Nathaniel Massie was a frontier surveyor in the Ohio Country who became a prominent land owner and soldier. He founded fourteen early towns in what became the State of Ohio, including its first capital, Chillicothe. In 1807, the Ohio General Assembly declared him the winner of the election for governor, but he refused the office. A native of the colony of Virginia, Massie served in the Virginia militia during the American Revolutionary War. After becoming a surveyor, he established the first town in the Virginia Military District at what is now Manchester, he platted the town of Chillicothe on his own land. Massie was one of the largest landowners in early Ohio, served as a major general in the Ohio militia. Massie served as a Ross county delegate to the 1802 Ohio Constitutional Convention and was a leader of the Jeffersonian faction that supported statehood, he was a leader of the Chillicothe Junto, a group of Chillicothe Democratic-Republican politicians who brought about the admission of Ohio as a state in 1803, controlled its politics for some years thereafter.
Among his colleagues in the faction were Thomas Worthington and Edward Tiffin. He was a Presidential elector for Thomas Jefferson in 1804 and James Madison in 1808, he was a Trustee of Ohio University from 1804 to 1808. Massie was the first president of the Ohio Senate. Massie led troops in the War of 1812, but died of pneumonia in the late autumn of 1813 at the age of 49, he is interred in Chillicothe in Ross County, Ohio. The Nathaniel Massie Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution in Chillicothe is named in the general's honor, as is Massie Township in Warren County and the Clinton-Massie Local School District that serves the area. Massie is a member of the Ohio Hall of Fame. A monument to Massie stands along U. S. Route 50, just west of Bainbridge, a town he founded, it commemorates his life, as well as marking the approximate location of his home in the Paint Valley. The memorial was dedicated in September 1938; the inscription on the monument reads: "Home Of General Nathaniel Massie.
Built 1800, One Fourth Mile South. Nathaniel Massie, Born Goochland County, December 28, 1763, 1800 Married Sarah Everard Mead, Died November 13, 1813. Revolutionary Soldier. 1786-87 Cut Road Lexington, Kentucky To Great Kanawha River. 1791 Founded Manchester, Ohio. 1790-94 Explored Little Miami And Scioto Rivers To Their Sources. April 1796 Founded Chillicothe, Ohio. Massie Was Member Of Convention Framing First Ohio Constitution. Was First Speaker Of State Legislature. 1799 Organized First Militia Northwest Territory. Commissioned Major General. 1805 Founded Bainbridge, One Of Fourteen Towns Founded By Him. Erected By The Ohio Society Daughters Of The American Colonists - Sept. 21, 1938." Nathaniel Massie at Ohio History Central "Nathaniel Massie". Appleton's Cyclopædia of American Biography. 4. 1900. P. 250
1808 United States presidential election
The United States presidential election of 1808 was the sixth quadrennial presidential election, held from Friday, November 4, to Wednesday, December 7, 1808. The Democratic-Republican candidate James Madison defeated Federalist candidate Charles Cotesworth Pinckney decisively. Madison's victory made him the first individual to succeed a president of the same party. Madison had served as Secretary of State since President Thomas Jefferson took office in 1801. Jefferson, who had declined to run for a third term, threw his strong support behind Madison, a fellow Virginian. Sitting Vice President George Clinton and former Ambassador James Monroe both challenged Madison for leadership of the party, but Madison won his party's nomination and Clinton was re-nominated as vice president; the Federalists chose to re-nominate Pinckney, a former ambassador who had served as the party's 1804 nominee. Despite the unpopularity of the Embargo Act of 1807, Madison won the vast majority of electoral votes outside of the Federalist stronghold of New England.
Clinton received six electoral votes for president from his home state of New York. This election was the first of two instances in American history in which a new president was selected but the incumbent vice president won re-election, the other being in 1828. James Madison, Secretary of State James Monroe, Former U. S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom George Clinton, Vice President of the United States George Clinton, Vice President of the United States Henry Dearborn, Secretary of War John Quincy Adams, United States Senator Nominations for the 1808 presidential election were made by congressional caucuses. With Thomas Jefferson ready to retire, supporters of Secretary of State James Madison of Virginia worked to ensure that Madison would succeed Jefferson. Madison's primary competition came from former Ambassador James Monroe of Virginia and Vice President George Clinton. Monroe was supported by a group known as the tertium quids, who supported a weak central government and were dissatisfied by the Louisiana Purchase and the Compact of 1802.
