William Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville
William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville, was a British Pittite Tory and politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1806 to 1807, though he was a supporter of the British Whig Party for the duration of the Napoleonic Wars. Grenville was the son of Whig Prime Minister George Grenville, his mother Elizabeth was the daughter of Tory statesman Sir William Wyndham Bart. He had two elder brothers Thomas and George—he was thus uncle to the 1st Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, he was related to the Pitt family by marriage. Grenville was educated at Eton, Christ Church and Lincoln's Inn. Grenville entered the House of Commons in 1782, he soon became a close ally of the Prime Minister, his cousin William Pitt the Younger, served in the government as Paymaster of the Forces from 1784 to 1789. In 1789 he served as Speaker of the House of Commons before he entered the cabinet as Home Secretary, he became Leader of the House of Lords when he was raised to the peerage the next year as Baron Grenville, of Wotton under Bernewood in the County of Buckingham.
The next year, in 1791, he succeeded the Duke of Leeds as Foreign Secretary. Grenville's decade as Foreign Secretary was a dramatic one, seeing the Wars of the French Revolution. During the war, Grenville was the leader of the party that focused on the fighting on the continent as the key to victory, opposing the faction of Henry Dundas which favoured war at sea and in the colonies. Grenville left office with Pitt in 1801 over the issue of Catholic Emancipation, he did part-time military service at home as Major in the Buckinghamshire Yeomanry cavalry in 1794 and as Lieutenant-Colonel in the South Buckinghamshire volunteer regiment in 1806. In his years out of office, Grenville became close to the opposition Whig leader Charles James Fox, when Pitt returned to office in 1804, Grenville did not take part. Following Pitt's death in 1806, Grenville became the head of the "Ministry of All the Talents", a coalition between Grenville's supporters, the Foxite Whigs, the supporters of former Prime Minister Lord Sidmouth, with Grenville as First Lord of the Treasury and Fox as Foreign Secretary as joint leaders.
Grenville's cousin William Windham served as Secretary of State for War and the Colonies, his younger brother, Thomas Grenville, served as First Lord of the Admiralty. The Ministry accomplished little, failing either to make peace with France or to accomplish Catholic emancipation, it did have one significant achievement, however, in the abolition of the slave trade in 1807. In the years after the fall of the ministry, Grenville continued in opposition, maintaining his alliance with Lord Grey and the Whigs, criticising the Peninsular War and, with Grey, refusing to join Lord Liverpool's government in 1812. In the post-war years, Grenville moved back closer to the Tories, but never again returned to the cabinet, his political career was ended by a stroke in 1823. Grenville served as Chancellor of the University of Oxford from 1810 until his death in 1834. Historians find it hard to tell what separate roles Pitt and Dundas played in setting war policy with France, but agree that Grenville played a major role at all times until 1801.
The consensus of scholars is. There was conflict between secular ideologies, the conscription of huge armies, the new role of Russia as a continental power, the sheer length and cost of the multiple coalitions. Grenville energetically worked to build and hold together the Allied coalitions, paying suitable attention to smaller members such as Denmark and Sardinia, he negotiated the complex alliance with Austria. He hoped that with British financing they would bear the brunt of ground campaigns against the French. Grenville's influence was at the maximum during the formation of the Second Coalition, his projections of easy success were exaggerated, the result was another round of disappointment. His resignation in 1801 was due to the king's refusal to allow Catholics to sit in Parliament. Dropmore House was built in the 1790s for Lord Grenville; the architects were Charles Tatham. Grenville knew the spot from rambles during his time at Eton College, prized its distant views of his old school and of Windsor Castle.
