, MCC teams have held important match status from 1787 to 1894. MCC has never played in a List A match, MCC teams play many matches against minor opposition and, on these occasions, they relinquish their first-class status. Traditionally, to mark the beginning of each English season in April, MCC plays the reigning County Champions at Lords, the exact date of MCCs foundation is lost but seems to have been sometime in the late spring or the summer of 1787.
Many of its members became dissatisfied with the surroundings and complained that the site was too public. They asked Thomas Lord, a bowler at the White Conduit, to secure a more private venue within easy distance of London. When Lord opened his new ground in May 1787, the White Conduit moved there, there was a match at Lords starting on 30 July 1787 titled Marylebone Cricket Club v White Conduit Club. The England touring team wore the red and yellow stripes of the Marylebone Cricket Club as their colours for the last time on the tour to New Zealand in 1996/97. The true provenance of MCCs colours is unknown, but its players often turned out sporting Sky Blue, until well into the 19th century. Another theory, which chimes with the origins, is that MCC borrowed its colours from the livery colours of a founding patron, Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond. Although MCC remains the framer and copyright holder of the Laws of Cricket, in recent times the ICC has begun instituting changes to match regulations without much consultation with MCC.
Also, in moving its location from Lords to Dubai, the ICC gave a signal of breaking with the past and from MCC, changes to the laws of cricket are still made by the MCC. Any changes to these require a resolution of the MCC committee. MCC has long had an involvement in coaching the game of cricket. As of 2013 the clubs head coach Mark Alleyne heads an operation involving the running of an indoor-cricket school
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard-long pitch with a wicket at each end. One team bats, attempting to score as many runs as possible, each phase of play is called an innings. After either ten batsmen have been dismissed or a number of overs have been completed, the innings ends. The winning team is the one that scores the most runs, including any extras gained, at the start of each game, two batsmen and eleven fielders enter the field of play. The striker takes guard on a crease drawn on the four feet in front of the wicket. His role is to prevent the ball hitting the stumps by use of his bat. The other batsman, known as the non-striker, waits at the end of the pitch near the bowler. A dismissed batsman must leave the field, and a teammate replaces him, the bowlers objectives are to prevent the scoring of runs and to dismiss the batsman. An over is a set of six deliveries bowled by the same bowler, the next over is bowled from the other end of the pitch by a different bowler.
If a fielder retrieves the ball enough to put down the wicket with a batsman not having reached the crease at that end of the pitch. Adjudication is performed on the field by two umpires, the laws of cricket are maintained by the International Cricket Council and the Marylebone Cricket Club. Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball. Although crickets origins are uncertain, it is first recorded in south-east England in the 16th century and it spread globally with the expansion of the British Empire, leading to the first international matches in the mid-19th century. ICC, the governing body, has over 100 members. The sport is followed primarily in Australasia, the Indian subcontinent, southern Africa, womens cricket, which is organised and played separately, has achieved international standard. A number of words have been suggested as sources for the term cricket, in the earliest definite reference to the sport in 1598 it is called creckett.
One possible source for the name is the Old English cricc or cryce meaning a crutch or staff, in Samuel Johnsons Dictionary, he derived cricket from cryce, Saxon, a stick
Dartford is the principal town in the Borough of Dartford, England. The town is situated on the border of Kent and Greater London and it borders the Borough of Thurrock, via the Dartford Crossing of the River Thames and Gravesham to its east. The town centre lies in a valley through which the River Darent flows, Dartford became a market town in medieval times and, although today it is principally a commuter town for Greater London, it has a long history of religious and cultural importance. It is an important rail hub, the main through-road now by-passes the town itself, Dartford is twinned with several other towns and cities abroad including Hanau in Germany, Gravelines in France and Namyangju in South Korea. In prehistoric times, the first people appeared in the Dartford area around 250,000 years ago, many other archaeological investigations have revealed a good picture of occupation of the district with important finds from the Stone Age, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. When the Romans engineered the Dover to London road, it was necessary to cross the River Darent by ford, roman villas were built along the Darent Valley, and at Noviomagus, close by.
