Hannibal Barca was a general and statesman from Ancient Carthage, considered one of the greatest military commanders in history. His father, Hamilcar Barca, was a leading Carthaginian commander during the First Punic War, his younger brothers were Mago and Hasdrubal, he was brother-in-law to Hasdrubal the Fair, all commanded Carthaginian armies. Hannibal lived during a period of great tension in the western Mediterranean Basin, triggered by the emergence of the Roman Republic as a great power after it had established its supremacy over Italy. Although Rome had won the First Punic War, revanchism prevailed in Carthage, symbolised by the alleged pledge that Hannibal made to his father to never be a friend of Rome; the Second Punic War broke out in 218 after Hannibal's attack on Saguntum, an ally of Rome in Hispania. He made his famous military exploit of carrying war to Italy by crossing the Alps with his African elephants. In his first few years in Italy, he won a succession of dramatic victories at the Trebia, Lake Trasimene, Cannae.
He distinguished himself for his ability to determine his and his opponent's respective strengths and weaknesses, to plan battles accordingly. Hannibal's well-planned strategies allowed him to conquer. Hannibal occupied most of southern Italy for 15 years, but could not win a decisive victory, as the Romans led by Fabius Maximus avoided confrontation with him, instead waging a war of attrition. A counter-invasion of North Africa led by Scipio Africanus forced him to return to Carthage. Scipio had studied Hannibal's tactics and brilliantly devised some of his own, he defeated Rome's nemesis at the Battle of Zama, having driven Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal out of the Iberian Peninsula. After the war, Hannibal ran for the office of sufet, he enacted political and financial reforms to enable the payment of the war indemnity imposed by Rome. During this time, he lived at the Seleucid court, where he acted as military advisor to Antiochus III the Great in his war against Rome. Antiochus met defeat at the Battle of Magnesia and was forced to accept Rome's terms, Hannibal fled again, making a stop in the Kingdom of Armenia.
His flight ended in the court of Bithynia, where he achieved an outstanding naval victory against a fleet from Pergamon. He was afterwards betrayed to the committed suicide by poisoning himself. Hannibal is regarded as one of the greatest military strategists in history and one of the greatest generals of Mediterranean antiquity, together with Philip of Macedon, Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, Scipio Africanus. Plutarch states that Scipio asked Hannibal "who the greatest general was", to which Hannibal replied "either Alexander or Pyrrhus himself" Military historian Theodore Ayrault Dodge called Hannibal the "father of strategy", because Roman armies adopted elements of his military tactics into its own strategic arsenal. Hannibal has been cited by various subsequent military leaders, such as Napoleon Bonaparte, as an inspiration and the greatest strategist of all time; the English form of the name is derived from the Latin. Greek historians rendered the name as Anníbas Bárkas. Hannibal was a common Carthaginian masculine given name.
The name was recorded in Carthaginian sources as ḤNBʿL. It is a combination of the common Carthaginian masculine given name Hanno with the Northwest Semitic Canaanite deity Baal, its precise vocalization remains a matter of debate. Suggested readings include Ḥannobaʿal, Ḥannibaʿl, or Ḥannibaʿal, meaning "Baʿal/The Lord is Gracious", "Baʿal Has Been Gracious", or "The Grace of Baʿal". Barca was the Semitic surname of his aristocratic family, meaning "shining" or "lightning", it is thus the Phoenician equivalent to the Arabic name Barq or the Hebrew name Barak or the ancient Greek epithet Keraunos, given to military commanders in the Hellenistic period. In English, his clan are sometimes collectively known as the Barcids; as with Greek and Roman practice, patronymics were a common part of Carthaginian nomenclature, so that Hannibal would have been known as "Hannibal son of Hamilcar". Hannibal was one of the sons of a Carthaginian leader, he was born in what is present day northern Tunisia, one of many Mediterranean regions colonised by the Canaanites from their homelands in Phoenicia.
