1819 in science
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Astronomy and space science
- Johann Franz Encke computes the orbit of Comet Encke, identifying it as periodic.
- July 1 – Johann Georg Tralles discovers the Great Comet of 1819, (C/1819 N1). It was the first comet analyzed using polarimetry, by François Arago.
- Joseph Bienaimé Caventou and Pierre Joseph Pelletier isolate the alkaloid brucine from Strychnos nux-vomica.
- February 19 – Captain William Smith in British merchant brig Williams sights Williams Point, the northeast extremity of Livingston Island in the South Shetlands, the first land discovered south of latitude 60° S.
- October 15 – Desolation Island in the South Shetland Islands of the Antarctic is discovered by Captain William Smith in the Williams.
- A British Arctic expedition under William Edward Parry comprising HMS Hecla and HMS Griper reaches longitude 112°51' W in the Northwest Passage, the furthest west which will be attained by any single-season voyage for 150 years.
- G. B. Greenough publishes his book, A critical examination of the first principles of geology in a series of essays.
- August – René Laennec publishes De l’Auscultation Médiate ou Traité du Diagnostic des Maladies des Poumons et du Coeur in Paris, describing his invention of the stethoscope.
- English physician John Bostock publishes the first account of allergic rhinitis (in himself).
- May 22 – SS Savannah leaves port at Savannah, Georgia on a voyage to become the first steamship to cross the Atlantic Ocean, although only a fraction of the trip is made under steam. The ship arrives at Liverpool, England, on June 20.
- Invention of the M1819 breech-loading flintlock using interchangeable parts by Captain John H. Hall of Harpers Ferry Armory in the United States.
- Cambridge Philosophical Society founded as a scientific society at the University of Cambridge in England.
- Copley Medal: Not awarded
- March 24 – Friedrich Theodor von Frerichs (died 1885), German medical pathologist.
- May 3 (O.S. April 21) – Nikolai Annenkov (died 1889), Russian botanist.
- June 5 – John Couch Adams (died 1892), Cornish-born mathematician and astronomer.
- August 9 – William T. G. Morton (died 1868), American dentist.
- August 13 – George Gabriel Stokes (died 1903), Irish-born mathematician and physicist.
- September 18 – Léon Foucault (died 1868), French physicist.
- September 23 – Hippolyte Fizeau (died 1896), French physicist.
- January – Elsa Beata Bunge, Swedish botanist (born 1734)
- August 19 – James Watt (born 1736), British inventor, mechanical engineer and mathematician.
- November 22 – John Stackhouse (born 1742), English botanist.
- Journal of a Voyage to Discover a North-west Passage. 1821.
- Bostock, John. "Case of a Periodical Affection of the Eyes and Chest", presented to Medical and Chirurgical Society of London.
- "The History of Allergy". Auckland Allergy Clinic. December 2001. Archived from the original on 2008-10-14. Retrieved 2014-07-03.
- Parkinson, Justin (2014-07-01). "John Bostock: The man who 'discovered' hay fever". Retrieved 2014-07-03.