List of officials purged and executed by Kim Jong-un

This is a list of officials purged and executed by Kim Jong-un since he came into power in North Korea in December 2011. Kim Chol was a Vice Minister of the Army until he was executed by mortar bombardment. Ri Yong-ho was the Chief of the General Staff of the Korean People's Army until he was removed and executed. Ri Kwang-gon was the Governor of the North Korean Central Bank until he was removed and executed. Jang Song-Thaek was the Vice Chairman of the National Defence Commission of North Korea until his execution in 2013. Ri Ryong-ha was the first deputy director of the Administrative Department of the Workers' Party of Korea and an aide to Jang Song-thaek. Jang Su-gil was a deputy director of the Administrative Department. Jon Yong-jin was the North Korean Ambassador to Cuba until he was executed in 2013. O Sang-hon was the deputy security minister in the Ministry of Public Security in the government of North Korea, killed in a political purge in 2014. According to sources quoted by the Korean newspaper Chosun Ilbo, O Sang-hon was executed by flamethrower for his role in supporting Kim Jong-un's uncle Jang Song-thaek.

Pak Chun-hong was the Deputy Director of the Korean Worker's Party Administration Department until he was purged. Hyon Yong-chol was the Minister of People's Armed Forces until his execution in 2015. Choe Yong-gon was the Deputy Minister of Construction and Building Material Industries until his execution in 2015. Assassination of Kim Jong-nam

Sumerian language

Sumerian is the language of ancient Sumer and a language isolate, spoken in Mesopotamia and in Syria. During the 3rd millennium BC, an intimate cultural symbiosis developed between the Sumerians and the Semitic-speaking Akkadians, which included widespread bilingualism; the influence of Sumerian and the East Semitic language Akkadian on each other is evident in all areas, from lexical borrowing on a substantial scale, to syntactic and phonological convergence. This has prompted scholars to refer to Sumerian and Akkadian in the third millennium BC as a Sprachbund. Akkadian replaced Sumerian as a spoken language around 2000 BC, but Sumerian continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial and scientific language in Akkadian-speaking Mesopotamian states such as Assyria and Babylonia until the 1st century AD. Thereafter it was forgotten until the 19th century, when Assyriologists began deciphering the cuneiform inscriptions and excavated tablets left by these speakers; the history of written Sumerian can be divided into several periods: Archaic Sumerian – 31st–26th century BC Old or Classical Sumerian – 26th–23rd century BC Neo-Sumerian – 23rd–21st century BC Late Sumerian – 20th–18th century BC Post-Sumerian – after 1700 BC Archaic Sumerian is the earliest stage of inscriptions with linguistic content, beginning with the Jemdet Nasr period from about the 31st to 30th centuries BC.

It succeeds the proto-literate period, which spans the 35th to 30th centuries. Some versions of the chronology may omit the Late Sumerian phase and regard all texts written after 2000 BC as Post-Sumerian; the term "Post-Sumerian" is meant to refer to the time when the language was extinct and preserved by Babylonians and Assyrians only as a liturgical and classical language for religious and scholarly purposes. The extinction has traditionally been dated to the end of the Third Dynasty of Ur, the last predominantly Sumerian state in Mesopotamia, about 2000 BC. However, that date is approximate, as many scholars have contended that Sumerian was dead or dying as early as around 2100 BC, by the beginning of the Ur III period, others believe that Sumerian persisted, as a spoken language, in a small part of Southern Mesopotamia until as late as 1700 BC. Whatever the status of spoken Sumerian between 2000 and 1700 BC, it is from that a large quantity of literary texts and bilingual Sumerian-Akkadian lexical lists survive from the scribal school of Nippur.

They and the particularly-intensive official and literary use of the language in Akkadian-speaking states during the same time call for a distinction between the Late Sumerian and the Post-Sumerian periods. The standard variety of Sumerian was eme-g̃ir. A notable variety or sociolect was eme-sal to be interpreted as "fine tongue" or "high-pitched voice". Other terms for dialects or registers were eme-galam "high tongue", eme-si-sa "straight tongue", eme-te-na "oblique tongue", etc. Eme-sal is used by female characters in some literary texts. In addition, it is dominant in certain genres of cult songs; the special features of eme-sal are phonological, but words different from the standard language are used. Sumerian is an agglutinative, split ergative, subject-object-verb language, it behaves as a nominative–accusative language in the 1st and 2nd persons of the incomplete tense-aspect, but as ergative–absolutive in most other forms of the indicative mood. Sumerian nouns are organized in two grammatical genders based on animacy: inanimate.

Animate nouns include humans, in some instances the word for "statue". Suffixes mark a noun's case: absolutive, dative/allative, locative, equative, directive/adverbial, ablative; the naming and number of cases vary according to differing analyses of Sumerian linguistics. Noun phrases are right branching with modifiers following nouns. Sumerian verbs have a tense-aspect complex, contrasting incomplete actions/states; the two have different conjugations and many have different roots. Verbs mark mood, polarity and intensity. Sumerian moods are: indicative, cohortative, precative/affirmative, prospective aspect/cohortative mood, affirmative/negative-volitive, unrealised-volitive?, negative?, affirmative?, are marked by a verbal prefix. The prefixes appear to conflate mood and polarity. Sumerian voices are: active, middle or passive. Verbs are marked for three persons: 1st, 2nd, 3rd. Finite verbs have three classes of prefixes: modal prefixes, conjugational prefixes, pronominal/dimensional prefixes. Modal prefixes confer the above moods on the verb.

Conjugational prefixes are thought to confer venitive/andative, being/action, valency, or voice distinctions on the verb. Pronominal/dimensional prefixes correspond to their cases. Non-finite verbs include participles and relative clause verbs, both formed through nominalis