He had several sisters and two brothers and Mago. His brothers-in-law were the Numidian king Naravas, he was still a child when his sisters married, his brothers-in-law were close associates during his father's struggles in the Mercenary War and the Punic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula. In light of Hamilcar Barca's cognomen, historians refer to Hamilcar's family as the Barcids. However, there is debate as to whether the cognomen Barca was applied to Hamilcar alone or was hereditary within his family. If the latter Hannibal and his brothers bore the name "Barca". After Carthage's defeat in the First Punic War, Hamilcar set out to improve his family's and Carthage's fortunes. With that in mind and supported by Gades, Hamilcar began the subjugation of the tribes of the Iberian Peninsula. Carthage at the time was in such a poor state. According to Polybius, Hannibal much said that when he came upon his father and begged to go with him, Hamilcar agreed and dem
Demetrius I Soter
Demetrius I, surnamed Soter, was a ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire. Demetrius was sent to Rome as a hostage during the reign of his father Seleucus IV Philopator and his mother Laodice IV; when his father was murdered by his finance minister Heliodorus in 175 BC. his uncle Antiochus IV Epiphanes killed the usurper, but usurped the throne himself. When Antiochus IV died in 163 BC, his 9-year-old son Antiochus. Demetrius was 22 years old, he requested the Roman Senate to restore the Syrian throne to him, but was rejected, since the Romans believed that Syria should be ruled by a boy rather than a man. Two years Antiochus V was weakened because Rome sent an emissary to sink his ships and hamstring his elephants for his violation of the Peace of Apamea, storing up too much weaponry. Demetrius escaped from confinement and was welcomed back on the Syrian throne in 161 BC, he killed Antiochus V and Lysias. Demetrius I is infamous in Jewish history for his victory over the Maccabees, killing Judas Maccabaeus in Nisan, 160 BC.
Demetrius acquired his surname of Soter, or Savior, from the Babylonians, whom he delivered from the tyranny of the Median satrap, Timarchus. Timarchus, who had distinguished himself by defending Media against the emergent Parthians, seems to have treated Demetrius' accession as an excuse to declare himself an independent king and extend his realm into Babylonia, his forces were, not enough for the legal Seleucid king: Demetrius defeated and killed Timarchus in 160 BC, dethroned Ariarathes, king of Cappadocia. The Seleucid empire was temporarily united again. Demetrius may have married his sister Laodice V, by whom he had three sons: Demetrius II Nicator, Antiochus VII Sidetes and Antigonus. Demetrius' downfall may be attributed to Heracleides, a surviving brother of the defeated rebel Timarchus, who championed the cause of Alexander Balas, a boy who claimed to be a natural son of Antiochus IV Epiphanes. Heracleides convinced the Roman Senate to support the young pretender against Demetrius I.
The Jews had a role in the downfall of Demetrius I. Alexander Balas came with a mercenary army and occupied Ptolemais, reigned as a rival king of the Seleucids in 152 BC, he appointed Jonathan Maccabaeus, the brother and successor of Judas Maccabaeus, as the high priest of Judea, in order to make the Jews his allies. Jonathan, born of a priestly family but not from Zadok, the high priestly stock, took the title in Tishri, 152 BC; when Demetrius heard of it, he wrote a letter granting more privileges to Jonathan. The Jews did not believe in him, because of his past persecutions of the Jews, they joined with Balas, who defeated and killed Demetrius I in 150 BC. In 1919 Constantine Cavafy published a poem about Demetrius's time as a hostage in Rome. List of Syrian monarchs Timeline of Syrian history
The Taurus Mountains, are a mountain complex in southern Turkey, separating the Mediterranean coastal region of southern Turkey from the central Anatolian Plateau. The system extends along a curve from Lake Eğirdir in the west to the upper reaches of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers in the east, it is a part of the Alpide belt in Eurasia. The Taurus mountains are divided into three chains from west to east; the mountains are a place of many ancient storm-god temples. Torrential thunderstorms in these mountains were deemed by the ancient Syrians to be the work of the storm-god Adad to make the Tigris and Euphrates rivers rise and flood and thereby fertilise their land; the Hurrians originators of the various storm-gods of the ancient Near East, were a people whom modern scholars place in the Taurus Mountains at their probable earliest origins. A Bronze Age archaeological site, where early evidence of tin mining was found, is at Kestel; the pass known in antiquity as the Cilician Gates crosses the range north of Tarsus.
The Amanus range in southern Turkey is where the Taurus Mountains are pushed up as three tectonic plates come together. The Amanus is a natural frontier: west is Cilicia, east is Syria. There are several passes, like the Amanian Gate. In 333 BCE at the Battle of Issus, Alexander the Great defeated Darius III Codomannus on the foothills along the coast between these two passes. In the Second Temple period, Jewish authors seeking to establish with greater precision the geographical definition of the Promised Land, began to construe Mount Hor as a reference to the Amanus range of the Taurus Mountains, which marked the northern limit of the Syrian plain. During World War I, the German and Turkish railway system through the Taurus Mountains proved to be a major strategic objective of the Allies; this region was mentioned as a strategically controlled objective slated for surrender to the Allies in the Armistice, which ended hostilities against the Ottoman Empire. In the Aladaglar and Bolkar mountains, limestone has eroded to form karstic landscapes of waterfalls, underground rivers, some of the largest caves of Asia.
