Entomology is the scientific study of insects, a branch of zoology. This wider meaning may still be encountered in informal use, Entomology is rooted in nearly all human cultures from prehistoric times, primarily in the context of agriculture, but scientific study began only as recently as the 16th century. William Kirby is widely considered as the father of Entomology, in collaboration with William Spence, he published a definitive entomological encyclopedia, Introduction to Entomology, regarded as the subjects foundational text. He helped to found the Royal Entomological Society in London in 1833, one of the earliest such societies in the world, earlier antecedents, such as the Aurelian society date back to the 1740s. There has been a history of people becoming entomologists through museum curation and research assistance, insect identification is an increasingly common hobby, with butterflies and dragonflies being the most popular. Most insects can easily be recognized to such as Hymenoptera or Coleoptera.
However, insects other than Lepidoptera are typically identifiable to genus or species only through the use of Identification keys and Monographs. Because the class Insecta contains a large number of species and the characteristics separating them are unfamiliar, and often subtle. This has led to the development of automated species identification systems targeted on insects, for example, Daisy, ABIS, SPIDA, in 1994 the Entomological Society of America launched a new professional certification program for the pest control industry called The Associate Certified Entomologist. To qualify as a true entomologist an individual would require an advanced degree. Trichopterology - caddis flies Vespology - Social wasps Like other scientific specialties, entomologists have a number of local, there are many organizations specializing in specific subareas. C. Y. Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas University of Minnesota, big Fleas Have Little Fleas, How Discoveries of Invertebrate Diseases Are Advancing Modern Science University of Arizona Press, Tucson,208 pages, ISBN 0-8165-2544-7.
Triplehorn, Charles A. and Norman F. Johnson, borror and DeLongs Introduction to the Study of Insects, 7th edition, Thomas Brooks/Cole. — a classic textbook in North America, cS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list Capinera, JL.2008. Iowa State Entomology Index of Internet Resources, archived from the original on 2006-11-14. Archived from the original on 2006-12-06, archived from the original on 2007-02-07. Compendium of References on Flies and Disease, archived from the original on 2006-10-15. USDA Collecting methods. Detailed instructions Arthropa Extensive photo album sorted by topic, Tereshkin Scientific illustration in entomology Tereshkin, A.2008, Methodology of a scientific drawings preparation in entomology on example of ichneumon flies
Louis Gustave Vapereau
Louis Gustave Vapereau was a French writer and lexicographer famous primarily for his dictionaries, the Dictionnaire universel des contemporains and the Dictionnaire universel des littérateurs. Born in Orléans, Louis Gustave Vapereau studied philosophy at the École Normale Supérieure from 1838 to 1843 and he taught philosophy at Tours until the establishment of the Second French Empire in 1852, when his republican principles cost him his position. Vapereau returned to Paris to study law, and in 1854 joined the French bar and he did not engage in any legal practice and returned to writing shortly afterwards. In 1858, he published the Dictionnaire universel des contemporains and from 1859 to 1869 he edited the LAnnée littéraire et dramatique, after the collapse of the Empire, Vapereau was appointed prefect of Cantal on 14 September 1870 by Jules Trochus Government of National Defense. He became prefect of Tarn-et-Garonne from 26 March 1871 until 15 February 1873 and he assembled the Dictionnaire universel des littérateurs, publishing it in 1876.
From January 1877 to 1888 he was named inspector-general of public elementary schools, Vapereau was the author of some excellent editions of the classics, and of works on political and social questions, but he is famous for his two dictionaries. He contributed to a number of journals, including Revue de linstruction publique, Revue française, Le Petit Journal, attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Vapereau, Louis Gustave. Entry at Les archives Émile Zola – in French
Fils de France
Fils de France was the style and rank held by the sons of the kings and dauphins of France. A daughter was known as a fille de France, the children of the dauphin were accorded the same style and status as if they were the kings children instead of his grandchildren or great-grandchildren. The king, queen dowager, enfants de France, the dauphin, the heir to the French throne, was the most senior of the fils de France and was usually addressed as Monsieur le dauphin. The kings next younger brother, a fils de France, was simply as Monsieur. Daughters were referred to by their given name prefaced with the honorific Madame, while sons were referred to by their peerage title. The kings eldest daughter was known as Madame Royale until she married, the illegitimate children of French kings and princes du sang were not entitled to any rights or styles per se, but often they were legitimised by their fathers. Even then, they were never elevated to the rank of fils de France, all enfants de France were entitled to the style of Royal Highness from the reign of Louis XIII.