Clinton's support came from Northern Democratic-Republicans who disapproved of the Embargo Act and who sought to end the Virginia Dynasty. The Congressional caucus met in January 1808, choosing Madison as its candidate for president and Clinton as its candidate for vice president. Many supporters of Monroe and Clinton refused to accept the result of the caucus. Monroe was nominated by a group of Virginia Democratic-Republicans, although he did not try to defeat Madison, he refused to withdraw from the race. Clinton was supported by a group of New York Democratic-Republicans for president as he remained the party's official vice presidential candidate; the Federalist caucus met in September 1808 and re-nominated the party's 1804 ticket, which consisted of General Charles Cotesworth Pinckney of South Carolina and former Senator Rufus King of New York. The election was marked by opposition to Jefferson's Embargo Act of 1807, a halt to trade with Europe that disproportionately hurt New England merchants and was perceived as favoring France over Britain.
Nonetheless, Jefferson was still popular with Americans and Pinckney was soundly defeated by Madison, though not as badly as in 1804. Pinckney received few electoral votes outside of New England. Pinckney retained the electoral votes of the two states that he carried in 1804, he picked up New Hampshire, Rhode Island, three electoral districts in North Carolina besides the two electoral districts in Maryland that he carried earlier. Except for the North Carolina districts, all of the improvement was in New England. Monroe won a portion of the popular vote in Virginia and North Carolina, while the New York legislature split its electoral votes between Madison and Clinton. Source: U. S. President National Vote. Our Campaigns.. Source: A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787-1825 Source: "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved July 30, 2005. Only 10 of the 17 states chose electors by popular vote; those states that did choose electors by popular vote had varying restrictions on suffrage via property requirements.
One Elector from Kentucky did not vote. History of the United States First inauguration of James Madison 1808 and 1809 United States House of Representatives elections 1808 and 1809 United States Senate elections Brant, Irving, "Election of 1808" in Arthur Meier Schlesinger and Fred L. Israel, eds. History of American presidential elections, 1789-1968: Volume 1 pp 185-249 Carson, David A. "Quiddism and the Reluctant Candidacy of James Monroe in the Election of 1808," Mid-America 1988 70: 79–89 United States presidential election of 1808 at Encyclopædia Britannica Election of 1808 in Counting the Votes Presidential Election of 1808: A Resource Guide from the Library of Congress "A Historical Analysis of the Electoral College". The Green Papers. Retrieved March 20, 2005. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns, 1787-1825
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art
William Jones (statesman)
William Jones was an American politician. Jones was born in Pennsylvania. Apprenticed in a shipyard, during the American Revolutionary War, he saw combat in the battles of Trenton and Princeton and served at sea. In the decades that followed the war, he was a successful merchant in Charleston, South Carolina, in Philadelphia, he was elected as a Republican to the United States House of Representatives in 1800 and was offered the office of Secretary of the Navy in 1801, but declined and remained in Congress to the end of his term in 1803. With the War of 1812 raging, Jones became Secretary of the Navy in January 1813, his policies contributed to American success on the Great Lakes and to a strategy of coastal defense and commerce raiding on the high seas. In late 1814, near the end of his term, he made recommendations on the reorganization of the Navy Department; these led to the establishment of the Board of Commissioners system which operated from 1815 until 1842. From May 1813 to February 1814, Jones served as acting Secretary of the Treasury and in 1816 was appointed President of the Second Bank of the United States.
He returned to commercial pursuits in 1819. Jones died in Pennsylvania; the destroyer USS William Jones was named in his honor. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Naval History & Heritage Command. United States Congress. "William Jones". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. William Jones at Find a Grave
Joseph Hemphill was an American politician who served as a Federalist member of the U. S. House of Representatives for Pennsylvania's 3rd congressional district from 1801 to 1803 and from 1829 to 1831. Hemphill was born in Pennsylvania, he graduated from the University of Pennsylvania at Philadelphia in 1791. He studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1793 and commenced practice in West Chester, Pennsylvania, he was a member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives from 1797 to 1800. He owned the Historic Strawberry Mansion in Fairmount Park and used it as his summer home from 1821 until his death in 1842. Hemphill was elected as a Federalist to the Seventh Congress, he moved to Philadelphia in 1803, again was a member of the State House of Representatives in 1805. He was appointed the first president judge of the district court of the city and county of Philadelphia, he was again elected as a Federalist to the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Congresses, elected as a Jackson Federalist to the Eighteenth Congress, reelected as a Jacksonian to the Nineteenth Congress, served until his resignation in 1826.