The Manavgat River originates on the southern slopes of the Beydaglari range. In addition to hiking and mountain climbing, there are two ski resorts on the mountain range, one at Davras about 25 km from the two nearest towns of Egirdir and Isparta, the second is Saklıkent 40 km from the city of Antalya; the Varda Viaduct, situated on the railway lines Konya-Adana at Hacıkırı village in Adana Province, is a 98-metre-high railway bridge constructed in the 1910s by Germans. West Taurus and Taurus Mountains form an arc around the Gulf of Antalya; the East Taşeli Plateau and Goksu River divide it from the Central Taurus Mountains. It has many peaks rising above 3,000–3,700 m; the complex is divided into four ranges: Beydaglari mountain range, highest peak Mt. Kizlarsivrisi 3,086 m Aladaglar mountain range, highest peak Mt. Demirkazik 3,756 m Bolkar mountain range, highest peak Mt. Medetsiz 3,524 m Munzur mountain range, highest peak Mt. Akbaba 3,462 m Mercan mountain range, within the MunzurThe highest point in the central Tauruses is the summit of Mt. Demirkazık.
Central Taurus are defined to be the north of Mersin and north west of Adana The Southeastern Taurus mountains form the northern boundary of the Southeastern Anatolia Region and North Mesopotamia. They are the source of the Euphrates River and Tigris River. Map of Eurasia showing Taurus Mountain ranges
Attalus II Philadelphus
Attalus II Philadelphus was a King of Pergamon and the founder of modern-day Turkish city Antalya. He was the second son of Attalus I Soter and queen Apollonis of Cyzicus, ascended the throne first as co-ruler alongside his ailing brother Eumenes II in 160 BC, whose widow Stratonice of Pergamon he married in 158 BC upon Eumenes' death. Prior to becoming king, Attalus was an accomplished military commander. In 192 BC he was sent by his brother Eumenes to Rome to warn against Antiochus III. In 190 BC, he was present in the Battle of Magnesia which resulted in a defeat against the Seleucids. Around 189 BC he led his forces to fight alongside the Roman Army under Gnaeus Manlius Vulso in Galatia. From 182-179 BC, he defeated the Kingdom of Pontus under Pharnaces I, gaining some territory. In 172, returning from a visit to Rome, was attacked near Cirrha and was believed to be dead. Attalus, upon learning of this, became king of Pergamon; when his brother returned, he divorced Stratonice and ceded the power to his elder brother without a fight.
Attalus II made frequent diplomatic visits to Rome, sent frequent envoys such as Andronicus of Pergamum, gaining the esteem of the Romans. At one point, they offered him assistance to overthrow his brother; when his brother died in 159 BC, his nephew was too young to rule at the time, so he ascended the throne as regent and married Stratonice once again. The Romans had assisted him in his own battles against Prusias II in 156–154 BC. In the summer of 152, he, Ptolemy IV, Ariarathes V, Rome, helped the pretender Alexander Balas to seize the Seleucid throne from Demetrius I and in 149 BC, he helped Nicomedes II Epiphanes to seize the Bithynian throne from his father Prusias II. Attalus expanded his kingdom with the help of his good friend Ariarathes V of Cappadocia, founded the cities of Philadelphia and Attalia, he was well known as a patron of the arts and sciences, was the inventor of a new kind of embroidery. In his old age, he relied upon his chief minister, named to help him govern, he was succeeded by his nephew Attalus III upon his death.
Hansen, Esther V.. The Attalids of Pergamon. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-0615-3. Polybius, Evelyn S. Shuckburgh. Macmillan. Strabo, Books 13–14, translated by Horace Leonard Jones. ISBN 0-674-99246-6
Pergamon, Pergamos or Pergamum, was a rich and powerful ancient Greek city in Aeolis. It is located 26 kilometres from the modern coastline of the Aegean Sea on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus and northwest of the modern city of Bergama, Turkey. During the Hellenistic period, it became the capital of the Kingdom of Pergamon under the Attalid dynasty in 281–133 BC, who transformed it into one of the major cultural centres of the Greek world. Many remains of its impressive monuments can still be seen and the outstanding masterpiece of the Pergamon Altar. Pergamon was the northernmost of the seven churches of Asia cited in the New Testament Book of Revelation; the city centres around a 335 metre high mesa of andesite. This mesa falls away on the north and east sides, but three natural terraces on the south side provide a route up to the top. To the west of the acropolis, the Selinus river flows through the city, while the Cetius passes by to the east. Pergamon lies on the north edge of the Caicus plain in the historic region of Mysia in the northwest of Turkey.