However, in practice that formal honorific was less used than the more traditionally French styles of Monsieur. The styles of the family varied as follows, Under the Valois monarchs. Philip VI made his eldest son Duke of Normandy and his second son Duke of Orléans, john II made his eldest son Duke of Normandy, and his younger sons dukes of Anjou and Burgundy. Anjou and Burgundy established long-lived dynasties, while the Duke of Berry lived for a long time, Orléans was reused for the younger son of Charles V, while Berry was reused for the younger son of Charles VII. By the accession of Francis I, all of the cadet branches descended from Valois kings had succeeded to the throne or become extinct. Thus the king had a selection of traditional titles to choose from. Orléans was the most preferred, followed by Anjou, the Bourbon kings followed the traditional titling, with Berry used for the third son. As lifespans extended, Burgundy was used for the eldest son of the Dauphin, but as fortune would have it, only the title of Orléans would be transmitted hereditarily until the Revolution.
This was a form of address for the dauphin, the dauphin de France, was the title used for the heir apparent to the throne of France from 1350 to 1791 and from 1824 to 1830. Louis de France, son of the preceding, who became the dauphin in 1711, was known as le Petit Dauphin. This was another way of addressing Le Grand Dauphin, the legitimate son of Louis XIV
Botany, called plant science, plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist or plant scientist is a scientist who specialises in this field, the term botany comes from the Ancient Greek word βοτάνη meaning pasture, grass, or fodder, βοτάνη is in turn derived from βόσκειν, to feed or to graze. Nowadays, botanists study approximately 410,000 species of plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants. Medieval physic gardens, often attached to monasteries, contained plants of medical importance and they were forerunners of the first botanical gardens attached to universities, founded from the 1540s onwards. One of the earliest was the Padua botanical garden and these gardens facilitated the academic study of plants. Efforts to catalogue and describe their collections were the beginnings of plant taxonomy, in the last two decades of the 20th century, botanists exploited the techniques of molecular genetic analysis, including genomics and proteomics and DNA sequences to classify plants more accurately.
Modern botany is a broad, multidisciplinary subject with inputs from most other areas of science, dominant themes in 21st century plant science are molecular genetics and epigenetics, which are the mechanisms and control of gene expression during differentiation of plant cells and tissues. Botany originated as herbalism, the study and use of plants for their medicinal properties, many records of the Holocene period date early botanical knowledge as far back as 10,000 years ago. This early unrecorded knowledge of plants was discovered in ancient sites of human occupation within Tennessee, the early recorded history of botany includes many ancient writings and plant classifications. Examples of early works have been found in ancient texts from India dating back to before 1100 BC, in archaic Avestan writings. His major works, Enquiry into Plants and On the Causes of Plants, constitute the most important contributions to science until the Middle Ages. De Materia Medica was widely read for more than 1,500 years, important contributions from the medieval Muslim world include Ibn Wahshiyyas Nabatean Agriculture, Abū Ḥanīfa Dīnawarīs the Book of Plants, and Ibn Bassals The Classification of Soils.
In the early 13th century, Abu al-Abbas al-Nabati, and Ibn al-Baitar wrote on botany in a systematic and scientific manner and these gardens continued the practical value of earlier physic gardens, often associated with monasteries, in which plants were cultivated for medical use. They supported the growth of botany as an academic subject, lectures were given about the plants grown in the gardens and their medical uses demonstrated. Botanical gardens came much to northern Europe, the first in England was the University of Oxford Botanic Garden in 1621, throughout this period, botany remained firmly subordinate to medicine. German physician Leonhart Fuchs was one of the three German fathers of botany, along with theologian Otto Brunfels and physician Hieronymus Bock and Brunfels broke away from the tradition of copying earlier works to make original observations of their own. Bock created his own system of plant classification, physician Valerius Cordus authored a botanically and pharmacologically important herbal Historia Plantarum in 1544 and a pharmacopoeia of lasting importance, the Dispensatorium in 1546.