The Saxons may have established the first settlement where Dartford now stands, Dartford manor is mentioned in the Domesday Book, compiled in 1086, after the Norman conquest. It was owned by the king, during the medieval period Dartford was an important waypoint for pilgrims and travellers en route to Canterbury and the Continent, and various religious orders established themselves in the area. In the 12th century the Knights Templar had possession of the manor of Dartford, in the 14th century, a priory was established here, and two groups of friars—the Dominicans and the Franciscans—built hospitals here for the care of the sick. At this time the town became a small but important market town, however, cannot claim a monopoly on public houses named after Tyler. Although lacking a leader, Kentishmen had assembled at Dartford around 5 June through a sense of county solidarity at the mistreatment of Robert Belling, a man claimed as a serf by Sir Simon Burley. Having left for Rochester and Canterbury on 5 June, the rebels passed back through Dartford, swollen in number, in the 15th century, two kings of England became part of the towns history.
In March 1452, Duke of York, camped at the Brent allegedly with ten thousand men, the Duke surrendered to the king in Dartford. The place of the camp is marked today by York Road, the 16th century saw significant changes to the hitherto agrarian basis of the market in Dartford, as new industries began to take shape. The priory was destroyed in 1538 during the Dissolution of the Monasteries, many Protestants were executed during the reigns of Queen Mary and Philip and Mary, including Christopher Wade, a Dartford linen-weaver who was burnt at the stake on the Brent in 1555. The Martyrs Memorial on East Hill commemorates Wade and other Kentish Martyrs, in 1576 Dartford Grammar School was founded, part of the Tudor emphasis on education for ordinary people. The earliest industries were connected with agriculture, such as the brewing of traditional beers. Lime-burning and chalk-mining had their place, fulling was another, the cleansing of wool needed a great deal of water, which the river could provide
Gentlemen v Players
Gentlemen v Players was a first-class cricket match generally held in England twice or more a year for well over a century. It was held between teams consisting of amateurs and professionals, whereas the Players were paid wages by their county clubs or fees by match organisers, the Gentlemen nominally claimed expenses. The whole subject of expenses was controversial and it was held some leading amateurs were paid more for playing cricket than any professional. The inaugural fixture took place in 1806, with a match the same year. Thereafter, it was played on an annual basis until 1962. The advent of Test cricket coupled with social change in the 20th century saw its importance decline, on 31 January 1963, the committee of the Marylebone Cricket Club agreed unanimously to abolish the concept of amateurism and all first-class cricketers became professional. The Gentlemen v Players fixture was by viewed as an anachronism and was discontinued, a substitute fixture was sought but never instituted as the limited overs Gillette Cup competition began in 1963.
A total of 274 Gentlemen v Players matches were played from 1806 to 1962, the Players won 125 and the Gentlemen 68. There were 80 draws and one tie, at its height from the 1860s until 1914, the fixture was a prestigious one, though in terms of quality it fell far short of Test matches and even of the rival North v. South fixture. The Gentlemen famously became competitive during the career of W. G. Grace, the Players could nearly always field a strong bowling side. The game was played three days on all but a handful of occasions throughout its history. The Gentlemen v Players series ended after the 1962 season, when the distinction between amateur and professional players was abolished, Williams says a substitute fixture was sought but it was decided not to pursue this as the new Gillette Cup limited overs competition was beginning in 1963. There were contrasting views about the end of amateurism and the passing of Gentlemen v Players, the inaugural fixture was a three-day match at the original Lords ground from 7 to 9 July 1806.
It was soon followed by the second, held on the ground from 21 to 25 July. In the first match, the Gentlemen played with two men and these were the two outstanding professionals of the day, Billy Beldham and William Lambert. Lambert made a significant contribution with the bat and the Gentlemen won by an innings and 14 runs, for the return, the Gentlemen retained Lambert. The Gentlemen won a game by 82 runs and Lambert was again a significant factor. A curiosity of these matches is that they featured the veteran professional Tom Walker and these are the two players both credited with devising the roundarm style of bowling, but there is no evidence to suggest they used roundarm in 1806
Sir John Major, KG, CH, PC is a British politician who served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1990 to 1997. A cabinet minister from 1987, he served Margaret Thatcher in the Treasury, Major was Member of Parliament for Huntingdon from 1979 to 2001. He is currently the oldest living former Prime Minister, following the death of Thatcher on 8 April 2013, at the beginning of his premiership, Major presided over British participation in the Gulf War in March 1991 and negotiated the Maastricht Treaty in December 1991. Shortly after this, even though a supporter of the ERM. This event led to a loss of confidence in Conservative economic policies, Major went on to lose the 1997 general election months later, in one of the largest electoral defeats since the Great Reform Act of 1832. After defeat, Major resigned as Prime Minister and was succeeded as Leader of the Conservative Party by William Hague and he went on to retire from active politics, leaving the House of Commons at the 2001 general election.