On his first day in occupation, he planted two cedar trees. At least another 2,500 trees were planted. By the time Grenville died, his pinetum contained the biggest collection of conifer species in Britain. Part of the post-millennium restoration is to use what survives as the basis for a collection of some 200 species. Lord Grenville married the Honourable Anne, daughter of Thomas Pitt, 1st Baron Camelford, in 1792; the marriage was childless. He died in January 1834, aged 74. Lady Grenville died in June 1863. Lord Grenville – First Lord of the Treasury and Leader of the House of Lords Charles James Fox – Foreign Secretary and Leader of the House of Commons The Lord Erskine – Lord Chancellor The Earl Fitzwilliam – Lord President of the Council The Viscount Sidmouth – Lord Privy Seal The Earl Spencer – Secretary of State for the Home Department William Windham – Secretary of State for War and the Colonies Viscount Howick – First Lord of the Admiralty Lord Henry Petty – Chancellor of the Exchequer The Earl of Moira – Master-General of the Ordnance The Lord Ellenborough – Chief Justice, King's BenchChanges September 1806 – On Fox's death, Lord Howick succeeds him as Fore
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government of the United Kingdom. The Prime Minister directs both the executive and the legislature, together with their Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Monarch, to Parliament, to their political party and to the electorate; the office of Prime Minister is one of the Great Offices of State. The current holder of the office, Theresa May, leader of the Conservative Party, was appointed by the Queen on 13 July 2016; the office is not established by any statute or constitutional document but exists only by long-established convention, which stipulates that the monarch must appoint as Prime Minister the person most to command the confidence of the House of Commons. The position of Prime Minister was not created; the office is therefore best understood from a historical perspective. The origins of the position are found in constitutional changes that occurred during the Revolutionary Settlement and the resulting shift of political power from the Sovereign to Parliament.
Although the Sovereign was not stripped of the ancient prerogative powers and remained the head of government, politically it became necessary for him or her to govern through a Prime Minister who could command a majority in Parliament. By the 1830s the Westminster system of government had emerged; the political position of Prime Minister was enhanced by the development of modern political parties, the introduction of mass communication, photography. By the start of the 20th century the modern premiership had emerged. Prior to 1902, the Prime Minister sometimes came from the House of Lords, provided that his government could form a majority in the Commons; however as the power of the aristocracy waned during the 19th century the convention developed that the Prime Minister should always sit in the lower house. As leader of the House of Commons, the Prime Minister's authority was further enhanced by the Parliament Act 1911 which marginalised the influence of the House of Lords in the law-making process.
The Prime Minister is ex officio First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service. Certain privileges, such as residency of 10 Downing Street, are accorded to Prime Ministers by virtue of their position as First Lord of the Treasury; the status of the position as Prime Minister means that the incumbent is ranked as one of the most powerful and influential people in the world. The Prime Minister is the head of the United Kingdom government; as such, the modern Prime Minister leads the Cabinet. In addition, the Prime Minister leads a major political party and commands a majority in the House of Commons; the incumbent wields both significant legislative and executive powers. Under the British system, there is a unity of powers rather than separation. In the House of Commons, the Prime Minister guides the law-making process with the goal of enacting the legislative agenda of their political party. In an executive capacity, the Prime Minister appoints all other Cabinet members and ministers, co-ordinates the policies and activities of all government departments, the staff of the Civil Service.
The Prime Minister acts as the public "face" and "voice" of Her Majesty's Government, both at home and abroad. Upon the advice of the Prime Minister, the Sovereign exercises many statutory and prerogative powers, including high judicial, political and Church of England ecclesiastical appointments; the British system of government is based on an uncodified constitution, meaning that it is not set out in any single document. The British constitution consists of many documents and most for the evolution of the Office of the Prime Minister, it is based on customs known as constitutional conventions that became accepted practice. In 1928, Prime Minister H. H. Asquith described this characteristic of the British constitution in his memoirs:In this country we live... under an unwritten Constitution. It is true that we have on the Statute-book great instruments like Magna Carta, the Petition of Right, the Bill of Rights which define and secure many of our rights and privileges, they rest on usage, convention of slow growth in their early stages, not always uniform, but which in the course of time received universal observance and respect.
The relationships between the Prime Minister and the Sovereign and Cabinet are defined by these unwritten conventions of the constitution. Many of the Prime Minister's executive and legislative powers are royal prerogatives which are still formally vested in the Sovereign, who remains the head of state. Despite its growing
William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland
William Henry Cavendish Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, was a British Whig and Tory politician during the late Georgian era. He served as Chancellor of the University of Oxford and twice as British prime minister, of Great Britain and of the United Kingdom; the twenty-four years between his two terms as Prime Minister is the longest gap between terms of office of any British prime minister. Portland was known before 1762 by the courtesy title Marquess of Titchfield, he held a title of every degree of British nobility: Duke, Earl and Baron. He is a great-great-great-grandfather of Elizabeth II through her maternal grandmother. Lord Titchfield was the eldest son of William Bentinck, 2nd Duke of Portland and Margaret Cavendish-Harley and inherited many lands from his mother and his maternal grandmother, he was educated at Oxford. On 8 November 1766, Portland married Lady Dorothy Cavendish, a daughter of William Cavendish, 4th Duke of Devonshire and Charlotte Boyle, they were parents of six children: 4th Duke of Portland.
