Parkers Piece is a 25-acre flat and roughly square green common located near the centre of Cambridge, England and is now regarded as the birthplace of the rules of Association Football. The two main walking and cycling paths across it run diagonally, and the single lamp-post at the junction is known as Reality Checkpoint. The area is bounded by Park Terrace, Gonville Place, the Cambridge University Football Club Laws were first used on Parkers Piece and adopted by the Football Association in 1863. They embrace the principles of the game, with the greatest simplicity. The Cambridge Rules appear to be the most desirable for the Association to adopt, a statue was due to be erected in October 2013 to celebrate the 150th anniversary on the Football Association and their adoption of the Cambridge Rules, but has been delayed. The grass is well manicured and it is today chiefly as a spot for picnics and games of football and cricket. Fairs tend to be held on the ground of Midsummer Common. In 1838, a feast for 15,000 guests was held on Parkers Piece to celebrate the coronation of Queen Victoria, before 1613, the site of Parkers Piece was owned by Trinity College.
It was subsequently named after a cook, Edward Parker. As a cricket ground, Parkers Piece was used for matches from 1817 to 1864. In the 19th century, it was one of the sports grounds used by students at the University of Cambridge. The novelty and liveliness of the scene were amusing, Parkers Piece has a special place in the history of modern football games, as it was here that the Cambridge Rules of 1848 were first put into practice. They were very influential in the creation of the rules of Association Football. These Cambridge Rules became the influence on the 1863 Football Association rules. The move by the Cambridge University AFC away from Parkers Piece in 1882 coincided with the significant role in the development of the modern passing. Contemporaries described Cambridge as being the first combination team in each player was allotted an area of the field. Several attacks had occurred in the park. Parkside is the street on the north-east side of the park, since 2006 it has been the terminus for long distance coach services, visitor coaches and a stopping point for local bus services
Staffordshire is a landlocked county in the West Midlands of England. It adjoins Cheshire to the north west and Leicestershire to the east, Warwickshire to the south east, West Midlands and Worcestershire to the south, and Shropshire to the west. The largest city in Staffordshire is Stoke-on-Trent, which is administered separately from the rest of the county as an independent unitary authority, Lichfield has city status, although this is a considerably smaller cathedral city. Major towns include Stafford, Burton upon Trent, Newcastle-under-Lyme, smaller towns include Stone and Rugeley, and large villages Eccleshall, Kinver, Penkridge and Stretton. Cannock Chase AONB is within the county as well as parts of the National Forest, Walsall, West Bromwich, and Smethwick were historic Staffordshire towns until local government reorganisation created the West Midlands county in 1974. Historically, Staffordshire was divided into the five hundreds of Cuttlestone, Pirehill, the historic boundaries of Staffordshire cover much of what is now the metropolitan county of West Midlands.
The Act saw the towns of Tamworth and Burton upon Trent united entirely in Staffordshire, in 1553 Queen Mary made Lichfield a county separate from the rest of Staffordshire. Handsworth and Perry Barr became part of the county borough of Birmingham in the early 20th century, Burton, in the east of the county, became a county borough in 1901, and was followed by Smethwick, another town in the Black Country in 1907. In 1910 the six towns of the Staffordshire Potteries, including Hanley, a major reorganisation in the Black Country in 1966, under the recommendation of the Local Government Commission for England led to the creation of an area of contiguous county boroughs. Meanwhile, the county borough of Dudley, historically a part of Worcestershire, expanded. County boroughs were abolished, with Stoke becoming a district in Staffordshire. On 1 April 1997, under a recommendation of the Banham Commission, in July 2009 the largest hoard of Anglo-Saxon gold ever found in Britain was discovered in a field near Lichfield.
The artefacts, known as The Staffordshire Hoard have tentatively dated to the 7th or 8th centuries. Some nationally and internationally known companies have their base in Staffordshire. They include the Britannia Building Society which is based in Leek, JCB is based in Rocester near Uttoxeter and bet365 based in Stoke-on-Trent. The theme park Alton Towers is in the Staffordshire Moorlands and several of the worlds largest pottery manufacturers are based in Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire has a completely comprehensive system with eight independent schools. Most secondary schools are from 11–16 or 18, but two in Staffordshire Moorlands and South Staffordshire are from 13–18, there are two universities in the county, Keele University in Newcastle-under-Lyme and Staffordshire University, which has campuses in Stoke-on-Trent, Stafford and Shrewsbury. The modern county of Staffordshire currently has three football clubs – Stoke City and Port Vale, both from Stoke-on-Trent, and Burton Albion, who play in Burton upon Trent.