The Caicus river breaks through the surrounding mountains and hills at this point and flows in a wide arc to the southwest. At the foot of the mountain range to the north, between the rivers Selinus and Cetius, there is the massif of Pergamon which rises 335 metres above sea level; the site is only 26 km from the sea, but the Caicus plain is not open to the sea, since the way is blocked by the Karadağ massif. As a result, the area has a inland character. In Hellenistic times, the town of Elaia at the mouth of the Caicus served as the port of Pergamon; the climate is Mediterranean with a dry period from May to August, as is common along the west coast of Asia Minor. The Caicus valley is composed of volcanic rock andesite and the Pergamon massif is an intrusive stock of andesite; the massif is about one kilometre wide and around 5.5 km long from north to south. It consists of a broad, elongated base and a small peak - the upper city; the side facing the Cetius river is a sharp cliff, while the side facing the Selinus is a little rough.
On the north side, the rock forms a 70 m wide spur of rock. To the southeast of this spur, known as the'Garden of the Queen', the massif reaches its greatest height and breaks off immediately to the east; the upper city extends for another 250 m to the south, but it remains narrow, with a width of only 150 m. At its south end the massif falls to the east and south, widening to around 350 m and descends to the plain towards the southwest. Settlement of Pergamon can be detected as far back as the Archaic period, thanks to modest archaeological finds fragments of pottery imported from the west eastern Greece and Corinth, which date to the late 8th century BC. Earlier habitation in the Bronze Age cannot be demonstrated, although bronze Age stone tools are found in the surrounding area; the earliest mention of Pergamon in literary sources comes from Xenophon's Anabasis, since the march of the Ten Thousand under Xenophon's command ended at Pergamon in 400/399 BC. Xenophon, who calls the city Pergamos, handed over the rest of his Greek troops to Thibron, planning an expedition against the Persian satraps Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus, at this location in March 399 BC.
At this time Pergamon was in the possession of the family of Gongylos from Eretria, a Greek favourable to the Achaemenid Empire who had taken refuge in Asia Minor and obtained the territory of Pergamon from Xerxes I, Xenophon was hosted by his widow Hellas. In 362 BC, satrap of Mysia, based his revolt against the Persian empire at Pergamon, but was crushed. Only with Alexander the Great was the surrounding area removed from Persian control. There are few traces of the pre-Hellenistic city, since in the following period the terrain was profoundly changed and the construction of broad terraces involved the removal of all earlier structures. Parts of the temple of Athena, as well as the walls and foundations of the altar in the sanctuary of Demeter go back to the fourth century. Lysimachus, King of Thrace, took possession in 301 BC, but soon after his lieutenant Philetaerus enlarged the town, the kingdom of Thrace collapsed in 281 BC and Philetaerus became an independent ruler, founder of the Attalid dynasty.
His family ruled Pergamon from 281 until 133 BC: Philetaerus 281-263. The domain of Philetaerus was limited to the area surrounding the city itself, but Eumenes I was able to expand them greatly. In particular, after the Battle of Sardis in 261 BC against Antiochus I, Eumenes was able to appropriate the area down to the coast and some way inland; the city thus became the centre of a territorial realm. This final step was only taken by his successor Attalus I, after he defeated the Galatians in 238, whom Pergamon had paid tribute to under Eumenes I. Only at this point did an independent Pergamene kingdom come into existence, which would reach its greatest power and territorial extent in 188 BC; the Attalids became some of the most loyal supporters of Rome in the Hellenistic world. Under Attalus I, they allied with Rome against Philip V of Macedon, during the first and second Macedonian Wars. In the Roman–Seleucid War against the Seleucid king Antiochus III, Pergamon joined the Romans' coalition and was rewarded with all the former Seleucid domains in Asia Minor at the Peace of Apamea in 188 BC.