Lord William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck. Lady Charlotte Cavendish-Bentinck. Married Charles Greville, they had three sons: Charles Cavendish Fulke Greville, Algernon Greville, Henry William Greville, a daughter, Harriet m. Francis Egerton, 1st Earl of Ellesmere. Lady Mary Cavendish-Bentinck. Lord Charles Bentinck. Paternal grandfather of Cecilia Bowes-Lyon, Countess of Strathmore and Kinghorne. Lord Frederick Cavendish-Bentinck married Lady Mary Lowther, daughter of William Lowther, 1st Earl of Lonsdale, 16 September 1820. A stillborn baby, birthed at Burlington House on 20 October 1786. Through his son Charles, Portland is a great-great-great-grandfather of Queen Elizabeth II. Portland was elected to sit in the Parliament for Weobley in 1761 before entering the Lords when he succeeded his father as Duke of Portland the next year, he was associated with the aristocratic Whig party of Lord Rockingham and served as Lord Chamberlain of the Household in Rockingham's first Government Portland served as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in Rockingham's second ministry.
He faced strong demands for conciliatory measures following years of coercion and taxation brought about by the British government's engagement in the American War of Independence. Portland resolved to make concessions and, overcoming the resistance of Lord Shelburne, the Home Secretary to whom he reported, convinced Parliament to repeal the Declaratory Act and modify Poynings' Law. Following Rockingham's death, Portland resigned from Lord Shelburne's ministry along with other supporters of Charles James Fox. In April 1783, Portland was brought forward as titular head of a coalition government as Prime Minister, whose real leaders were Charles James Fox and Lord North, he served as First Lord of the Treasury in this ministry until its fall in December of the same year. During his tenure the Treaty of Paris was signed formally ending the American Revolutionary War; the government was brought down after losing a vote in the House of Lords on its proposed reform of the East India Company after George III had let it be known that any peer voting for this measure would be considered his personal enemy.
In 1789, Portland became one of several vice presidents of London's Foundling Hospital. This charity had become one of the most fashionable of the time, with several notables serving on its board. At its creation, fifty years earlier, Portland's father, William Bentinck, 2nd Duke of Portland, had been one of the founding governors, listed on the charity's royal charter granted by George II; the hospital's mission was to care for the abandoned children in London. In 1793, Portland took over the presidency of the charity from Lord North. Along with many conservative Whigs such as Edmund Burke, Portland was uncomfortable with the French Revolution and broke with Fox over this issue, joining Pitt's government as Home Secretary in 1794. In this role he oversaw the administration of patronage and financial inducements secret, to secure the passage of the 1800 Act of Union, he continued to serve in the cabinet until Pitt's death in 1806—from 1801 to 1805 as Lord President of the Council and as a Minister without Portfolio.
In March 1807, after the collapse of the Ministry of all the Talents, Pitt's supporters returned to power. Portland's second government saw the United Kingdom's complete isolation on the continent but the beginning of recovery, with the start of the Peninsular War. In late 1809, with Portland's health poor and the ministry rocked by the scandalous duel between Canning and Castlereagh, Portland resigned, dying shortly thereafter, he was Recorder of Nottingham until his death in 1809. The 3rd Duke of Portland died at Bulstrode Park, after an operation to remove a kidney stone on 30 October 1809 and was buried in St Marylebone Parish Church, London, he had lived expensively: with an income of £17,000 a year (wor
Spencer Perceval was a British statesman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from October 1809 until his assassination in May 1812. Perceval is the only British prime minister to have been murdered, he was the only Solicitor General or Attorney General to become Prime Minister. The younger son of an Anglo-Irish earl, Perceval was educated at Harrow School and Trinity College, Cambridge, he studied Law at Lincoln's Inn, practised as a barrister on the Midland circuit, in 1796 became a King's Counsel. He entered politics at age 33 as a Member of Parliament for Northampton. A follower of William Pitt the Younger, Perceval always described himself as a "friend of Mr Pitt", rather than a Tory. Perceval was opposed to Catholic reform of Parliament, he was opposed to hunting and adultery. After a late entry into politics, his rise to power was rapid. At the head of a weak ministry, Perceval faced a number of crises during his term in office, including an inquiry into the Walcheren expedition, the madness of King George III, economic depression, Luddite riots.