They were among the 12 founder members of the Football League in 1888, in 1972, the club finally won a major trophy when they lifted the Football League Cup, but after relegation from the First Division in 1985 they would not experience top flight football for 23 years
Lords, known as Lords Cricket Ground, is a cricket venue in St Johns Wood, London. Lords is widely referred to as the Home of Cricket and is home to the worlds oldest sporting museum, Lords today is not on its original site, being the third of three grounds that Lord established between 1787 and 1814. His first ground, now referred to as Lords Old Ground, was where Dorset Square now stands and his second ground, Lords Middle Ground, was used from 1811 to 1813 before being abandoned to make way for the construction through its outfield of the Regents Canal. The present Lords ground is about 250 yards north-west of the site of the Middle Ground, the ground can hold 28,000 spectators. Proposals are being developed to increase capacity and amenity, as of December 2013, it was proposed to redevelop the ground at a cost of around £200 million over a 14-year period. The current ground celebrated its two hundredth anniversary in 2014, to mark the occasion, on 5 July an MCC XI captained by Sachin Tendulkar played a Rest of the World XI led by Shane Warne in a 50 overs match.
The White Conduit moved there from Islington soon afterwards and reconstituted themselves as Marylebone Cricket Club, in 1811, feeling obliged to relocate because of a rise in rent, Lord removed his turf and relaid it at his second ground. This was short-lived because it lay on the route decided by Parliament for the Regents Canal, the Middle Ground was on the estate of the Eyre family, who offered Lord another plot nearby, and he again relocated his turf. The new ground, on the present site, was opened in the 1814 season, the earliest known match was MCC v Hertfordshire on 22 June 1814. This is not rated a first-class match, MCC won by an innings and 27 runs. The annual Eton v Harrow match was first played on the Old Ground in 1805, there is no record of the fixture being played again until 29 July 1818, when it was held at the present Lords ground for the first time, Harrow won by 13 runs. From 1822, the fixture has been almost an annual event at Lords, in 1987 the new Mound Stand, designed by Michael Hopkins and Partners, was opened, followed by the Grandstand in 1996.
Most notably, the Media Centre was added in 1998-9, it won The Royal Institute of British Architects Stirling Prize for 1999, the ground can currently hold up to 28,000 spectators. The two ends of the pitch are the Pavilion End, where the members pavilion is located. The main survivor from the Victorian era is the Pavilion, with its famous Long Room and this historic landmark— a Grade II*-listed building— underwent an £8 million refurbishment programme in 2004–05. The pavilion is primarily for members of MCC, who may use its amenities, which include seats for viewing the cricket, the Long Room and its Bar, the Bowlers Bar, at Middlesex matches the Pavilion is open to members of the Middlesex County Club. The Pavilion contains the rooms where players change, each of which has a small balcony for players to watch the play. The only cricketer to hit a ball over the pavilion was Albert Trott, another highly visible feature of the ground is Old Father Time, a weather vane in the shape of Father Time, currently adorning a stand on the south-east side of the field
Marylebone Cricket Club
Marylebone Cricket Club is a cricket club in London, founded in 1787. It owns, and is based at, Lords in St Johns Wood, MCC was formerly the governing body of cricket both in England and Wales as well as worldwide. In 1993 many of its functions were transferred to the International Cricket Council and its English governance passed to the Test. MCC revised the Laws of Cricket in 1788 and continues to reissue them, since its foundation, the club has raised its own teams which are essentially occasional and have never taken part in any formal competition. Depending on the quality of the opposition in any match, MCC teams have held important match status from 1787 to 1894. MCC has never played in a List A match, MCC teams play many matches against minor opposition and, on these occasions, they relinquish their first-class status. Traditionally, to mark the beginning of each English season in April, MCC plays the reigning County Champions at Lords, the exact date of MCCs foundation is lost but seems to have been sometime in the late spring or the summer of 1787.
Many of its members became dissatisfied with the surroundings and complained that the site was too public. They asked Thomas Lord, a bowler at the White Conduit, to secure a more private venue within easy distance of London. When Lord opened his new ground in May 1787, the White Conduit moved there, there was a match at Lords starting on 30 July 1787 titled Marylebone Cricket Club v White Conduit Club. The England touring team wore the red and yellow stripes of the Marylebone Cricket Club as their colours for the last time on the tour to New Zealand in 1996/97. The true provenance of MCCs colours is unknown, but its players often turned out sporting Sky Blue, until well into the 19th century. Another theory, which chimes with the origins, is that MCC borrowed its colours from the livery colours of a founding patron, Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond. Although MCC remains the framer and copyright holder of the Laws of Cricket, in recent times the ICC has begun instituting changes to match regulations without much consultation with MCC.