Laconia is a region of Greece in the southeastern part of the Peloponnese peninsula. Its administrative capital is Sparta; the word laconic is derived from the name of the region by analogy—to speak in a concise way, as the Spartans were reputed by the Athenians to do. Laconia is bordered by Messenia to the west and Arcadia to the north and is surrounded by the Myrtoan Sea to the east and by the Laconian Gulf and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it encompasses a large part of the Mani Peninsula. The Mani Peninsula is in the west region of Lakonia; the islands of Kythira and Antikythera lie to the south, but they administratively belong to the Attica regional unit of islands. The island, situated between the Laconian mainland and Kythira, is part of Laconia; the Eurotas is the longest river in the prefecture. The valley of the Eurotas is predominantly an agricultural region that contains many citrus groves, olive groves, pasture lands, it is the location of the largest orange production in the Peloponnese and in all of Greece.
Lakonia, a brand of orange juice, is based in Amykles. The main mountain ranges are the Parnon in the northeast. Taygetus, known as Pentadaktylos throughout the Middle Ages, is west of Sparta and the Eurotas valley, it is the highest mountain in Laconia and the Peloponnese and is covered with pine trees. Two roads join the Messenia and Laconia prefectures: one is a tortuous mountain pass through Taygetus and the other bypasses the mountain via the Mani district to the south; the stalactite cave, Dirou, a major tourist attraction, is located south of Areopolis in the southwest of Laconia. Laconia has a Mediterranean climate with hot summers. Snow is rare on the coast throughout the winter but is common in the mountains. Evidence of Neolithic settlement in southern Laconia has been found during excavations of the Alepotrypa cave site. In ancient Greece, this was the principal region of the Spartan state. For much of classical antiquity the Spartan sphere of influence expanded to Messenia, whose inhabitants were enslaved.
Significant archaeological recovery exists at the Vaphio-tomb site in Laconia. Found here is advanced Bronze Age art as well as evidence of cultural associations with the contemporaneous Minoan culture on Crete. Laconia saw several battles. From the early-2nd century BC until 395 AD, it was a part of the Roman Empire. In the medieval period, Laconia formed part of the Byzantine Empire. Following the Fourth Crusade, it was conquered by the Frankish Principality of Achaea. In the 1260s, the Byzantines recovered Mystras and other fortresses in the region and managed to evict the Franks from Laconia, which became the nucleus of a new Byzantine province. By the mid-14th century, this evolved into the Despotate of Morea, held by the last Greek ruling dynasty, the Palaiologoi. With the fall of the Despotate to the Ottomans in 1460, Laconia was conquered as well. With the exception of a 30-year interval of Venetian rule, Laconia remained under Ottoman control until the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence of 1821.
Following independence, Sparta was selected as the capital of the modern prefecture, its economy and agriculture expanded. With the incorporation of the British-ruled Ionian Islands into Greece in 1864, Elafonissos became part of the prefecture. After World War II and the Greek Civil War, its population began to somewhat decline, as people moved from the villages toward the larger cities of Greece and abroad. In 1992, a devastating fire ruined the finest olive crops in the northern part of the prefecture, affected the area of Sellasia along with Oinountas and its surrounding areas. Firefighters and planes battled for days to put out the horrific fire; the Mani portion along with Gytheio became famous in Greece for filming episodes of Vendetta, broadcast on Mega Channel throughout Greece and abroad on Mega Cosmos. In early 2006, flooding ruined olive and citrus crops as well as properties and villages along the Eurotas river. In the summer 2006, a terrible fire devastated a part of the Mani Peninsula, ruining forests and numerous villages.
The regional unit, Laconia, is subdivided into five municipalities. These are: East Mani Elafonisos Eurotas Monemvasia Sparta As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, regional unit Laconia was created out of the former prefecture Laconia; the prefecture had the same territory as the present regional unit. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below. Epidavros Limira Province – Molaoi Gytheio Province – Gytheio Lacedaemonia Province – Sparti Oitylo Province – AreopoliNote: Provinces no longer hold any legal status in Greece. 1907: 87,106 1991: 95,696 2001: 94,918 2011: 89,138The main cities and towns of Laconia are: Sparti 17,408 Gytheio 4,717 Neapoli 3,130 Skala 3,089 Greek National Road 39, Tripoli – Sparti – Gytheio Greek National Road 82, Pylos – Kalamata – Sparti Greek National Road 86, Gytheio – Monemvasia Molaoi to Leonidi Road, E, NE FLY FM 89,7. POLITIA 90,7 – ΠΟΛΙΤΕΙΑ 90.7 Radio Sparti – 92.7 FM Radiofonias Notias Lakonias – 93.5 Star FM – 94.7 Ellada TV – UHF 43, Sparta TV Notias Lakonias – Molaoi Λακωνικός Τύπος Ελεύθερη Άποψη Νέα Σπάρτη Παρατηρητής της Λακωνίας List of settlements in Laconia List of traditional Greek place names Laconic phrase
Consul was the title of one of the two chief magistrates of the Roman Republic, subsequently an important title under the Roman Empire. The title was used in other European city states through antiquity and the Middle Ages revived in modern states, notably in the First French Republic; the related adjective is consular, from the Latin consularis. This usage contrasts with modern terminology. A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic, ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum. Consuls were held power for one year. There were always two consuls in power at any time. Chronological listings of Roman consuls: List of Roman consuls List of topics related to ancient Rome Pauly–Wissowa Political institutions of Rome Hypatos It was not uncommon for an organization under Roman private law to copy the terminology of state and city institutions for its own statutory agents; the founding statute, or contract, of such an organisation was called lex,'law'.