Major was born in 1943 at St Helier Hospital in Sutton, Surrey and he was christened John Roy Major but only John was recorded on his birth certificate. He used his name until the early 1980s. He attended primary school at Cheam Common and from 1954 he attended Rutlish School, in 1955, with his fathers garden ornaments business in decline, the family moved to Brixton. He credited a chance meeting with former Prime Minister Clement Attlee on the Kings Road shortly afterwards, Major left school at the age of 16 in 1959 with three O-levels in History, English Language and English Literature. He gained three more O-levels by correspondence course, in the British Constitution and Economics, Majors first job was as a clerk in the insurance brokerage firm Pratt & Sons in 1959. Major joined the Young Conservatives in Brixton at this time, Major was almost 19 years old when his father died at the age of 82 on 27 March 1962. His mother died eight and a years in September 1970 at the age of 65. After Major became Prime Minister it was misreported that his failure to get a job as a bus conductor resulted from his failing to pass a maths test and he had in fact passed all of the necessary tests but had been passed over owing to his height.
After a period of unemployment, Major started working at the London Electricity Board in 1963 which is incidentally his successor as Prime Minister, Tony Blair. He decided to undertake a course in banking. Major took up a post as an executive at the Standard Chartered Bank in May 1965 and he was sent to work in Jos, Nigeria, by the bank in 1967 and he nearly died in a car accident there. Major was interested in politics from an early age, encouraged by fellow Conservative Derek Stone, he started giving speeches on a soap-box in Brixton Market
The Hambledon Club was a social club that is famous for its organisation of 18th century cricket matches. By the late 1770s it was the foremost cricket club in England, the origin of the club, based near Hambledon in rural Hampshire, is unclear but it had certainly been founded by 1768. From the mid-1760s, Hambledons stature grew till by the late 1770s it was the foremost cricket club in England. In spite of its remoteness, it had developed into a private club of noblemen and country gentry. Although some of these played in matches, professional players were mainly employed. The club produced several players including John Small, Thomas Brett, Richard Nyren, David Harris, Tom Taylor, Billy Beldham. It was the inspiration for the first significant cricket book, The Cricketers of My Time by John Nyren, the Hambledon Club was essentially social and, as it was multi-functional, not really a cricket club as such. Rather it is seen as an organiser of matches, arguments have taken place among historians about whether its teams should be termed Hampshire or Hambledon.
A study of the sources indicates that the nomenclature changed frequently, the subject is complicated by a reference to the Kent versus Hampshire & Sussex match at Guildford Bason on 26 &28 August 1772. According to the source, Hampshire & Sussex was synonymous with Hambledon Club and it is interesting that Sussex cricket was not very prominent during the Hambledon period and this could have been because Hambledon operated a team effectively representing two counties. Certainly there were Sussex connections at Hambledon such as John Bayton, Richard Nyren, William Barber, in 1782 the club moved from its original ground at Broadhalfpenny Down to Windmill Down, about half a mile away towards the village of Hambledon. The Bat and Ball Inn had been requisitioned as a dump by the military. Ridge Meadow is still the home of Hambledon C. C. today, on 29 August 1796, fifteen people attended a meeting and amongst them, according to the official minutes, was Mr Thos Pain, Authour of the rights of Man.
It was certainly a joke for Thomas Paine was under sentence of death for treason, the last meeting was held on 21 September 1796 where the minutes read only that No Gentlemen were present. The club had a round of six toasts,6. The Immortal Memory of Madge 1, the enigmatic Madge is a what, not a who. Indeed, it is believed to be a common, but crude, a description of the revival and, the whole history of the Hambledon Club can be read in The Glory Days of Cricket by Ashley Mote. The original ground is at Broadhalfpenny Down, opposite the Bat and Ball Inn, in Hyden Farm Lane, near Clanfield, where now the Broadhalfpenny Brigands Cricket Club play
Sheffield Cricket Club
The Sheffield Cricket Club was founded in the 18th century and soon became important to the development of cricket in northern England. It was the forerunner of Yorkshire County Cricket Club and some of the teams fielded by Sheffield were styled Yorkshire. Sheffield generally held important match status, depending on the quality of their opponents, the earliest known references to cricket in Yorkshire are in 1751. These relate to local matches in Sheffield and to a game on or soon after Monday,5 August at Stanwick, near Richmond, between the Duke of Cleveland’s XI and Earl of Northumberland’s XI. It is believed that Sheffield Cricket Club was founded soon after that date and it began to play matches against teams from northern towns. Sheffield quickly became the centre for cricket in Yorkshire. In September 1757, a match took place between Wirksworth and Sheffield at Brampton Moor, near Chesterfield and this is the earliest reference to cricket in Derbyshire. Mr White does not give the source from which he himself derived the information.