Also, in moving its location from Lords to Dubai, the ICC gave a signal of breaking with the past and from MCC, changes to the laws of cricket are still made by the MCC. Any changes to these require a resolution of the MCC committee. MCC has long had an involvement in coaching the game of cricket. As of 2013 the clubs head coach Mark Alleyne heads an operation involving the running of an indoor-cricket school
In cricket, underarm bowling is as old as the sport itself. Until the introduction of the style in the first half of the 19th century, bowling was performed in the same way as in bowls. For centuries, bowling was performed exactly as in bowls because the ball was rolled or skimmed along the ground. The bowlers may have used variations in pace but the action was essentially the same. Crickets first great bowling revolution occurred probably in the 1760s when bowlers started to pitch the ball instead of rolling it along the ground, the pitched delivery was established by 1772 when detailed scorecards became commonplace and the straight bat had already replaced the curved one by that time. There is no doubt that the bat was invented to contest the pitched delivery. It has been said that the inventor was John Small of Hambledon but it is unlikely that he invented it, rather. The 1760s are one of crickets Dark Ages, a deal more is known about the decades 1731–1750 than of 1751–1770. This has largely to do with the impact of the Seven Years War of 1756–1763 which not only claimed the sports manpower but its patronage.
The rules for bowlers in the 1744 Laws focus on the position of the foot during delivery. The umpires were granted discretion and so presumably would call no ball if, one of the first great bowlers to employ the pitched delivery to good effect was Edward Lumpy Stevens of Chertsey and Surrey. There is a rhyme about him to the effect that honest Lumpy did allow he neer would pitch. Lumpy was a professional who studied the arts and crafts of the game to seek continuous improvement as a bowler. He is known to have observed the flight of the ball and experimented for long hours with variations of line, other great bowlers of the late 18th century were Thomas Brett and David Harris, both of Hambledon. They were fast bowlers whereas Lumpy relied on variety of pace, an interesting bowler of the time was Lamborn who spun the ball in an unorthodox fashion and may have been the original unorthodox spinner. Underarm bowling was effective while pitch conditions were difficult for batsmen due to being uneven, in time, especially after the opening of Lords and the development of groundsmanship, pitches began to improve and batsmen were able to play longer innings than formerly.
In the 1780s and 1790s, one of the best batsmen around was Tom Walker, Walker was another improviser like Lumpy and he began to experiment by bowling with his hand away from his body. It is not clear how high he raised his hand but it could have been waist height and he was accused of jerking the ball and so delivering it in an unfair and improper manner
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard-long pitch with a wicket at each end. One team bats, attempting to score as many runs as possible, each phase of play is called an innings. After either ten batsmen have been dismissed or a number of overs have been completed, the innings ends. The winning team is the one that scores the most runs, including any extras gained, at the start of each game, two batsmen and eleven fielders enter the field of play. The striker takes guard on a crease drawn on the four feet in front of the wicket. His role is to prevent the ball hitting the stumps by use of his bat. The other batsman, known as the non-striker, waits at the end of the pitch near the bowler. A dismissed batsman must leave the field, and a teammate replaces him, the bowlers objectives are to prevent the scoring of runs and to dismiss the batsman. An over is a set of six deliveries bowled by the same bowler, the next over is bowled from the other end of the pitch by a different bowler.
If a fielder retrieves the ball enough to put down the wicket with a batsman not having reached the crease at that end of the pitch. Adjudication is performed on the field by two umpires, the laws of cricket are maintained by the International Cricket Council and the Marylebone Cricket Club. Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball. Although crickets origins are uncertain, it is first recorded in south-east England in the 16th century and it spread globally with the expansion of the British Empire, leading to the first international matches in the mid-19th century. ICC, the governing body, has over 100 members. The sport is followed primarily in Australasia, the Indian subcontinent, southern Africa, womens cricket, which is organised and played separately, has achieved international standard. A number of words have been suggested as sources for the term cricket, in the earliest definite reference to the sport in 1598 it is called creckett.