The people elected each year were members of the upper class. While many cities had a double-headed chief magistracy another title was used, such as Duumvir or native styles such as Meddix, but consul was used in some. Throughout most of southern France, a consul was an office equivalent to the échevins of the north and similar with English aldermen; the most prominent were those of Bordeaux and Toulouse, which came to be known as jurats and capitouls, respectively. The capitouls of Toulouse were granted transmittable nobility. In many other smaller towns the first consul, was the equivalent of a mayor today, assisted by a variable number of secondary consuls and jurats, his main task was to collect tax. The Dukes of Gaeta used the title of "consul" in its Greek form "Hypatos"; the city-state of Genoa, unlike ancient Rome, bestowed the title of consul on various state officials, not restricted to the highest. Among these were Genoese officials stationed in various Mediterranean ports, whose role included helping Genoese merchants and sailors in difficulties with the local authorities.
This institution, with its name, was emulated by other powers and is reflected in the modern usage of the word. After Napoleon Bonaparte staged a coup against the Directory government in November 1799, the French Republic adopted a constitution which conferred executive powers upon three consuls, elected for a period of ten years. In reality, the first consul, dominated his two colleagues and held supreme power, soon making himself consul for life and in 1804, emperor; the office was held by: Napoleon Bonaparte, Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès, Roger Ducos, provisional consuls Napoleon Bonaparte, Jean-Jacques Cambacérès, Charles-François Lebrun, consuls The short-lived Bolognese Republic, proclaimed in 1796 as a French client republic in the Central Italian city of Bologna, had a government consisting of nine consuls and its head of state was the Presidente del Magistrato, i.e. chief magistrate, a presiding office held for four months by one of the consuls. Bologna had consuls at some parts of its Medieval history.
The French-sponsored Roman Republic was headed by multiple consuls: Francesco Riganti, Carlo Luigi Costantini, Duke Bonelli-Crescenzi, Antonio Bassi, Gioacchino Pessuti, Angelo Stampa, Domenico Maggi, provisional consuls Liborio Angelucci, Giacomo De Mattheis, Reppi, Ennio Quirino Visconti, consuls Brigi, Francesco Pierelli, Giuseppe Rey, Federico Maria Domenico Michele, consuls Consular rule was interrupted by the Neapolitan occupation, which installed a Provisional Government: Prince Giambattista Borghese, Prince Paolo-Maria Aldobrandini, Prince Gibrielli, Marchese Camillo Massimo, Giovanni Ricci Rome was occupied by France and again by Naples, bringing an end to the Roman Republic. Among the many petty local republics that were formed during the first year of the Greek Revolution, prior to the creation of a unified Provisional Government at the First National Assembly at Epidaurus, were: The Consulate of Argos had a single head of state, styled consul, 28 March 1821 – 26 May 1821: Stamatellos Antonopoulos The Consulate of East Greece was headed 1 April 1821 – 15 November 1821 by three consuls: Lambros Nakos, Ioannis Logothetis & Ioannis FilonNote: in Greek, the term for "consul" is "hypatos", which translates as "supreme one", hence does not imply a joint office.
In between a series of juntas and various other short-lived regimes, the young republic was governed by "consuls of the republic", with two consuls alternating in power every 4 months: 12 October 1813 – 12 February 1814, José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia y Velasco 12 February 1814 – 12 June 1814, Fulgencio Yegros y Franco de Torres 12 June 1814 – 3 October 1814, José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia y Velasco.