He was again elected as a Jacksonian to the Twenty-first Congress. He was a member of the State House of Representatives in 1831 and 1832, died in Philadelphia in 1842. Interment in Laurel Hill Cemetery, his wife, Margaret Coleman Hemphill, was the sister of Anne Caroline Coleman, the fiancée of then-future President James Buchanan who served as a U. S. Representative from Pennsylvania. United States Congress. "Joseph Hemphill". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress; the Political Graveyard Joseph Hemphill at Find a Grave
John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams was an American statesman, diplomat and diarist who served as the sixth president of the United States from 1825 to 1829. He served as the eighth United States Secretary of State from 1817 to 1825. During his long diplomatic and political career, Adams served as an ambassador, represented Massachusetts as a United States Senator and as a member of the United States House of Representatives, he was the eldest son of John Adams, who served as the second US president from 1797 to 1801. A Federalist like his father, he won election to the presidency as a member of the Democratic-Republican Party, in the mid-1830s became affiliated with the Whig Party. Born in Braintree, Adams spent much of his youth in Europe, where his father served as a diplomat. After returning to the United States, Adams established a successful legal practice in Boston. In 1794, President George Washington appointed Adams as the U. S. ambassador to the Netherlands, Adams would serve in high-ranking diplomatic posts until 1801, when Thomas Jefferson took office as president.
Federalist leaders in Massachusetts arranged for Adams's election to the United States Senate in 1802, but Adams broke with the Federalist Party over foreign policy and was denied re-election. In 1809, Adams was appointed as the U. S. ambassador to Russia by a member of the Democratic-Republican Party. Adams held diplomatic posts for the duration of Madison's presidency, he served as part of the American delegation that negotiated an end to the War of 1812. In 1817, newly-elected President James Monroe selected Adams as his Secretary of State. In that role, Adams negotiated the Adams–Onís Treaty, which provided for the American acquisition of Florida, he helped formulate the Monroe Doctrine, which became a key tenet of U. S. foreign policy. The 1824 presidential election was contested by Adams, Andrew Jackson, William H. Crawford, Henry Clay, all of whom were members of the Democratic-Republican Party; as no candidate won a majority of the electoral vote, the House of Representatives held a contingent election to determine the president, Adams won that contingent election with the support of Clay.
As president, Adams called for an ambitious agenda that included federally-funded infrastructure projects, the establishment of a national university, engagement with the countries of Latin America, but many of his initiatives were defeated in Congress. During Adams's presidency, the Democratic-Republican Party polarized into two major camps: one group, known as the National Republican Party, supported President Adams, while the other group, known as the Democratic Party, was led by Andrew Jackson; the Democrats proved to be more effective political organizers than Adams and his National Republican supporters, Jackson decisively defeated Adams in the 1828 presidential election. Rather than retiring from public service, Adams won election to the House of Representatives, where he would serve from 1831 to his death in 1848, he joined the Anti-Masonic Party in the early 1830s before becoming a member of the Whig Party, which united those opposed to President Jackson. During his time in Congress, Adams became critical of slavery and of the Southern leaders whom he believed controlled the Democratic Party.
He was opposed to the annexation of Texas and the Mexican–American War, which he saw as a war to extend slavery. He led the repeal of the "gag rule," which had prevented the House of Representatives from debating petitions to abolish slavery. Historians concur that Adams was one of the greatest diplomats and secretaries of state in American history, but they tend to rank him as an average president. John Quincy Adams was born on July 11, 1767, to John and Abigail Adams in a part of Braintree, Massachusetts, now Quincy, he was named for his mother's maternal grandfather, Colonel John Quincy, after whom Quincy, Massachusetts, is named. Young Adams was educated by private tutors – his cousin James Thaxter and his father's law clerk, Nathan Rice, he soon began to exhibit his literary skills, in 1779 he initiated a diary which he kept until just before he died in 1848. Until the age of ten, Adams grew up on the family farm in Braintree in the care of his mother. Though absent due to his participation in the American Revolution, John Adams maintained a correspondence with his son, encouraging him to read works by authors like Thucydides and Hugo Grotius.