One possible source for the name is the Old English cricc or cryce meaning a crutch or staff, in Samuel Johnsons Dictionary, he derived cricket from cryce, Saxon, a stick
Cambridge University Cricket Club
Cambridge University Cricket Club is the representative cricket club for students of the University of Cambridge. With some 1,200 members, home fixtures are played at Fenners, CUCC has two mens teams and one womens team and together they play nearly 100 days of cricket each season. The inaugural University Match between CUCC and Oxford University Cricket Club was played in 1827 and is now the clubs sole first-class fixture each season, CUCC operated as part of the Cambridge University Centre of Cricketing Excellence, which included Anglia Ruskin University. The UCCE was rebranded as Cambridge MCC prior to the 2010 season when its governance moved from ECB to MCC, both male and female MCCU teams play in the British Universities & Colleges Sport competitions. The club oversees and manages the annual inter-college Cuppers cricket competition, the earliest reference to cricket at Cambridge University is in 1710. A Cambridge University team played against an Eton team in 1754 and 1755 and it is not known if the Eton teams were present or past pupils.
Cambridge University began a series against Cambridge Town Club, which evolved into the original Cambridgeshire County Cricket Club. It is with this game both teams acquired important match status. All CUCC teams play annual University Matches against Oxford as well as other matches throughout the Lent, the first team four-day University Match retains its first class status and alternates between being held at Fenners and the The Parks. The one-day match is played at Lords on the day as the CUWCC one-day University Match. The Crusaders play a game against the Authentics as well as one-day. Cricketers who represent Cambridge University strive to be awarded a Blue, a Blue is currently awarded to those representing the First XI at Lords in the 1-day Fixture, or in the 4-Day First-Class fixture. Those representing the Second XI are eligible for a Colour if they represent the Crusaders against Oxfords Tics, despite having a large winter training squad, and many players representing the University over the summer months rarely are more than a total of 12 Blues and 12 Colours awarded.
Women cricketers are awarded a Half-Blue for playing in the match at Lords. In recent Oxford/Cambridge University matches the honours have been fairly even between the two Universities, in 2009 Cambridge won the 4-day Fixture, but lost the 1-day Fixture. In 2010 the Cambridge Blues played Oxford in 3 matches for the first time - the Twenty20, 4-Day First-Class Fixture, Cambridge won the 1-Day fixture at Lords to prevent an Oxford clean sweep chasing down 270 to win. In 2011, Cambridge won all three matches against Oxford, and as a result were the Hawks Club team of the year. In the heavily rain affected 2012 season they won the 1-day fixture at Lords for the year in a row
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam about 50 miles north of London. At the United Kingdom Census 2011, its population was 123,867, there is archaeological evidence of settlement in the area in the Bronze Age and in Roman Britain, under Viking rule, Cambridge became an important trading centre. The first town charters were granted in the 12th century, although city status was not conferred until 1951, the University of Cambridge, founded in 1209, is one of the top five universities in the world. The university includes the Cavendish Laboratory, Kings College Chapel, the citys skyline is dominated by the last two buildings, along with the spire of the Our Lady and the English Martyrs Church, the chimney of Addenbrookes Hospital and St Johns College Chapel tower. Anglia Ruskin University, evolved from the Cambridge School of Art, Cambridge is at the heart of the high-technology Silicon Fen with industries such as software and bioscience and many start-up companies spun out of the university.
More than 40% of the workforce has a higher education qualification, the Cambridge Biomedical Campus, one of the largest biomedical research clusters in the world, is soon to be home to AstraZeneca, a hotel and the relocated Papworth Hospital. Parkers Piece hosted the first ever game of Association football, the Strawberry Fair music and arts festival and Midsummer Fairs are held on Midsummer Common, and the annual Cambridge Beer Festival takes place on Jesus Green. The city is adjacent to the M11 and A14 roads, settlements have existed around the Cambridge area since prehistoric times. The earliest clear evidence of occupation is the remains of a 3, the principal Roman site is a small fort Duroliponte on Castle Hill, just northwest of the city centre around the location of the earlier British village. The fort was bounded on two sides by the lines formed by the present Mount Pleasant, continuing across Huntingdon Road into Clare Street, the eastern side followed Magrath Avenue, with the southern side running near to Chesterton Lane and Kettles Yard before turning northwest at Honey Hill.