Naturalist Conrad von Gesner and herbalist John Gerard published herbals covering the medicinal uses of plants, naturalist Ulisse Aldrovandi was considered the father of natural history, which included the study of plants
Louis XVIII of France
Louis XVIII, known as The Desired, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1814 to 1824 except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days. Until his accession to the throne of France, Louis held the title of Count of Provence as brother of King Louis XVI, on 21 September 1792, the National Convention abolished the monarchy and deposed King Louis XVI, who was executed by guillotine. When the young Louis XVII, Louis XVIs son, died in prison in June 1795, during the French Revolution and Napoleonic era, Louis XVIII lived in exile in Prussia, the United Kingdom and Russia. When the Sixth Coalition finally defeated Napoleon in 1814, Louis was placed in what he, Napoleon escaped from his exile in Elba and restored his French Empire. Louis XVIII fled and a Seventh Coalition declared war on the French Empire, defeated Napoleon, Louis XVIII ruled as king for slightly less than a decade. The Bourbon Restoration regime was a constitutional monarchy, as a constitutional monarch, Louis XVIIIs royal prerogative was reduced substantially by the Charter of 1814, Frances new constitution.
Louis had no children, upon his death, the passed to his brother, Charles. Louis XVIII was the last French monarch to die while reigning, as his successor Charles X abdicated and both Louis Philippe I and Napoléon III were deposed. Louis Stanislas Xavier, styled Count of Provence from birth, was born on 17 November 1755 in the Palace of Versailles, the son of Louis, Dauphin of France and he was the grandson of the reigning King Louis XV. As a son of the Dauphin he was a Fils de France, Louis Stanislas was christened Louis Stanislas Xavier six months after his birth in accordance with Bourbon family tradition, being nameless before his baptism. By this act, he a Knight of the Order of the Holy Spirit. The former died in 1761, leaving Louis Auguste as heir to their father until the Dauphins own premature death in 1765, the two deaths elevated Louis Stanislas to second in the line of succession, while Louis Auguste acquired the title Dauphin. Louis Stanislas found comfort in his governess, Madame de Marsan, Governess of the Children of France, as he was her favourite among his siblings.
Louis Stanislas was taken away from his governess when he turned seven, Antoine de Quélen de Stuer de Caussade, Duke of La Vauguyon, a friend of his father, was named his governor. Louis Stanislas was an intelligent boy, excelling in classics and his education was of the same quality and consistency as that of his older brother, Louis Auguste, despite the fact that Louis Auguste was heir and Louis Stanislas was not. Louis Stanislas education was religious in nature, several of his teachers were men of the cloth. La Vauguyon drilled into young Louis Stanislas and his brothers the way he thought princes should know how to withdraw themselves, to like to work, and to know how to reason correctly. In the same month his household was founded, Louis was granted titles by his grandfather, Louis XV, Duke of Anjou, Count of Maine, Count of Perche
Jules Étienne Pasdeloup was a French conductor. His father was an assistant conductor at the Opéra Comique, he was educated in music at the Conservatoire de Paris and he was made a member of the Légion dHonneur. He died, aged 67, in Fontainebleau and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Pasdeloup, Jules Étienne. A Dictionary of Music and Musicians, rehearsal of the Pasdeloup orchestra at the Cirque dhiver John Singer Sargent
The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented around the year 1700, in which the strings are struck by hammers. It is played using a keyboard, which is a row of keys that the performer presses down or strikes with the fingers and thumbs of both hands to cause the hammers to strike the strings. The word piano is a form of pianoforte, the Italian term for the early 1700s versions of the instrument. The first fortepianos in the 1700s had a sound and smaller dynamic range. An acoustic piano usually has a wooden case surrounding the soundboard and metal strings. Pressing one or more keys on the keyboard causes a padded hammer to strike the strings. The hammer rebounds from the strings, and the continue to vibrate at their resonant frequency. These vibrations are transmitted through a bridge to a soundboard that amplifies by more efficiently coupling the acoustic energy to the air, when the key is released, a damper stops the strings vibration, ending the sound. Notes can be sustained, even when the keys are released by the fingers and thumbs and this means that the piano can play 88 different pitches, going from the deepest bass range to the highest treble.
The black keys are for the accidentals, which are needed to play in all twelve keys, more rarely, some pianos have additional keys. Most notes have three strings, except for the bass that graduates from one to two, the strings are sounded when keys are pressed or struck, and silenced by dampers when the hands are lifted from the keyboard. There are two types of piano, the grand piano and the upright piano. The grand piano is used for Classical solos, chamber music and art song and it is used in jazz. The upright piano, which is compact, is the most popular type, as they are a better size for use in private homes for domestic music-making. During the nineteenth century, music publishers produced many works in arrangements for piano, so that music lovers could play. The piano is widely employed in classical, jazz and popular music for solo and ensemble performances, with technological advances, amplified electric pianos, electronic pianos, and digital pianos have been developed. The electric piano became an instrument in the 1960s and 1970s genres of jazz fusion, funk music.
