1807 in science
- Potassium and sodium are isolated by Sir Humphry Davy.
- The use of fulminate in firearms is patented by the Rev. Alexander John Forsyth of Scotland.
- The Geological Society is founded in London; among the more prominent founders are William Babington, James Parkinson, Humphry Davy and George Bellas Greenough.
- William Wallace proves that any two simple polygons of equal area are equidecomposable, later known as the Bolyai–Gerwien theorem.
- Samuel Hahnemann first introduces the term 'homeopathy' in an essay, "Indications of the Homeopathic Employment of Medicines in Ordinary Practice", published in Versammlung der Hufelandische medicinisch-chirurgischen Gesellschaft.
- July 20 – French brothers Claude and Nicéphore Niépce receive a patent for their Pyréolophore, an early internal combustion engine, having demonstrated it powering a boat on the Saône.
- August 17 – Robert Fulton's North River Steamboat makes her first trip from New York to Albany.
- November 19 – English inventor Lionel Lukin launches the world's first sailing self-righting rescue life-boat, the Frances Anne, at Lowestoft.
- William Cubitt patents self-regulating sails for windmills.
- Henry Maudslay patents an improved table engine.
- William Hyde Wollaston patents the camera lucida.
- Alexander von Humboldt's Le Voyage aux Régions equinoxiales du Nouveau Continent, fait en 1799-1804, par Alexandre de Humboldt et Aimé Bonpland begins publication.
- Thomas Young's A Course of Lectures on Natural Philosophy and the Mechanical Arts published.
- January 28 – Robert McClure, Irish-born Arctic explorer (died 1873)
- May 28 – Louis Agassiz, Swiss-born American zoologist and geologist (died 1873)
- November 14 – Auguste Laurent, French chemist (died 1853)
- February 27 - Louise du Pierry, French astronomer (born 1746)
- April 4 – Joseph Jérôme Lefrançais de Lalande, French astronomer (born 1732)
- December 5 – Francis Willis, English physician specialising in mental disorders (born 1718)
- "4 Vesta". JPL Small-Body Database Browser. Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 2011-08-09.
- "Rifled Breech Loader". globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
- Stewart, Ian (1996). From Here to Infinity (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-19-283202-3.
- Gumpert, Martin (1945). Hahnemann: the Adventurous Career of a Medical Rebel (English-language ed.). New York: Fischer. p. 130.
- Malster, Robert, ed. (2013). The Minute Books of the Suffolk Humane Society... and the world's first sailing lifeboat. Suffolk Records Society, vol. 56. Woodbridge: Boydell Press. ISBN 978-1-84383-805-0.
- Brown, Peter. "Sir William Cubitt (1785-1861)". Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-18.
- Hammond, John; Austin, Jill (1987). The camera lucida in art and science. Taylor & Francis.
- Harris, G. P. (1807). "Description of two new Species of Didelphis from Van Diemen's Land". Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. 9: 174–78. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1818.tb00336.x. Retrieved 2015-12-10.