With his father's encouragement, Adams would translate classical authors like Virgil, Horace and Aristotle. In 1778, Adams and his father departed for Europe, where John Adams would serve as part of American diplomatic missions in France and the Netherlands. During this period, Adams studied French and Latin, attended several schools, including Leiden University. In 1781, Adams traveled to Saint Petersburg, where he served as the secretary of American diplomat Francis Dana, he returned to the Netherlands in 1783, accompanied his father to Great Britain in 1784. Though Adams enjoyed Europe, he and his family decided he needed to return to the United States to complete his education and launch a political career. Adams returned to the United States in 1785 and earned admission as a member of the junior class of Harvard College the following year, he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa and excelled academically, graduating second in his class in 1787. After graduating from Harvard, he studied law with Theophilus Parsons in Newburyport, Massachusetts from 1787 to 1789.
Adams opposed the ratification of the United States Constitution, but he came to accept the document, in 1789 his father was elected
Benjamin Stoddert was the first United States Secretary of the Navy from May 1, 1798, to March 31, 1801. Stoddert was born in Maryland, in 1744, the son of Captain Thomas Stoddert, he was educated at the University of Pennsylvania, worked as a merchant. He served as a captain in the Pennsylvania cavalry and as secretary to the Continental Board of War during the American Revolutionary War. During the war, he was injured in the Battle of Brandywine and was subsequently released from active military service. In 1781, he married Rebecca Lowndes, daughter of Christopher Lowndes, a Maryland merchant, they had eight children, they resided at the home of his father-in-law, located at Bladensburg, Maryland. In 1783, Stoddert established a tobacco export business in Georgetown, with business partners Uriah Forrest and John Murdock. After George Washington was elected President, he asked Stoddert to purchase key parcels of land in the area that would become the nation's capital, before the formal decision to establish the federal city on the banks of the Potomac drove up prices there.
Stoddert transferred the parcels to the government. During the 1790s, he helped found the Bank of Columbia to handle purchases of land in the District of Columbia for the federal government. In May 1798, President John Adams appointed Stoddert, a loyal Federalist, to oversee the newly established Department of the Navy; as the first Secretary of the Navy, Stoddert soon found himself dealing with an undeclared naval war with France, which would come to be known as the Quasi-War. Stoddert realized that the infant Navy possessed too few warships to protect a far-flung merchant marine by using convoys or by patrolling the North American coast. Rather, he concluded that the best way to defeat the French campaign against American shipping was by offensive operations in the Caribbean, where most of the French cruisers were based, thus at the outset of the conflict, the Department of the Navy adopted a policy of going to the source of the enemy's strength. American successes during the conflict resulted from a combination of Stoddert's administrative skill in deploying his limited forces and the initiative of his seagoing officers.
Under Stoddert's leadership, the reestablished United States Navy acquitted itself well and achieved its goal of stopping the depredations of French ships against American commerce. Stoddert concerned himself not only with the Navy's daily administration and operations, but with the service's future strength, he advocated building twelve 74 gun ships of the line. Congress approved construction of these ships in 1799, a design was prepared by Joshua Humphrey, who had prepared the initial designs for the 44 gun frigates of 1797 and lumber collected at the new Navy Yards. Following the peace accord with France, the Navy's personnel strength and number of active vessels was reduced; the Jefferson Administration reduced active naval strength to three frigates and sold off or used the collected supplies in the Navy Yards for gunboat construction. This policy left the United States unprepared to respond to the threats of the Barbary pirates and failed to prevent war with England in 1812. Stoddert established the Navy Department Library as a result of instructions received from President Adams in a letter dated 31 March 1800.
He left office in March 1801 to return to commercial life. Following his term as Secretary of the Navy, Stoddert's final years witnessed a decline in his fortunes: as Stoddert lost in land speculation, Georgetown declined as a commercial center, the Embargo and the War of 1812 brought American overseas trade to a halt. During this period he lived at Halcyon House, on the corner at 3400 Prospect Street NW. Stoddert died on December 13, 1813, is buried in the graveyard at Addison Chapel, Seat Pleasant, Maryland. Two Navy ships: USS Stoddert, 1920–1935, USS Benjamin Stoddert, 1964–1991 Fort Stoddert in the Mississippi Territory Benjamin Stoddert Middle School in Waldorf, Maryland Benjamin Stoddert Middle School in Temple Hills, Maryland Benjamin Stoddert Elementary School in Washington D. C. In the Georgetown section of Washington, DC, there was a Stoddert Street named after Benjamin Stoddert. In the Georgetown street renaming of 1895 the name was changed to Q Street NW. An apartment building that today stands at 2900 Q Street NW is named The Stoddert.
This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Naval History & Heritage Command. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Biography on Benjamin Stoddert Brief on Benjamin Stoddert