The piano was founded on earlier technological innovations in keyboard instruments, pipe organs have been used since Antiquity, and as such, the development of pipe organs enabled instrument builders to learn about creating keyboard mechanisms for sounding pitches
Conducting is the art of directing a musical performance, such as an orchestral or choral concert. A conductors directions will almost invariably be supplemented or reinforced by verbal instructions or suggestions to their musicians in rehearsal prior to a performance. The conductor typically stands on a podium with a large music stand for the full score. Conducting while playing a piano or synthesizer may be done with musical theatre pit orchestras, communication is typically non-verbal during a performance. However, in rehearsals, frequent interruptions allow the conductor to give verbal directions as to how the music should be played or sung, Conductors act as guides to the orchestras or choirs they conduct. They choose the works to be performed and study their scores, to which they may make adjustments, work out their interpretation. They may attend to matters, such as scheduling rehearsals, planning a concert season, hearing auditions and selecting members. Orchestras, concert bands and other musical ensembles such as big bands are usually led by conductors.
The principal conductor of an orchestra or opera company is referred to as a music director or chief conductor, or by the German words Kapellmeister or Dirigent. Conductors of choirs or choruses are sometimes referred to as director, chorus master, or choirmaster. Conductors of concert bands, military bands, marching bands and other bands may hold the title of director, bandmaster. Respected senior conductors are sometimes referred to by the Italian word, an early form of conducting is cheironomy, the use of hand gestures to indicate melodic shape. This has been practiced at least as far back as the Middle Ages, in the 17th century, other devices to indicate the passing of time came into use. Rolled up sheets of paper, smaller sticks and unadorned hands are all shown in pictures from this period, the large staff was responsible for the death of Jean-Baptiste Lully, who injured his foot with one while conducting a Te Deum for the Kings recovery from illness. The wound became gangrenous and Lully refused amputation, whereupon the gangrene spread to his leg, in instrumental music throughout the 18th century, a member of the ensemble usually acted as the conductor.
This was sometimes the concertmaster, who could use his bow as a baton and it was common to conduct from the harpsichord in pieces that had a basso continuo part. In opera performances, there were sometimes two conductors – the keyboard player was in charge of the singers, and the principal violinist or leader was in charge of the orchestra. By the early 19th century, it became the norm to have a dedicated conductor, the size of the usual orchestra expanded during this period, and the use of a baton became more common, as it was easier to see than bare hands or rolled-up paper
Agenor, duc de Gramont
Antoine Alfred Agénor, 10th Duc de Gramont, Prince de Bidache, etc. was a French diplomat and statesman. He was born in Paris of one of the most illustrious families of the old noblesse, a branch of the viscounts of Aure. Educated at the École Polytechnique, Gramont early gave up the army for diplomacy and it was not, till after the coup détat of 2 December 1851, which made Louis Napoleon supreme in France, that he became conspicuous as a diplomat. He was successively minister plenipotentiary at Cassel and Stuttgart, at Turin, ambassador at Washington DC, Rome, in 1854 he was involved in the disastrous sinking of the SS Arctic, while en route to Washington DC. De Gramont was observed leaping from the ship into the last lifeboat, more than 300 lives were lost, including all the women and children on board. The exact share of Gramont in this responsibility has been the subject of much controversy, the last word may be said to have been uttered by Émile Ollivier himself in his LEmpire libéral. So far, then, as this declaration is concerned, it is clear that Gramonts responsibility must be shared with his sovereign and his colleagues.