On Tuesday,7 July 1761, the Leeds Intelligencer announced a game to be played at Chapeltown the following Thursday, on Thursday,5 September 1765, the London Chronicle reported a great match on Monday,26 August, Leeds v Sheffield at Chapeltown Moor, near Leeds. As this game was highly rated and was reported by a London newspaper, in August 1771, the first of many matches between Sheffield and Nottingham was held. This one took place on the Forest Racecourse at Nottingham and is the earliest known reference to cricket in Nottinghamshire and this match may tentatively be regarded as the beginning of county-level cricket in the north of England. The Sheffield club was representative of its county in a fashion to Nottingham. In 1772, the Daily Messenger carried reports of a match in Sheffield on Monday,1 June, the Sheffield club continued to play occasional important matches, mainly against other northern clubs. In September 1833 occurred the first use of Yorkshire as the name instead of Sheffield.
This was in the Yorkshire v Norfolk match at Hyde Park, the great Fuller Pilch was still playing for Norfolk. Yorkshire was by now finding star players of its own, especially the fast bowling all-rounder Tom Marsden. Although the Sheffield and Manchester clubs had met previously, there was a significant development on 23,24 &25 July 1849 when the match was called Yorkshire versus Lancashire at Hyde Park. This was the first match to involve a Lancashire county team and also, therefore, in the winter of 1854, the club agreed to build a new ground on land near to Bramall Lane which they were to lease from the Duke of Norfolk for ninety-nine years
Hadlow Cricket Club
Hadlow Cricket Club was one of the early English cricket clubs, formed in the early to mid eighteenth century. Hadlow is a village in the Medway valley near Tonbridge in Kent, in the 1747 English cricket season, the Hadlow cricket club was stated in contemporary sources, published by F S Ashley-Cooper, to be a famous parish for cricket. The Penny London Post of 1 July that year announced a match to be played on Dartford Breach for two guineas a man by Hadlow against the famous Dartford Cricket Club as the deciding match. Unfortunately, there was no report of the outcome and no reports have found of the previous fixtures either. Later in the month, Five of Hadlow twice opposed Five of Slindon, in August 1747, when Kent played against All-England at the Artillery Ground, its team included Larkin and a player called Jones, of Hadlow. Larkin was certainly a player of the time. The last mention of the original Hadlow club is a match against Addington Cricket Club, another of the great clubs of the pre-MCC era.
Cricket went into decline in the 1750s, largely because of the Seven Years War and Hadlow was missing from the sources when the war ended in 1763, Cricket is still played at Hadlow. The present ground is located off Common Road, to the north of the village, the modern club was first mentioned in 1819. The pavilion dates from 1864, it cost £42. 10s to build, as of 2011, the club has teams in Division 2 and Division 4 of the Kent County Village League. Hadlow Cricket Club website From Lads to Lords, The History of Cricket,1300 –1787 David Underdown, Start of Play, Allen Lane,2000
Moulsey Hurst is located in what is now West Molesey, Surrey on the south bank of the River Thames above Molesey Lock. It is one of Englands oldest sporting venues and was used in the 18th and 19th centuries for cricket, the site can be reached from Hampton across the river by Hampton Ferry when it is running in the summer. This venue is considered to be one of the oldest used for organised cricket, along with other historical cricket greens, the earliest known use of the site for cricket was in 1723 for a game between Surrey and London. One of crickets most famous paintings is Cricket at Moulsey Hurst, the painting is owned by MCC and on display at Lords. It was the site of the now defunct Hurst Park horse race course, the 1872 Ordnance Survey map shows a race course marked Molesey Hurst in this position. The location of the ground was probably in the centre of the racecourse. Molesey Hurst Golf Club was founded in 1907, the club disappeared at the onset of WW2. Other sports and activities included ballooning and archery, in 2004, Hurst Park Residents Association laid out a heritage marker close to the river, which contains a number of illustrations of the history and activities of the area.
From Commons to Lords, Volume One,1700 to 1750, from Lads to Lords – Moulsey Hurst CricketArchive re Moulsey Hurst