He overcame these crises pursued the Peninsular War in the face of opposition defeatism, won the support of the Prince Regent. His position was looking stronger by early 1812, when, in the lobby of the House of Commons, he was assassinated by a merchant with a grievance against his government. Although Perceval was a seventh son and had four older brothers who survived to adulthood, the Earldom of Egmont reverted to one of his great-grandsons in the early–twentieth century, it remained in the hands of his descendants until its extinction in 2011. Perceval was born in Audley Square, the seventh son of John Perceval, 2nd Earl of Egmont, his mother, Catherine Compton, Baroness Arden, was a granddaughter of the 4th Earl of Northampton. Spencer was a Compton family name, his father, a political advisor to Frederick, Prince of Wales and King George III, served in the Cabinet as First Lord of the Admiralty. Perceval's early childhood was spent at Charlton House, which his father had taken to be near Woolwich docks.
Perceval's father died. Perceval went to Harrow School, where he was a hard-working pupil, it was at Harrow that he developed an interest in evangelical Anglicanism and formed what was to be a lifelong friendship with Dudley Ryder. After five years at Harrow, he followed his older brother Charles to Cambridge. There he won the declamation prize in English and graduated in 1782; as the second son of a second marriage, with an allowance of only £200 a year, Perceval faced the prospect of having to make his own way in life. He chose the law as a profession, studied at Lincoln's Inn, was called to the bar in 1786. Perceval's mother had died in 1783. Perceval and his brother Charles, now Lord Arden, rented a house in Charlton, where they fell in love with two sisters who were living in the Percevals' old childhood home; the sisters' father, Sir Thomas Spencer Wilson, approved of the match between his eldest daughter Margaretta and Lord Arden, wealthy and a Member of Parliament and a Lord of the Admiralty.
Perceval, at that time an impecunious barrister on the Midland Circuit, was told to wait until the younger daughter, came of age in three years' time. When Jane reached 21, in 1790, Perceval's career was still not prospering, Sir Thomas still opposed the marriage; the couple married by special licence in East Grinstead. They set up home together in lodgings over a carpet shop in Bedford Row moving to Lindsey House, Lincoln's Inn Fields, they had thirteen children together. Perceval's family connections obtained a number of positions for him: Deputy Recorder of Northampton, commissioner of bankrupts in 1790, he acted as junior counsel for the Crown in the prosecutions of Thomas Paine in absentia for seditious libel, John Horne Tooke for high treason. Perceval joined the London and Westminster Light Horse Volunteers in 1794 when the country was under threat of invasion by France and served with them until 1803. Perceval wrote anonymous pamphlets in favour of the impeachment of Warren Hastings, in defence of public order against sedition.
These pamphlets brought him to the attention of William Pitt the Younger, in 1795 he was offered the appointment of Chief Secretary for Ireland. He declined the offer, he needed the money to support his growing family. In 1796 he had an income of about £ 1,000 a year. Perceval was 33. In 1796, Perceval's uncle, the 8th Earl of Northampton, died. Perceval's cousin, MP for Northampton, succeeded to the earldom and took his place in the House of Lords. Perceval was invited to stand for election in his place. In the May by-election he was elected unopposed, but we
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Henry Addington, 1st Viscount Sidmouth
Henry Addington, 1st Viscount Sidmouth, was a British statesman who served as Prime Minister from 1801 to 1804. He is best known for obtaining the Treaty of Amiens in 1802, an unfavourable peace with Napoleonic France which marked the end of the Second Coalition during the French Revolutionary Wars; when that treaty broke down he resumed the war but he was without allies and conducted a weak defensive war, ahead of what would become the War of the Third Coalition. He was forced from office in favour of William Pitt the Younger, who had preceded Addington as Prime Minister. Addington is known for his ruthless and efficient crackdown on dissent during a ten-year spell as Home Secretary from 1812 to 1822, he is the longest continuously serving holder of that office since it was created in 1782. Henry Addington was the son of Anthony Addington, Pitt's physician, Mary Addington, the daughter of the Rev. Haviland John Hiley, headmaster of Reading School; as a consequence of his father's position, Addington was a childhood friend of William Pitt the Younger.