It is clear, that he did not share the passion of his colleagues for peace with honour, clear that he wholly misread the intentions of the European powers in the event of war. This confidence made him less disposed than many of his colleagues to make the best of the renunciation of the made, on behalf of his son. On his part, adds Ollivier, it was the only of obedience. The apology may be taken for what it is worth, during his retirement he published various apologies for his policy in 1870, notably La France et la Prusse avant la guerre. Attribution This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Gramont, Antoine Agénor Alfred. Endnotes, Besides Olliviers work quoted in the text, see L. Thouvenel, Le Secret de lempereur, échangée entre M. Thouvenel, le duc de Gramont, et le général comte de Flahaut 1860-1863. A small pamphlet containing his Souvenirs 1848–1850 was published in 1901 by his brother Antoine Léon Philibert Auguste de Gramont, duc de Lesparre
Ernest Saint-Charles Cosson was a French botanist born in Paris Cosson is known for his botanical research in North Africa, and during his career he participated in eight trips to Algeria. In 1863 he was elected president of the Société botanique de France, with Jacques Nicolas Ernest Germain de Saint-Pierre, he published the influential Atlas de la Flore des Environs de Paris. Atlas de la flore des environs de Paris ou illustrations de toutes les espèces des genres difficiles et de la plupart des plantes litigieuses de cette région, Introduction à la Flore dAlgérie, etc.1854. Rapport sur un Voyage botanique en Algérie, de Philippeville a Biskra et dansles Monts Aures,1856,1881 Compendium florae Atlanticae Volume II. Supplément à la partie historique et flore des états barbaresques,1887 Illustrationes florae Atlanticae Volumen I. 1882-1890 Illustrationes florae Atlanticae Volumen II, 1892-1897 Instructions sur les observations et les collections botaniques à faire dans les voyages. 1872 Note sur la flore del la Kroumirie centrale,1885 Notes sur quelques plantes critiques, rares ou nouvelles.
1849-1852 Cosson, Ernest Saint-Charles & Germain de Saint-Pierre, Jacques-Nicolas-Ernest Atlas de la flore des environs de Paris Deuxième édition,1882 Flore descriptive et analytique des environs de Paris. 1845 Flore des environs de Paris Deuxième édition,1861 Observations sur quelques plantes critiques des environs de Paris. 1840 Supplément au Catalogue raisonné des plantes vasculaires des environs Paris,1843 Synopsis analytique de la flore des environs de Paris Deuxième édition. 1859 Synopsis analytique de la flore des environs de Paris Troisième édition,1876 Cosson, Ernest Saint-Charles, Germain de Saint-Pierre, Jacques-Nicolas-Ernest & Weddell, Hugh Algernon Introduction à une flore analytique et descriptive des environs de Paris
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Paris
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Paris is one of twenty-three archdioceses of the Roman Catholic Church in France. The original diocese is thought to have been created in the 3rd century by St. Denis and corresponded with the Civitas Parisiorum. Its suffragan dioceses, created in 1966 and encompassing the region, are in Créteil, Évry-Corbeil-Essonnes, Nanterre, Saint-Denis. Its liturgical centre is at Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, the archbishop resides on rue Barbet de Jouy in the 6th arrondissement, but there are diocesan offices in rue de la Ville-Eveque, rue St. Bernard and in other areas of the city. The archbishop is ordinary for Eastern Catholics in France, the title of Duc de Saint-Cloud was created in 1674 for the archbishops. Prior to 1790 the diocese was divided into three archdeaconries, Hurepoix, until the creation of new dioceses in 1966 there were two archdeaconries, Madeleine and St. Séverin. The churches of the current diocese can be divided into several categories and these are grouped into deaneries and subject to vicars-general who often coincide with auxiliary bishops.
Ii) Churches belonging to religious communities, iii) Chapels for various foreign communities using various languages. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, quotquot innotuerunt a beato Petro apostolo, Typis et Sumptibus Georgii Josephi Manz. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi V. Patavii, Messagero di S. Antonio, hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi VI. Hierarchia Catholica medii et recentioris aevi sive summorum pontificum, S. R. E. cardinalium, ecclesiarum antistitum series, VII usque ad pontificatum Gregorii PP. Hierarchia catholica Medii et recentioris aevi, IX usque ad Pontificatum Leonis PP. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentioris aevi, X usque ad pontificatum Benedictii PP. Fastes épiscopaux de lancienne Gaule, II, le clergé de France, ou tableau historique et chronologique des archevêques, évêques, abbés, abbesses et chefs des chapitres principaux du royaume, depuis la fondation des églises jusquà nos jours. Histoire chronologique et biographique des archevêques et évêques de tous les diocèses de France, les évêques et les archevêques de France depuis 1682 jusquà1801.
Lépiscopat français depuis le Concordat jusquà la Séparation, List of religious buildings in Paris List of Roman Catholic archdioceses Official website Herbermann, Charles, ed. Paris