It was constructed around AD70 and converted to use around 50 years later. Evidence of more widespread Roman settlement has been discovered including numerous farmsteads, evidence exists that the invading Anglo-Saxons had begun occupying the area by the end of the century. Their settlement—also on and around Castle Hill—became known as Grantebrycge, Anglo-Saxon grave goods have been found in the area. During this period, Cambridge benefited from good trade links across the hard-to-travel fenlands, by the 7th century, the town was less significant and described by Bede as a little ruined city containing the burial site of Etheldreda. Cambridge was on the border between the East and Middle Anglian kingdoms and the settlement slowly expanded on both sides of the river, the arrival of the Vikings was recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 875. Viking rule, the Danelaw, had been imposed by 878 Their vigorous trading habits caused the town to grow rapidly. During this period the centre of the town shifted from Castle Hill on the bank of the river to the area now known as the Quayside on the right bank.
In 1068, two years after his conquest of England, William of Normandy built a castle on Castle Hill, like the rest of the newly conquered kingdom, Cambridge fell under the control of the King and his deputies
1729 English cricket season
The 1729 cricket season was the 132nd in England since the earliest known definite reference to cricket in January 1597. Details have survived of seven important matches, the earliest known innings victory is believed to have happened in 1729 and the earliest known surviving cricket bat dates from the season. The earliest known reference to cricket in the county of Gloucestershire has been found, the match on 24 June involved a team specifically named Sussex, but the result is unknown. Despite losing to Gages team in August, Kent under the patronage of Edwin Stead is generally believed to have been the strongest county team of the 1720s, there is a bat in The Oval pavilion which belonged to John Chitty of Knaphill, Surrey. Dated 1729, it is the oldest known bat, pitching began about 30 years and the straight bats used nowadays were invented in response to the pitched delivery. Dr Samuel Johnson attended the University of Oxford from October 1728 until the summer and told James Boswell that cricket matches were played there.
Boswell mentioned this in his Life of Samuel Johnson, a local game in Gloucester on Monday,22 September is the earliest known reference to cricket in Gloucestershire. Gloucestershire Gentlemen of London Gentlemen of Middlesex Sussex Sussex, Surrey & Hampshire none Walworth Common Woolpack, a Guide to Important Cricket Matches Played in the British Isles 1709 –1863. Cricket, A History of its Growth and Development, fresh Light on 18th Century Cricket. From Commons to Lords, Volume One,1700 to 1750, a History of Cricket, Volume 1. A Social History of English Cricket, Sussex Cricket in the Eighteenth Century. Classification of cricket matches from 1697 to 1825, archived from the original on 29 June 2011
Sir John Major, KG, CH, PC is a British politician who served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1990 to 1997. A cabinet minister from 1987, he served Margaret Thatcher in the Treasury, Major was Member of Parliament for Huntingdon from 1979 to 2001. He is currently the oldest living former Prime Minister, following the death of Thatcher on 8 April 2013, at the beginning of his premiership, Major presided over British participation in the Gulf War in March 1991 and negotiated the Maastricht Treaty in December 1991. Shortly after this, even though a supporter of the ERM. This event led to a loss of confidence in Conservative economic policies, Major went on to lose the 1997 general election months later, in one of the largest electoral defeats since the Great Reform Act of 1832. After defeat, Major resigned as Prime Minister and was succeeded as Leader of the Conservative Party by William Hague and he went on to retire from active politics, leaving the House of Commons at the 2001 general election.
Major was born in 1943 at St Helier Hospital in Sutton, Surrey and he was christened John Roy Major but only John was recorded on his birth certificate. He used his name until the early 1980s. He attended primary school at Cheam Common and from 1954 he attended Rutlish School, in 1955, with his fathers garden ornaments business in decline, the family moved to Brixton. He credited a chance meeting with former Prime Minister Clement Attlee on the Kings Road shortly afterwards, Major left school at the age of 16 in 1959 with three O-levels in History, English Language and English Literature. He gained three more O-levels by correspondence course, in the British Constitution and Economics, Majors first job was as a clerk in the insurance brokerage firm Pratt & Sons in 1959. Major joined the Young Conservatives in Brixton at this time, Major was almost 19 years old when his father died at the age of 82 on 27 March 1962. His mother died eight and a years in September 1970 at the age of 65. After Major became Prime Minister it was misreported that his failure to get a job as a bus conductor resulted from his failing to pass a maths test and he had in fact passed all of the necessary tests but had been passed over owing to his height.
After a period of unemployment, Major started working at the London Electricity Board in 1963 which is incidentally his successor as Prime Minister, Tony Blair. He decided to undertake a course in banking. Major took up a post as an executive at the Standard Chartered Bank in May 1965 and he was sent to work in Jos, Nigeria, by the bank in 1967 and he nearly died in a car accident there. Major was interested in politics from an early age, encouraged by fellow Conservative Derek Stone, he started giving speeches on a soap-box in Brixton Market