Addington studied at Reading School and Brasenose College and studied law at Lincoln's Inn. In 1781 Addington married Ursula Mary Hammond, who brought an income of £1,000 a year into the marriage; the couple had eight children. Ursula Addington died in 1811 and in 1823 Addington married a widow, Marianne Townsend, daughter of William Scott, 1st Baron Stowell, he was elected to the House of Commons in 1784 as one of the Members of Parliament for Devizes, became Speaker of the House of Commons in 1789. In March 1801, William Pitt the Younger resigned from office, ostensibly over the refusal of King George III to remove some of the existing political restrictions on Roman Catholics in Ireland, but poor health, failure in war, economic collapse, alarming levels of social unrest due to famine, irreconcilable divisions within the Cabinet played a role. Both Pitt and the King insisted that Addington take over as Prime Minister, despite his own objections, his failed attempts to reconcile the King and Pitt.
Foreign policy was the centerpiece of his term in office. Some historians have been critical saying it was ignorant and indifferent to Britain's greatest needs; however Thomas Goldsmith argues that Addington and Hawkesbury conducted a logical and Euro-centric balance-of-power policy, one rooted in rules and assumptions governing their conduct, rather than a chaotic free-for-all approach. Addington's domestic reforms doubled the efficiency of the Income tax. In foreign affairs he secured the Treaty of Amiens, in 1802. While the terms of the Treaty were the bare minimum that the British government could accept, Napoleon Bonaparte would not have agreed to any terms more favourable to the British, the British government had reached a state of financial collapse, owing to war expenditure, the loss of Continental markets for British goods, two successive failed harvests that had led to widespread famine and social unrest, rendering peace a necessity. By early 1803 Britain's financial and diplomatic positions had recovered sufficiently to allow Addington to declare war on France, when it became clear that the French would not allow a settlement for the defences of Malta that would have been secure enough to fend off a French invasion that appeared imminent.
At the time and since Addington has been criticized for his lackluster conduct of the war and his defensive posture. However without allies, Britain's options were limited to defence, he did increase the forces, provide a tax base that could finance an enlarged war, seize several French possessions. To gain allies, Addington cultivated better relations with Russia and Prussia, that culminated in the Third Coalition shortly after he left office. Addington strengthened British defences against a French invasion through the building of Martello towers on the south coast and the raising of more than 600,000 men at arms. In 1802, Addington accepted an honorary position as vice-president for life on the Court of Governors of London's Foundling Hospital for abandoned babies. Although the king stood by him it was not enough because Addington did not have a strong enough hold on the two houses of Parliament. By May 1804 partisan criticism of Addington's war policies provided the pretext for a parliamentary putsch by the three major factions – Grenvillites and Pittites – who had decided that they should replace Addington's ministry.
Addington's greatest failing was his inability to manage a parliamentary majority, by cultivating the loyal support of MPs beyond his own circle and the friends of the King. This combined with his mediocre speaking ability, left him vulnerable to Pitt's mastery of parliamentary management and his unparalleled oratory skills. Pitt's parliamentary assault against Addington in March 1804 led to the slimming of his parliamentary majority to the point where defeat in the House of Commons was imminent. Addington remained an important political figure, because he had gained a large following of MPs who supported him loyally in the Commons, he was reconciled with Pitt with the help of Lord Hawkesbury as intermediary. As a result, Pitt arranged for him to join the Cabinet as Lord President of the Council in January 1805, but insisted that Addington accept a peerage as Viscount Sidmouth, to avoid the inconvenience of them sitting together in the Commons. In return for the support of the government by Addington's loyal supporters, Pitt agreed to include Addington's colleague the Earl of Buckinghamshire as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster with a promise to elevate him to the first vacancy of a more senior position in the Cabinet.
Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool
Robert Banks Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, was a British statesman and Prime Minister. As Prime Minister, Liverpool called for repressive measures at domestic level to maintain order after the Peterloo Massacre of 1819, he dealt smoothly with the Prince Regent. He steered the country through the period of radicalism and unrest that followed the Napoleonic Wars, he favoured manufacturing interests as well as the landed interest. He sought a compromise of the heated issue of Catholic emancipation; the revival of the economy strengthened his political position. By the 1820s he was the leader of a reform faction of "Liberal Tories" who lowered the tariff, abolished the death penalty for many offences, reformed the criminal law. By the time of his death in office, the Tory Party was ripping itself apart. John Derry says he was:a capable and intelligent statesman, whose skill in building up his party, leading the country to victory in the war against Napoleon, laying the foundations for prosperity outweighed his unpopularity in the immediate post-Waterloo years.
Important events during his tenure as Prime Minister included the War of 1812 with the United States, the Sixth and Seventh Coalitions against the French Empire, the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars at the Congress of Vienna, the Corn Laws, the Peterloo Massacre, the Trinitarian Act 1812 and the emerging issue of Catholic emancipation. Jenkinson was baptised on 29 June 1770 at St. Margaret's, the son of George III's close adviser Charles Jenkinson the first Earl of Liverpool, his first wife, Amelia Watts. Jenkinson's 19-year-old mother, the daughter of a senior East India Company official William Watts and of his wife Begum Johnson, died from the effects of childbirth one month after his birth. Jenkinson was educated at Christ Church, Oxford. In the summer of 1789, Jenkinson spent four months in Paris to perfect his French and enlarge his social experience, he returned to Oxford for three months to complete his terms of residence and in May 1790 was created master of arts. He won election to the House of Commons in 1790 for Rye, a seat he would hold until 1803.
This tour took in the Netherlands and Italy, whereby he was old enough to take his seat in Parliament. It is not clear when he entered the Commons, but as his twenty-first birthday was not reached until the end of the 1791 session, it is possible that he waited until the following year. With the help of his father's influence and his political talent, he rose fast in the Tory government. In February 1792, he gave the reply to Samuel Whitbread's critical motion on the government's Russian policy, he delivered several other speeches during the session, including one against the abolition of the slave trade, which reflected his father's strong opposition to William Wilberforce's campaign. He served as a member of the Board of Control for India from 1793 to 1796. In the defence movement that followed the outbreak of hostilities with France, was one of the first of the ministers of the government to enlist in the militia. In 1794 he became a Colonel in the Cinque Ports Fencibles, his military duties led to frequent absences from the Commons.
In 1796 his regiment was sent to Scotland and he was quartered for a time in Dumfries. In 1797, the Lord Hawkesbury was the cavalry commander of the Cinque Ports Light Dragoons who ran amok following a protest against the Militia Act at Tranent in East Lothian and twelve civilians were killed, it was reported that "His lordship was blamed for remaining at Haddington, as his presence might have prevented the outrages of the soldiery."He was appointed a Colonel of militia in 1810. His parliamentary attendance suffered from his reaction when his father angrily opposed his projected marriage with Lady Louisa Hervey, daughter of the Earl of Bristol. After Pitt and the King had intervened on his behalf, the wedding took place at Wimbledon on 25 March 1795. In May 1796, when his father was created Earl of Liverpool, he took the courtesy title of Lord Hawkesbury and remained in the Commons, he became Baron Hawkesbury in his own right and was elevated to the House of Lords in November 1803, as recognition of his work as Foreign Secretary.
He served as Master of the Mint. In Henry Addington's government, he entered the cabinet as Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, in which capacity he negotiated the Treaty of Amiens with France. Most of his time as Foreign secretary was spent dealing with the nations of France and the United States, he continued to serve in the cabinet as Home Secretary in Pitt the Younger's second government. While Pitt was ill, Liverpool was in charge of the cabinet and drew up the King's Speech for the official opening of Parliament; when William Pitt died in 1806, the King asked Liverpool to accept the post of Prime Minister, but he refused, as he believed he lacked a governing majority. He was made leader of the Opposition during Lord Grenville's ministry. In 1807, he resumed office as Home Secretary in the Duke of Portland's ministry. Lord Liverpool accepted the position of Secretary of State for War and the Colonies in Spencer Perceval's government in 1809. Liverpool's first step on taking up his new post was to elicit from the Duke of Wellington a strong enough statement of his ability to resist a